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1.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 24(2):1348, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2216330

ABSTRACT

Surface contamination by microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria may simultaneously aggravate the biofouling of surfaces and infection of wounds and promote cross-species transmission and the rapid evolution of microbes in emerging diseases. In addition, natural surface structures with unique anti-biofouling properties may be used as guide templates for the development of functional antimicrobial surfaces. Further, these structure-related antimicrobial surfaces can be categorized into microbicidal and anti-biofouling surfaces. This review introduces the recent advances in the development of microbicidal and anti-biofouling surfaces inspired by natural structures and discusses the related antimicrobial mechanisms, surface topography design, material application, manufacturing techniques, and antimicrobial efficiencies.

2.
Journal of Optical Technology (A Translation of Opticheskii Zhurnal) ; 89(9):544-548, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2214692

ABSTRACT

Subject of study. A source of spontaneous emission (a lamp) in the ultraviolet spectral range excited by a capacitive discharge was investigated. Iodine vapor and mixtures of iodine vapor with inert gases were used as the operating gas medium of the lamp. Conditions for enhancements in specific output parameters of the lamp emission were investigated. Excitation conditions under which the lamp emits predominantly at the iodine atomic line with a wavelength of 206.16 nm were determined. Aim of study. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the spectral and energy characteristics of the lamp based on the iodine vapor, which is promising for the development of a radiation source with enhanced virucidal effectiveness for ultraviolet disinfection of a human environment contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2). Method. In this study, the composition and pressure of the operating medium were optimized. In addition, the excitation mode of the lamp emission was optimized by changing the repetition rate of voltage pulses. Main results. At a specific excitation power of approximately 1.3 mW/cm3 and partial pressures of iodine vapor and helium of approximately 2.5 and 7 Torr, respectively, the line of an iodine atom with a wavelength of 206.16 nm dominates in the output lamp spectrum, and the specific emission power at the outer surface of the lamp tube is approximately 3 mW/cm2. Practical significance. The emission of the investigated lamp is in the spectral range of 200–225 nm, which is promising in terms of developing technology for safe ultraviolet inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms including SARS-CoV-2. © 2022 Optica Publishing Group.

3.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1131(1):012011, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2212669

ABSTRACT

The purpose of research on the Farmer Empowerment Program in Wates Village is to increase knowledge in the field of sustainable agriculture and transfer of technology for the application of biopesticides containing the Biological Control Agent (APH) Streptomyces sp., Trichoderma sp. combined with shallot cultivation technology in the village of Wates Tulungagung. Innovative methods and Participatory Action Research (PAR) are used to encourage transformative action, by involving community members as PAR implementers in describing the types of plants being treated and applying them during the Covid-19 pandemic in the Wates village, Tulungagung District. The results of the evaluation and monitoring of the use of APH as a biopesticide and fungicide to control moler disease caused a decrease in the population of microorganisms, the population of Trichoderma sp. was absent (o) but Streptomyces sp. increase. Giving APH proved that microorganisms act as decomposers that increase the availability of N and P nutrients through their ability to accelerate the decomposition of organic matter given at the beginning of planting. The K nutrient content in the soil before and after treatment did not differ.

4.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 15(9):4037-4042, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2207034

ABSTRACT

The aim of the research was to extract of Aloe vera contains active compounds such as alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids and saponins and produce hand sanitizer by Aloe vera extract. Saponin has the ability to inhibit microorganisms growth and has antiseptic properties so that can be used as a formula to produce hand sanitizers. The formulation of Aloe vera extract for handsanitizer is carried out by varying the type of alkalizing agent at a certain pH. The formula consisted of three variations in which each formulation carried out its characteristics in the form of a dispersion test, adhesion test, homogenity test, viscosity test and antiseptic test. Based on the results of the study, it was found that each variation of handsanitizer formulation had a homogeneous structure and the handsanitizer with formula II had a fairly wide dispersive power for gel preparations. Meanwhile, the handsanitizer by Formulation I had the greatest viscosity value, around 837 cps and the longest adhesion value of about 2.44 minutes. Based on the antiseptic test, it was produced that the handsanitizer by formulation I was able to kill more microbial colonies, about 71 microb colonies from the available 107 microbes. It is known that the handsanitizer formulation I is a handsanitizer with a variety of alkalizing agents in the form of triethanolamine (TEA) at pH 5.01.

5.
Environment Conservation Journal ; 23(3):47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2206366

ABSTRACT

Virus, bacteria and fungi are the most common causes for spreading illness in human and in animals. These are the microorganisms and they can cause epidemic and pandemic diseases. World is passing through many viral epidemics affecting respiratory system since last twenty years. It includes SARS-CoV 2002-2003, H1N1 Influenza 2009, MERS-CoV 2012 to the recent COVID-2019. COVID-19 is a viral pandemic infection this is air borne illness that is spreading through droplet infection. This virus especially affects the respiratory system by doing immunosuppression in person. In Ayurveda there are references of Janapadodhwamsa in Charaka samhita vimansthan. Janapadodhwamsa – is the term coined by Charak which means destruction of population living in same place at the same time because of 4 main reasons i.e. Dushit vayu (Air), Dushit jala (water), Dushit desh (land), Dushit kaal (time) Janapadodhwamsha causes death of individuals in the affected area inflicting huge destruction.

6.
8th International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation, SEMC 2022 ; : 1419-1422, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2196648

ABSTRACT

Using the context of the new reality brought by the Covid-19 outbreak this paper focus on the influence of the microorganisms for a healthy built environment. The lacking interactions between the many researchers of the different areas whose work has connections to the built environment like civil engineers, architects, microbiologists and epidemiologists is identified as a worrying bottleneck that hinders the multidisciplinary design of a healthy built environment. © 2022 the Author(s).

7.
Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 71(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2191271

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a predisposing factor for the development of healthcare-associated infections, of which ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one. Hypothesis. VAP is caused by ESKAPE bacteria and other pathogens not detected by microbiological culture. Aim: To elucidate the bacterial pathogens of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and VAP patients by massive sequencing and to predict their degree of relationship with the age and sex of the patients. Methods. Analysis of ribosomal libraries of the V3-V4 hypervariable region obtained by Illumina sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavages from COVID-19 and VAP (first wave) patients from Hospital Juarez de Mexico. Results. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were the main bacterial genera in the bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) analysed. Other members of the ESKAPE group, such as Enterococcus and Klebsiella, were also identified. Taxonomic composition per patient showed that non-ESKAPE genera were present with significant relative abundances, such as Prevotella, Stenotrophomas, Enterococcus, Mycoplasma, Serratia, and Corynebacterium. Kruskal-Wallis analysis proved that VAP acquisition is an adverse event that is not influenced by the sex and age of COVID-19 patients. Discussion. Metagenomic findings in COVID-19/VAP patients highlight the importance of implementing comprehensive microbiological diagnostics by including alternative tools for the detection of the causal agents of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Conclusions. Timely identification of bacteria 'not sought' in diagnostic bacteriology laboratories will allow specific and targeted treatments. Implications for the restricted diagnosis of VAP causative agents in COVID-19 patients and the presence of pathogens not detected by classical microbiology are analysed and discussed.

8.
Industrial Biotechnology ; 18(6):341-350, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2188088

ABSTRACT

The search for active metabolites present in plants is of great value and has been an important source of bioactive substances for centuries. Sakuranetin, first identified in the bark of cherry trees (Prunus spp.), is a flavonoid of the flavanone subclass, acting as a phytoalexin essential for the plant defense system. The present work aims to describe the state art of sakuranetin, including physical properties, biological effects, and biotechnological trends. An investigation was carried out in the Elsevier Scopus database to understand the main aspects regarding the contributions of sakuranetin to publications reporting its biological effects. Currently, several biological activities are related to it, the most relevant being the antiviral, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, and antibiotic. The anti-inflammatory activity is the leading and most cited biological activity related to sakuranetin, and another exciting capacity is cancer cell proliferation inhibition shown over several cell cultures. Sakuranetin is already known for microbial defense of plants and antiparasitic against Leishmania species was reported, as was virostatic and virucidal characteristics for human viruses, including SARS-COV-2. Due to limitations of the flavonoid molecular characteristics, sakuranetin needs to be implemented in new technologies, and nanoencapsulation techniques are presented as an alternative for enhancing sakuranetin features. More studies are necessary to harness all of the biological potential of sakuranetin in our society.

9.
Atmospheric Pollution Research ; 14(1):101642, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2170461

ABSTRACT

Road dust pollution is a complex atmospheric issue that poses a significant ecotoxicological threat to human health and the environment. The presence of viruses in road dust can put humans at risk of infection, as airborne viral particles are a potential synergist to respiratory infirmities, leading to widespread mortality and morbidity. This corroborates the increasing number of desk-based studies on the effects of road dust. However, the role of road dust in the spread and pathogenicity of viruses has scarcely been explored, and there is still no certainty regarding whether road dust participates in viral transmission or causes infectious diseases. Therefore, the current knowledge and mechanisms of road-dust-associated viruses and other pathogenic microorganisms are critically reviewed, highlighting the importance of keeping an eye out for road-dust-associated viruses, as they represent hotspots for viral transmission. In this overview, we evaluate the emissions, associated contaminants, and public health implications of exposure to road-dust-associated viruses. A summary of potential mitigation measures is also presented, highlighting critical knowledge gaps, challenges, and future research directions that require urgent draconian measures. This overview is intended to serve as a seminal reference and management pivot for enhancing global pollution mitigation policies, development of analytical models/methods, periodic monitoring of road dust-associated viruses, and the transport of other pathogenic microorganisms.

10.
Journal of Current Pharma Research ; 12(4):1-12, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2168767

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are those in which pathogens such as viruses and bacteria invade the human body and multiply, causing various adverse effects on the body. To prevent infectious diseases, it is important to sterilize and remove the causative microorganisms, as well as prevent the introduction and movement of microorganisms from the external environment. In our laboratory, we investigated the status of microbial contamination of shoes and floors shared within the university and confirmed that the degree of microbial contamination varied depending on the location. In this study, we investigated general live bacteria, fungi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and coliform bacteria to determine the status of microbial contamination on the floors of two computer rooms. The number of colonies of general live bacteria and S. aureus tended to increase with the number of users, and vice versa;this trend was similar for fungi. No characteristic tendency was observed for £ coli and coliform bacteria.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 106: 39-44, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149663

ABSTRACT

Internal Medicine wards are an appropriate focus of antibiotic stewardship, along with emergency departments and intensive care units, because a large proportion of patients are with parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics. Given the unmet clinical need of antibiotic optimization in the hospital and the importance of front-line practitioners for antibiotic stewardship, the barriers and tactics to overcome them were discussed in a round table at the European Congress of Internal Medicine. Better rapid diagnostic tests should help to increase appropriate early antibiotic rates, favoring diversity in antibiotic choices adapted to the awareness of local resistance patterns. Providing such is a greater challenge in low-resource settings. Prescriptions should be personalized, adjusting dosage and source control to specific patients' conditions. Shorter antibiotic duration and de-escalation are major drivers to reduce adverse events, with mortality and recurrence rates being independent of antimicrobial duration. Appropriate diagnostic tests with quick turnaround times decrease excessive antibiotic use. Antimicrobial optimization requires a multidisciplinary approach and it should be a core competence of training specialists, improving opportunities to provide safer patient care.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Prescriptions , Intensive Care Units , Hospitals
12.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 15(11):518-521, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2163867

ABSTRACT

Rationale: SARS-CoV-2 has been identified as a highly infective and contagious viral infection. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been spread worldwide and affected more than 210 countries. Globally, the fast spread of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants has been mostly attributed to international travel. Patient concerns: We are reporting the genomic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Eta VOI among two international travelers. Both travelers were males from Nigeria aged 24 and 34 years and both were asymptomatic. Diagnosis: The nasopharyngeal swab samples were in both travelers positive by real-time RT-PCR followed by COVIDSeq-NGS. Interventions: Paracetamol 3 times daily for 5 days. Outcomes: Patient recovered completely within 10 days and discharged after 14 days of quarantine duration. Lessons: This report highlights genomic variation of SARS-CoV-2 among the travelers. For managing the present health crisis, molecular identification of viral variants present in different geographical locations will be very helpful.

13.
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 84(5):1095-1104, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2157052

ABSTRACT

Infections hold a major place in the global disease burden. About thousands of different microbial species invade human body thereby leading to complications in the physiology of a particular system or the body as a whole. While the world has tried to combat the microbial infections through various natural and synthetic chemical constituents and certain additional medical aids, we still lack effective treatment against all kinds of microorganisms especially, the evolving new microbial species. Currently, as the world is suffering from a major pandemic spread of infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, scientists all over the world are trying to produce an effective prophylaxis as well as treatment to fight the viral attack. Amongst different trials going on, this review focuses on the effectiveness of plasma therapy, its mechanism and its applications in various infections so far and it's possible role to treat coronavirus disease 2019.

14.
IEEE Access ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2152417

ABSTRACT

Bacterial classification is a vital step in medical diagnosis. This procedure normally has several stages. An early stage involves inspecting the morphology of the bacterial colonies. Traditionally, a bacterial colony expert inspects the sample to determine the type of bacteria through visual inspection or molecular biology techniques. With advances in image processing, specifically, the use of deep and transfer learning techniques, and the wide availability of cameras, we applied deep and transfer learning techniques to address this task without requiring expert knowledge or sample shipping. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) to identify different bacterial colonies based on their appearance in images captured by cell phone cameras. In this paper, we collected a dataset that contains images of different bacteria taken by cell phone cameras with various settings. Thus, images of two classes of bacterial colonies were obtained in King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. The dataset contains 8,043 images. The experimental results show that our application has high accuracy without requiring expert inspections. Author

15.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): Chemistry, Functionality and Applications ; : 235-255, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149090

ABSTRACT

The species, herbs, vegetables, and some plants have a role as growth promoters in broiler diets to improve the efficiency of the growth conversion and reduce the cost of feed. Adding herbal plants as growth promoters in broiler diets improves their feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, and body weight gain. Clove (Eugenia caryophyllus, syn. Syzygium aromaticum) is considered as a spice and appetizer. It contains 10% volatile oil, most of which is eugenol. Clove extract is commonly used in the food industry because of its unique aroma and natural safety. In addition, clove essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial properties. Antiseptic, appetite and digestion stimulant, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of clove and its ingredients have been reported. However, clove essential oil has been studied by very few as a performance enhancer of poultry. The discussion will cover those preventing specific pathogenic microorganisms and increasing some beneficial microorganisms in intestinal microflora. Regarding the role of clove as feedstuff and the role of clove as an alternative additive, the mechanisms are beginning to be understood. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16.
Applied Physics. A, Materials Science & Processing ; 129(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2148754

ABSTRACT

Bio-fabrication has become a safe approach for silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The plant-mediated biosynthesized Ag NPs have emerged as a potential substitute for conventional chemical formation. The biosynthesized Ag NPs were analyzed in terms of crystalline nature, morphology, chemical composition, particle size, stability, size, and shape of the particles. The XRD, FTIR, and TEM analysis indicate the presence of the bioactive secondary metabolites compounds. The bamboo-mediated Ag NPs demonstrated a notable antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms and showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radicals. The degradation of methylene blue at various intervals under solar light irradiation was used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of Ag NPs. Further, Ag NPs conveyed potent anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell lines with a significant value IC50. The bamboo leaves-mediated Ag NPs synthesized Ag NPs signified strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activity;hence, it can be used in various biomedical applications and face mask coating to prevent the coronavirus after successful clinical trials in research laboratories.

17.
Acta Agriculturae Boreali Sinica ; 37(5):174-180, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147713

ABSTRACT

In order to obtain COVID-19 nucleocapsid protein with similar function and activity to natural protein and apply it to practical detection. Firstly, according to Bac-to-bac insect expression system and synthetic COVID-19 nucleocapsid protein(N protein)sequence, BamH I and Xba I on pFastBacTMHTB vector were added to upstream and downstream primers respectively. The N gene was amplified by PCR technology, and T-Vector pMD19(simple)vector and pFastBacTMHTB vector were connected successively and recombinant plasmids pMD19-T(simple)-COV19-N and pFastBacTMHTB-COV19-N, and finally construct recombinant bacmid DH10 Bac-pFastBacTMHTB-COV19-N in DH10 Bac cells was expressed in insect cell Sf9. The recombinant protein was obtained and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and WB. The recombinant plasmid pMD19-T(simple)-COV19-N was identified by PCR and double enzyme digestion. The recombinant bacmid DH10 Bac-pFastBacTMHTB-COV19-N was constructed in DH10 Bac cells was identified by PCR and the expected two bands were 2 430,3 690 bp, respectively, which proved that the recombinant bacmid was successfully obtained. The recombinant bacmid was transfected into Sf9 insect cells. At the same time, the recombinant GFP protein control group was established. After 120 h of transfection, the recombinant N protein and recombinant GFP protein were collected and samples were prepared;SDS-PAGE and WB analysis were carried out respectively. HRP-His labeled antibody was used to verify that the transfection was successful, and both recombinant N protein and recombinant GFP protein were successfully expressed in Sf9 cells. The experimental results were consistent with the expectation, and the size of recombinant N protein band was about 46 ku. The eukaryotic expression vector of respiratory coronavirus N gene was successfully constructed and successfully expressed in insect cells, which provides an experimental basis for the establishment of ELISA detection methods and other related research.

18.
Environmental Research ; Part 2. 216 (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2130785

ABSTRACT

As indicated in the presentation of this Virtual Special Issue (VSI), as well as in its Call for Papers, the occurrence, fate, dynamics, effects and overall repercussions of the enormous variety of microorganisms present in soils and other environmental compartments on Earth, is of huge importance, and particularly it is fundamental to the conditioning of life and even to the time-course evolution of non-living constituents of our planet. With that in mind, shedding further light on some selected fields within this broad spectrum of research themes could be seen as an ambitious objective, but achievable when limited to progressing just a few steps forward, even if the long-term aim could be to reach a final and complete characterization and solution of all issues related to these broad lines of research and fields of knowledge. In view of this, the Editors of the Special Issue made a specific Call to receive contributions to increase the knowledge on the matter, which could stimulate future additional research. With a total number of 45 manuscripts received and 16 high-quality contributions published, we think this main objective was reached with the resulting papers now available. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

19.
Journal of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ; 10(3):135-140, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2146857

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In Sub-Saharan Africa, the data on the mutations and variants of circulating SARS-CoV-2 is limited. This study aimed to screen specific mutations and variants of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Burkina Faso.

20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 37(4):900-909, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2145388

ABSTRACT

Preliminary screening and identification of the host proteins interacting with the nucleocapsid(N)protein of the porcine deltacoronavirus(DCoV). Co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry were used to screen out the host proteins interacting with the N protein of the porcine DCoV. Bioinformatics analysis was carried out, and then co-immunoprecipitation was used for identification. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitation products revealed different protein bands around 40 kDa and 100 kDa. Sixty-eight host proteins interacting with the N protein of the porcine DCoV were screened by mass spectrometry. Two candidate interacting proteins(ANXA2 and TUBB2 B)were selected by analyses using the Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. After co-immunoprecipitation verification, the N protein of the porcine DCoV was found to interact with TUBB2 B. Our study provides a new direction for further exploration of the role of the N protein of the porcine DCoV in infection.

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