Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 50
Filter
1.
Micromachines ; 13(4):499, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810026

ABSTRACT

Plastic pollution has emerged as a growing concern worldwide. In particular, the most abundant plastic debris, microplastics, has necessitated the development of rapid and effective identification methods to track down the stages and evidence of the pollution. In this paper, we combine low-cost plastic staining technologies using Nile Red with the continuous feature offered by microfluidics to propose a low-cost 3D printed device for the identification of microplastics. It is observed that the microfluidic devices indicate comparable staining and identification performance compared to conventional Nile Red staining processes while offering the advantages of continuous recognition for long-term environmental monitoring. The results also show that concentration, temperature, and residency time possess strong effects on the identification performance. Finally, various microplastics have been applied to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed devices. It is found that, among different types of microplastics, non-spherical microplastics show the maximal fluorescence level. Meanwhile, natural fibers indicate better staining quality when compared to synthetic ones.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(8):4886, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809884

ABSTRACT

Plastic debris contamination in marine environments is a global problem that poses a considerable threat to the sustainability and health of coastal ecosystems. Marine beaches, as the key zones where terrestrial plastic debris reach coastal waters, are faced with the increasing pressures of human activities. In this study, we explored the distribution, composition, and inventory of plastic debris over seasonal and tidal zones at the Yugang Park Beach (YPB) in Zhanjiang Bay, South China Sea, to provide a baseline for plastic debris on a marine beach. The results showed mean abundance of plastic debris in summer (6.00 ± 2.10 items/m2) was significantly greater than that in winter (3.75 ± 2.12 items/m2). In addition, the composition of plastic debris ranged in size mainly from 1 to 5 mm and 0.5 to 2.5 cm in winter and summer, respectively. In terms of composition, white plastic debris was the most common (81.1%), and foam was the most abundant (64.4%). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between the abundance of plastic debris and sand grain size fraction (p < 0.05), implying the abundances of microplastic debris were more easily impacted by sand grain size (>2 mm). In total inventory, there were about 1.18 × 105 and 2.95 × 105 items of plastic debris on the YPB in winter and summer, respectively. The tidal variation and human activities are responsible for the plastic debris accumulation. This study provided a method to quantify the inventory of plastic debris on a beach and could be helpful to consider regional tidal variations and critical source areas for effective plastic debris clean-up.

3.
Science of the Total Environment ; 820:9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799732

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) pollution has become one of the most pending environmental challenges result-ing from the pandemic. While various studies investigated PPE pollution in the marine environment, freshwater bodies have been largely overlooked. In the present study, PPE monitoring was carried out in the vicinity of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia. PPE density, types, and chemical composition (FTIR spectroscopy) were reported. A total of 221 PPEs were identified with a density ranging from 1.22 x 10(-5) PPE m(-2) (control site S1) to 2.88x 10(-4) PPE m(-2) with a mean density of 1.54 x 10(-4) +/- 2.58 x 10(-5) PPE m(-2). Mismanaged PPE waste was found in all the sam-pling sites, mostly consisting of surgical face masks (93.7%). Statistical analyzes revealed significantly higher PPE den-sities in sites where several recreational, touristic, and commercial activities take place, thus, revealing the main sources of PPE pollution. Furthermore, polypropylene and polyester fabrics were identified as the main components of surgical and reusable cloth masks, respectively. Given the hazard that PPEs represent to aquatic biota (e.g., entanglement, ingestion) and their ability to release microplastics (MPs), it is necessary to implement sufficient solid waste management plans and infrastructure where lake activities take place. Additionally, local authorities must promote and ensure sustainable tourism in order to maintain the ecosystems in Lake Tana. Prospective research prior-ities regarding the colonization and degradation of PPE, as well as the release of toxic chemicals, were identified and discussed.

4.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 128980, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796501

ABSTRACT

The ingestion and accumulation of microplastics is a serious threat to the health and survival of humans and other organisms given the increasing use of daily-use plastic products, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, whether direct microplastic contamination from plastic packaging is a threat to human health remains unclear. We analyzed the market demand for plastic packaging in Asia-Pacific, North America, and Europe and identified the commonly used plastic food packaging products. We found that food containers exposed to high-temperature water release more than 10 million microplastics per mL of water. Recycled plastic food packaging was demonstrated to continuously leach micro- and nanoplastics. In vitro cell engulfing experiments revealed that these leachates are readily taken up by murine macrophages without any conditioning and that short-term exposure substantially suppressed the lysosomal activities of macrophages. We demonstrated that the ingestion of micro- and nanoplastics released from food containers exerts immediate negative effects on macrophage activities, proving that the explosive growth in the use of plastic packaging poses severe health risks.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 154986, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773763

ABSTRACT

The explosive growth of disposable gloves usage in cities around the world has posed a considerable risk to municipal solid management and disposal during the COVID-19 pandemic. The lack of the environmental awareness leads to glove waste being discarded randomly and ending up in the soil and/or the ocean ecosystem. To explore the physicochemical changes and environmental behaviors of disposable glove wastes in the aqueous environment, three kinds of glove (latex, nitrile and vinyl) were investigated. The results showed that the physicochemical characteristics of disposable gloves made of different materials were altered to different degrees by UV weathering. Nitrile gloves were more stable than latex and vinyl gloves after being exposed to weathering conditions. Although the chemical structures were not clearly demonstrated through FTIR after weathering, the SEM results showed significant microscopic changes on the surfaces of the gloves. Analysis of the leachate results showed that UV weathered gloves released leachable substances, including microparticles, organic matter, and heavy metals. Latex gloves were more likely to release microparticles and other substances into the water after UV weathering. The release of microparticles from gloves can also be impacted by sand abrasion. The appropriate strategy needs to be developed to mitigate the environmental impact caused by the discarded gloves.

6.
Chemosphere ; 299: 134373, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748141

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is leading to an increase of the global production of plastics since the use of personal protective equipment (PPEs, i.e. gloves, gowns, masks, packaging items), has become mandatory to prevent the spread of the virus. Plastic breaks down into micro/nano particles due to physical or chemical or biological actions into environment. Due to small dimensions, ubiquitous and persistent nature, the plastic particles represent a significant threat to ecosystems and can entry into food chains. Among the plastic polymers used for PPEs, polystyrene is less studied regarding its eco-geno-toxicity. This study aims to investigate acute, chronic and subchronic effects of the microplastic polystyrene beads (PS-MP, size 1.0 µm) on three freshwater species, the alga Raphidocelis subcapitata, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia and the benthic ostracod Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, the potential genotoxicity and the ROS production due to the PS-MP were also determined in C. dubia. Results revealed that the acute effects occurred at concentrations of PS-MP in the order of dozens of mg/L in B. calyciflorus and C. dubia and hundreds of mg/L in H. incongruens. Regarding long-term toxicity, increasing chronic effects with EC50s in the order of units (C. dubia), hundreds (B. calyciflorus) and thousands (R. subcapitata) of µg/L were observed. Both for acute and chronic/sub chronic toxicity, daphnids were more sensitive to polystyrene than ostracods. Moreover, when C. dubia neonates were exposed to the PS-MP, alterations in genetic material as well as the production of ROS occurred, starting from concentrations in the order of units of µg/L, probably due to inflammatory responses. At last, the risk quotient (RQ) as a measure of risk posed by PS-MPs in freshwater environment, was calculated obtaining a value of 7.2, higher than the threshold value of 1.

7.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 983(1):012080, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730607

ABSTRACT

Objective Understanding the influencing factors of discarded masks disposed by residents in Dongguan City during the period of COVID-19 epidemic, so as to provide basis for avoiding the environmental pollution caused by discarded masks in the future. Methods Using random sampling way to make an Internet questionnaire survey among 1042 permanent residents in Dongguan city and using Probit regression model to analyze the current situation and influencing factors of disposing the discarded masks. Results The installation of disposal bins, residents’ environmental concern level and education level positively influenced the residents’ disposal behavior, while the residents’ age and total household size negatively influenced the residents’ willingness to dispose. These influencing factors are basically consistent with those derived from other scholars’ studies on residents’ willingness to dispose of household waste, it shows that residents do not treat the disposal of discarded masks differently from other household waste and ignore the potential environmental hazards of discarded masks. Conclusion In order to motivate residents to properly dispose of discarded masks, it is necessary to clarify and standardize the requirements for discarded mask disposal and increase publicity to enhance the public’s awareness of environmental concerns and hygiene. To avoid environmental problems such as microplastics brought by discarded masks, disposable masks should be replaced by reusable elastic respirators;the use of polypropylene in masks should be reduced;new mask materials should be developed.

8.
Applied Ecology and Environmental Research ; 20(1):571-586, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1727024

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted with an exploratory study design to explore the amount of debris around beaches on Libong Island, Thailand. Libong Island is one of the significant tourist attractions in Trang Province. The study was conducted by collecting samples from 4 areas during February, June, September and December 2020. The findings from the study showed that 1,580 items of debris were found with a total weight of 44,744 g. The most common debris found included hard plastic glass, fabric, and fibre, respectively. Thung Ya Kha Beach was the beach where the highest amount of debris was found. The largest quantity of debris (692 items) was found in June, followed by 404 items in February, 274 items in September, and 210 items in December. Based on this study, the outstanding debris was comprised of plastic, including 87 types of plastic, both hard and soft varieties, totaling 805 items. No COVID-19 related products were found on the beach, possibly due to a government emergency declaration. Regarding the closure of beaches and the country's lockdown, there were few Thai tourists. There were no foreign tourists in June or September. The result of the waste separation that the major activity causing waste was shoreline and recreation activity.

9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 233: 113353, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719635

ABSTRACT

The deposition is an important process of microplastics transporting from atmosphere to water and soil. But the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics in urban atmospheric deposition and its influencing factors are poorly understood. The current study investigated the possible sources, spatial and temporal distribution, and potential ecological risk of microplastics in deposition from the valley basin of Lanzhou city during the COVID-19 pandemic (from February to August, 2020). The deposition flux of microplastics was 353.83 n m-2 d-1. Most plastic samples were small sized (50~500 µm) and transparent. The dominant chemical composition and shapes were PET, fragments and fibers, respectively. A modified method was conducted to identify the sources of microplastics, and the local sources were suggested as the main possible sources. The distribution of microplastics investigated through the inverse distance weight interpolation showed spatial variation and temporal differentiation which was dominated by the human activity. The rainfall also affected the temporal distribution. The preliminary assessment indicated higher potential ecological risk of microplastics in deposition. This study suggested the dominant effect of human activity on the source and distribution of atmospheric microplastic deposition in city.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Pollutants, Chemical , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Microplastics , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2 , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
10.
Minerals ; 12(2):269, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715564

ABSTRACT

Microplastics (MPs) are considered an important stratigraphic indicator, or ‘technofossils’, of the Anthropocene. Research on MP abundance in the environment has gained much attention but the lack of a standardized procedure has hindered the comparability of the results. The development of an effective and efficient method of MP extraction from the matrix is crucial for the proper identification and quantifying analysis of MPs in environmental samples. The procedures of density separation used currently have various limitations: high cost of reagents, limited solution density range, hazardous reagents, or a combination of the above. In this research, a procedure based on density separation with the use of potassium formate water solution (H2O/KCOOH) in controlled conditions was performed. Experimental sediment mixtures, spiked with polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyurethane (PUR) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) particles were prepared and an extraction procedure was tested in the context of a weight-based quantitative analysis of MPs. This article discusses the effectiveness and safety of the method. It additionally provides new information on the interactions between MP particles and the mineral matter of the sediment. Results were acquired with the use of instrumental methods, namely thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS), as well as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 301: 119019, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693485

ABSTRACT

A large amount of disposable plastic face masks (DPFs) is produced and used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which results in an inevitable consequence of the dramatic increase of DPFs waste. However, the impact of DPFs exposure to the environment on their toxicity is rarely considered. In this study, a range of 76-276 items/L microplastics (MPs) was detected in the DPFs leachates, and fibrous (> 80.3%) and polypropylene (PP, > 89.2%) MPs were dominant. Co, Cu, Ni, Sr, Ti and Zn, were commonly detected in all leachates of the tested DPFs. Organics, such as acetophenone, 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, benzothiazole, bisphenol-A and phthalide, were found in the DPFs leachate, which were including organic solvents and plasticizer. Besides, we first found an emerging environmental risk substance, namely environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs), was generated in the DPFs leachates. The characteristic g-factors of the EPFRs was in a range of 2.003-2.004, identified as mixture of carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals. By means of in vitro toxicity assay, the DPFs leachate were confirmed to cause cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Significantly, it is found that the formed EPFRs could contribute more toxic effects. Furthermore, when compared to N95 respirators, the tested surgical masks tend to release more MPs, leach more metals and organics, and generate more EPFRs. Surgical masks were thus showed higher risk than N95 respirators after exposure to water. This work highlights the importance of understanding the chemical complexity and possible toxicity of DPFs for their risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Free Radicals , Humans , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Environ Manage ; 309: 114698, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693286

ABSTRACT

A literature review was carried out to analyze the current status of microplastic research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Specifically, this work focused on publications pertaining to (1) occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the environment, including water, sediments, and soil and (2) the environmental impact of MPs, particularly their presence and effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The review included peer-reviewed articles from Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar and two iberoamerican open access databases (Redalyc and SciELO). It was found that LAC has only contributed to 5% of the global scientific output on microplastics, and overall the highest contributor within the region was Brazil (52%), followed by Chile (16%) and Mexico (13%). An additional section analyzing the barriers to conducting microplastic research in LAC and their exacerbation by the current COVID-19 pandemic was included to provide additional context behind the relatively low scientific production and improve recommendations encouraging research in this region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microplastics , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 825: 153880, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692895

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, face mask (FM) has been recognized as an effective measure to reduce the infection, increasing its consumption across the world. However, the large amount of at-home FM usage changed traditional medical waste management practices, lack of improper management. Currently, few studies estimate FM consumption at a global scale, not to say a comprehensive investigation on the environmental risks of FM from a life cycle perspective. Therefore, global FM consumption and its associated environmental risks are clarified in the present study. Our result shows that 449.5 billion FMs were consumed from January 2020 to March 2021, with an average of 59.4 FMs per person worldwide. This review also provides a basis to understand the environmental risk of randomly disposed of FM and highlights the urgent requirement for the attention of FMs waste management to prevent pollution in the near future.

14.
Environ Int ; 161: 107146, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689284

ABSTRACT

Microplastics (MPs) have been considered as a new vector for the long-distance transport of pathogens in aquatic ecosystems. However, the composition of viral communities attached on MPs and their environmental risk are largely unknown. Here, we profiled the viral diversity and potential risk in five different MPs collected from the Beilun River based on metagenomic analysis. Nearly 2863 million raw reads were produced and assembled, and annotation resulted in the identification of 1719 different species of viruses in MPs. Viruses in polypropylene (PP) displayed the highest diversity, with about 250 specific viruses detected. Source tracking of viruses in MPs by the fast expectation-maximization microbial source tracking method (FEAST) demonstrated that viruses in upstream and downstream MPs are two major sources of viruses in estuary. Furthermore, the MP-type-dependent potential environmental risk of viruses was significant based on both antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factors (VFs) detected in viral metagenomes, and PP was confirmed with the highest potential environmental risk. This study reveals the high diversity and potential environmental risk of viruses in different MPs, and provides an important guidance for future environmental monitoring and understanding the potential risks associated with both viral transmission and MPs pollution.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Metagenome , Plastics , Rivers , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity
15.
International Conference on Advances in Construction Materials and Management, ACMM 2021 ; 191:547-563, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1680644

ABSTRACT

Event of microplastics (plastic garbage < 5 mm) along the coast is a developing concern around the world, because of the expanded contribution of disposed of squanders from different sources. Around 400 million tons of plastic are produced per year worldwide, out of which only 18% is recycled that has led to its poor disposal practices. The significance of my work is to analyze mainly the positive impacts due to lockdown during COVID-19. The discharged plastics remain in the environment for several 100 years either in their original or fragmented form. The fragmentation of particles is caused by several factors like wind currents, wave currents, abrasions, exposure to sunlight, etc. The study of the distribution of microplastics in time and space, as well as their distribution on parameters, such as polymer type, size, shape, in different coastal environmental all over the world, is the need of the hour. This study describes a framework to assess the presence and distribution of microplastics in marine water and sediments of Adyar and Cooum Estuary along the Chennai coast. Ten sampling sites from each estuary were selected from which surface water and sediments were collected. The samples were carried over to the laboratory for analyzing the presence of microplastic content, and also basic seawater quality parameters were analyzed in the Environmental Engineering Department laboratory. The study investigated the presence and distribution of microplastics before and during COVID-19. The presence and distribution study of microplastics in coastal waters and sediments were carried out by means of FTIR and XRD spectroscopy methods. From this analysis, microplastics occur in both estuaries and there is a significant reduction in Microplastic content in both estuaries because of continuous lockdown due to COVID-19. From FTIR analysis, it was found that the concentration of Polyethylene(PE) and Polypropylene (PP) was higher than the other types of polymer in both the locations and both the times (August 2019 and 2020). And from XRD analysis, black residues were found on most of the microplastics surfaces. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 821: 153424, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648499

ABSTRACT

Pollution from personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly face masks, has surfaced in the marine and terrestrial environments globally since the COVID-19 outbreak due to improper disposal practices and inadequate waste management, raising widespread alarm and attention. Our understanding of the prevalence and distribution of PPE in highly populated metropolitan areas is still emerging, and studies focusing specifically on developing countries in Latin America remain sparse. This study attempted to "kill two birds with one stone" by (1) addressing this knowledge gap by analyzing the degree of improper dispensing of PPE in Mexico City (Mexico) and (2) investigating the impact of massive public congregations on PPE contamination during the yearly pilgrimage to the Villa de Guadalupe on December 12th. Our survey findings revealed 731 PPE items within a 6-kilometer radius between December 5 and December 12, 2021, with daily densities ranging from 4.1 × 10-3-13.9 × 10-3 PPE items m-2. Face masks were the most disposed type of PPE (94%), with gloves and face shields accounting for just 6% of the total. The PPE disposal more than doubled as the pilgrim day approached, with an estimated disposal rate ranging from 151.52 to 506.06 items day-1, substantiating the surge in the disposal of used PPE to large public congregations that filled the surroundings during the pilgrimage. The observed average PPE density of 7.8 × 10-3 items m-2 was higher than in the metropolitan environments of Canada, Ghana, and Turkey. To our knowledge, this first study describes information showing the need to pay attention to the major impact of public events and mobility on COVID-19 PPE pollution, as well as emphasizes the necessity for adequate management facilities in improving PPE disposal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/epidemiology , Catholicism , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Environ Technol Innov ; 26: 102290, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616491

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the extensive use of face masks and protective personal equipment (PPE) kits has led to increasing degree of microplastic pollution (MP) because they are typically discarded into the seas, rivers, streets, and other parts of the environment. Currently, microplastic (MP) pollution has a negative impact on the environment because of high-level fragmentation. Typically, MP pollution can be detected by various techniques, such as microscopic analysis, density separation, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. However, there are limited studies on disposable face masks and PPE kits. A wide range of marine species ingest MPs in the form of fibers and fragments, which directly affect the environment and human health; thus, more research and development are needed on the effect of MP pollution on human health. This article provides a perspective on the origin and distribution of MP pollution in waterbodies (e.g., rivers, ponds, lakes, and seas) and wastewater treatment plants, and reviews the possible remediation of MP pollution related to the excessive disposal of face masks and PPE kits to aquatic environments.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 815: 152980, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612005

ABSTRACT

The indispensable role of plastic products in our daily life is highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic again. Disposable face masks, made of polymer materials, as effective and cheap personal protective equipment (PPE), have been extensively used by the public to slow down the viral transmission. The repercussions of this have generated million tons of plastic waste being littered into the environment because of the improper disposal and mismanagement amid. And plastic waste can release microplastics (MPs) with the help of physical, chemical and biological processes, which is placing a huge MPs contamination burden on the ecosystem. In this work, the knowledge regarding to the combined effects of MPs and pollutants from the release of face masks and the impacts of wasted face masks and MPs on the environment (terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem) was systematically discussed. In view of these, some green technologies were put forward to reduce the amounts of discarded face masks in the environment, therefore minimizing MPs pollution at its source. Moreover, some recommendations for future research directions were proposed based on the remaining knowledge gaps. In a word, MPs pollution linked to face masks should be a focus worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Ecosystem , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 174: 113181, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606571

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, face masks became a common type of litter invading many different environments, including tourist beaches. However, the presence of face masks on beaches threatens the marine environment with a new form of plastic pollution. In this study, we monitored the occurrence and density of face masks on five tourist beaches along the Moroccan Mediterranean during five months starting from February until June 2021. A total of 321 face masks were recorded on the five beaches, 96.27% of which were single use. The mean density of face masks was 0.0012 ± 0.0008 m-2. Recreational beaches were the most polluted in the study area. This is related to the important influx of beachgoers on urban beaches compared to resort beaches. With the large number of masks introduced on the beach, we hypothesize that microplastic pollution could increase drastically in the Moroccan Mediterranean in the coming years. Significant efforts are required to reduce this type of waste.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastics , Bathing Beaches , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Products/analysis
20.
Frontiers in Marine Science ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1596490

ABSTRACT

The world has already been experienced the severe adverse effects of COVID-19 at every levels. When it is understood that the COVID-19 infection is spread in the community via respiratory transmission from human, then the widespread use of plastic-made personal protective equipments (PPEs) like face masks and hand gloves have tremendously increased throughout the world. Although it has reduced the spreading of virus, however, careless disposal or mismanagement of these single use PPEs has created another major concern for the environment as plastics are known source of environmental contamination. In one hand, they are infected with SARS-CoV-2, while in the other, they act as a carrier or vector or pathways for other pathogens or diseases, and hence can increase the degree of continuing pandemic. Besides, there might have chance that plastics or microplastics may be responsible for introducing new pathogenic viruses or bacteria to humankind. As such, it is clear that more research needs to be conducted to clarify this fact, and its underlying mechanisms. In this review, we briefly explored how PPEs used in the COVID-19 pandemic aggravated existing microplastic pollution, how they could act as disease routes or vectors, and how they could introduce new pathogens to the terrestrial and marine environment. Addressing these questions may create awareness in plastic use, waste management and enacting relevant policy which may protect our environment and health.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL