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1.
South Afr J HIV Med ; 23(1): 1391, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100004

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine acceptance and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Middle East and North Africa region is important to meet the need for broad-scale vaccination against COVID-19. Objectives: To investigate the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate and factors among PLHIV in the Middle East and North Africa region. Method: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among PLHIV currently living in Egypt, Tunisia and Saudi Arabia between March 2021 and August 2021. Results: Of the 540 respondents, 19.3% reported already being vaccinated against COVID-19 (n = 104), 32.0% responded 'definitely yes' (n = 173), and 13.3% responded 'probably yes' (n = 72) for intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, with an overall COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate of 64.6% among PLHIV in the region. The most significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance included feeling less worried about COVID-19 transmission post-vaccination (221.0% higher odds), and believing the disease is vaccine-preventable (160.0% higher odds). Reported barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance include concerns about vaccine effectiveness and belief that HIV medications protect against COVID-19 transmission, living in a rural area and reporting less-frequent engagement with HIV care. Nine out of 10 participants reported that the chances of them getting COVID-19 vaccine would increase if given adequate information and if their doctor recommended it. Conclusion: Findings of the study can help researchers, health officials, and other health system actors understand the predictors and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine acceptance reported by PLHIV. This understanding could inform the future planning of interventions tailored to PLHIV.

2.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099669

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), belonging to the betacoronavirus genus can cause severe respiratory illnesses, accompanied by pneumonia, multiorgan failure, and ultimately death. CoVs have the ability to transgress species barriers and spread swiftly into new host species, with human-to-human transmission causing epidemic diseases. Despite the severe public health threat of MERS-CoV, there are currently no vaccines or drugs available for its treatment. MERS-CoV papain-like protease (PLpro) is a key enzyme that plays an important role in its replication. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory activities of doxorubicin (DOX) against the recombinant MERS-CoV PLpro by employing protease inhibition assays. Hydrolysis of fluorogenic peptide from the Z-RLRGG-AMC-peptide bond in the presence of DOX showed an IC50 value of 1.67 µM at 30 min. Subsequently, we confirmed the interaction between DOX and MERS-CoV PLpro by thermal shift assay (TSA), and DOX increased ΔTm by ~20 °C, clearly indicating a coherent interaction between the MERS-CoV PL protease and DOX. The binding site of DOX on MERS-CoV PLpro was assessed using docking techniques and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. DOX bound to the thumb region of the catalytic domain of the MERS-CoV PLpro. MD simulation results showed flexible BL2 loops, as well as other potential residues, such as R231, R233, and G276 of MERS-CoV PLpro. Development of drug repurposing is a remarkable opportunity to quickly examine the efficacy of different aspects of treating various diseases. Protease inhibitors have been found to be effective against MERS-CoV to date, and numerous candidates are currently undergoing clinical trials to prove this. Our effort follows a in similar direction.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Papain/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/metabolism
3.
Pathogenic Coronaviruses of Humans and Animals ; CHAP: 125-172,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2082962

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory virus syndrome (MERS) is a viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system, but also has a major impact on the kidneys and nervous system and, to a lesser extent, on the intestines, liver, and heart. Over 2500 cases and 850 deaths have been confirmed as of 2019. The fatality rate is approximately 35%, more than that caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 (that causes COVID-19). The first known case of MERS in humans was reported in 2012 in Saudi Arabia but the virus was present in stored serum samples from dromedary (one-humped) camels from Africa and the Middle East for decades before that time. Since then, it spread to at least 27 countries around the world, most of which are related to travel to the Arabian Peninsula. The coronavirus that causes MERS, MERS-CoV, is related to several other human coronaviruses that typically cause cold-like illness as well as to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV is from the subgenus Merbecovirus, while SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are in Sarbecovirus. MERS-CoV also uses dipeptidyl peptidase 4 as its host cell receptor, while SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. While MERS-CoV is transmittable between people in close contact with an infected person, many infections are zoonotic and are due to inhaling infectious respiratory droplets from dromedaries or consuming their raw milk or urine. Many cases are nosocomial (acquired in healthcare facilities). Fortunately, MERS-CoV only can pass through several rounds of human-to-human transmission, unlike SARS-CoV-2. Much of the pathology is due to an excessive inflammatory type of immune response caused by cytokines and chemokines, abnormal blood coagulation, and virus-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death). Bats appear to be the reservoir hosts and should be monitored for possible zoonotic transmission outside of the Middle East, in line with the One Health approach.

4.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 102482, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pilgrims travelling to Saudi Arabia are commonly infected with respiratory viruses. Since the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012, patients with acute respiratory symptoms returning from an endemic area can be suspected to be infected by this virus. METHODS: 98 patients suspected to have MERS-CoV infection from 2014 to 2019 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Upper and lower respiratory tract samples were tested by real time RT-PCR for the detection of MERS-CoV and other respiratory viruses. Routine microbiological analyses were also performed. Patient data were retrieved from laboratory and hospital databases retrospectively. RESULTS: All patients with suspected MERS-CoV infection travelled before their hospitalization. Most frequent symptoms were cough (94.4%) and fever (69.4%). 98 specimens were tested for MERS-CoV RNA and none of them was positive. Most frequently detected viruses were Enterovirus/Rhinovirus (40/83-48.2%), Influenzavirus A (34/90-37.8%) and B (11/90-12.2%), H-CoV (229E and OC43 10/83 - 12% and 7/83-8.4%, respectively). CONCLUSION: From 2014 to 2019, none of 98 patients returning from endemic areas was MERS-CoV infected. However, infections with other respiratory viruses were frequent, especially with Enterovirus/Rhinoviruses and Influenzaviruses.

5.
Embase; 23.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346778

ABSTRACT

Inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal proteins (iBETs), including JQ-1, have been suggested as potential therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, molecular mechanisms underlying JQ-1-induced antiviral activity and its susceptibility to viral antagonism remain incompletely understood. iBET treatment transiently inhibited infection by SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-CoV, but not MERS-CoV. Our functional assays confirmed JQ-1-mediated downregulation of ACE2 expression and multi-omics analysis uncovered induction of an antiviral NRF-2-mediated cytoprotective response as an additional antiviral component of JQ-1 treatment. Serial passaging of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of JQ-1 resulted in predominance of ORF6-deficient variants. JQ-1 antiviral activity was transient in human bronchial airway epithelial cells (hBAECs) treated prior to infection and absent when administered therapeutically. We propose that JQ-1 exerts pleiotropic effects that collectively induce a transient antiviral state that is ultimately nullified by an established SARS-CoV-2 infection, raising questions on their clinical suitability in the context of COVID-19. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-ND 4.0 International license.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12806, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066464

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases are rooted in unsustainable and unjust human–animal relationships. Zoonoses are facilitated by human proximity to animals, epidemiological risk embedded within factory farms, and exploitation of animals and humans in these intensive livestock production systems. The five major categories of epidemiological risk that factory farms propel include: intensification of production for which homogenous populations are congregated, creation of multi-species farms for which different animals are held within the same farm, long and intensive animal transport increases the likelihood of interaction with other wildlife, ecological characteristics of the pathogen lead to altered pathogen dynamics and antibiotic resistance within a human population through the overuse of antibiotics. Layer and broiler operations in the North American context illustrate these linkages. One Health is offered as a concluding conceptual and aspirational frame for pursuing a more sustainable and just world. This article offers two main messages. First, our relationships with animals directly impact the health of human populations through the transmission and creation of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs). Second, adopting One Health offers a means forward for more just and sustainable human–animal relations and reduction of zoonoses transmission.

7.
Biol Sport ; 39(4): 1073-1080, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067008

ABSTRACT

Preparation for the FIFA World Cup 2022 (WC2022) comes in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims were to (i) provide a brief overview of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic games in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) highlight the potential challenges and opportunities central to the hosting of the FIFA WC2022. The organisation, public health policies and prevention protocols of the postponed 2020 Olympic/Paralympic Games (Tokyo July-August 2021), the infection rates during the event, as well as the upcoming WC2022 and its related preparations and challenges, were analysed. An unparalleled International Olympic Committee (IOC) effort, together with the Japanese government and people's perseverance and drive, enabled the safe delivery of the Tokyo Olympic/Paralympic Games, which left a legacy beyond sport. This has been aided by the collection of critical data and lessons learnt throughout the games. The stringent public health policies and especially the tight bubble system for players and their respective delegations have certainly been the key components that ensured the successful containment of COVID-19 within the targeted population. One of the most significant lessons learned from the Tokyo 2020 Olympics is the improvement made in controlling COVID-19 in the context of mass gathering events. Strict infection control strategies to prevent future COVID-19 transmission during the FIFA World Cup 2022 are an immediate priority in Qatar and are constantly being prepared. The planned measures and health care strategies appear to be well adjusted to the risk, especially for the large anticipated number of visitors, and can provide sufficient guarantees to conduct relatively "safe" mega sports events.

8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1035267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065596
9.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064397

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for over 500 million cumulative cases all over the world since December 2019 and has marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic virus after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This virus is in a winning situation because scientists are still racing to explore effective therapeutics, vaccines, and event treatment regimens. In view of progress in current disease management, until now none of the preventive/treatment measures can be considered entirely effective to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, it is required to look up substitute ways for the management of this disease. In this context, herbal medicines could be a good choice. This article emphasizes the antiviral potential of some herbal constituents which further can be a drug of choice in SARS-CoV-2 treatment. This article may be a ready reference for discovering natural lead compounds and targets in SARS-CoV-2 associated works.

10.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2064328

ABSTRACT

With the complex presence of important natural reserves, energy is considered as the main key ingredient to facilitate economic development in the Middle East, GCC, and Maghreb regions. Expectations for a rapidly growing economy in the next decade will likely cause an increase in the fraction of energy consumed domestically, limiting what is available for export. Considered as the home of global oil and gas reserves, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is the cornerstone of the global energy architecture, and the global low-carbon energy transition poses critical questions to MENA oil and gas producers. Unfortunately, as the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic sweeps across the world, growth in the MENA region was projected to fall to 2.8% in 2020, lower than the growth rates during the 2008 global financial crisis and the 2015 oil price shock. Before the coronavirus (COVID-2019), the sharp drop in oil and gas prices that began in 2015 fostered MENA hydrocarbon producers to launch ambitious economic reform programs in all regions. The main goal of these programs was not only to increase the diversification of investment sectors to boost national and regional economies but also to encourage the development of the nonhydrocarbon sector. This article argues for a new challenge investigation and analysis to figure out with current MENA policy options and future prospects, as well as the present impact of COVID-19, in addition to the public policies that encourage diversification economy sector to avoid entire dependence on oil and gas in export are dressed. It also deals with the investigation of the pressing need to create job opportunities for a large and youthful population and the new definition of the possibility of the world moving more aggressively towards low-carbon integration. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
Ecumenical Review ; 74(3):475-484, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063701

ABSTRACT

This article, following a brief historical background about the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch and All the East (SOCA), endeavours to provide a summary of the actions taken by SOCA’s Patriarchate in some of its archdioceses worldwide to lessen the impact of lockdowns on SOCA’s faithful, including but not limited to the learning and teaching of children within SOCA. The article highlights the work done especially in Australia to ensure that the impact of COVID-19 on the church and its faithful was as minimal as possible. The article concludes with a brief discussion highlighting the lessons learned from this difficult period in the lives of SOCA, the community, and the world. © 2022 World Council of Churches.

12.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S56-S57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062107

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The considerable overlap in case definition and clinical features between patients with COVID-19 associated Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki disease (KD) suggests shared pathogenesis. We sought to compare demographic, clinical presentation, management and outcomes of patients by COVID-19 status. Method(s): The International KD Registry (IKDR) began enrolling patients with clinical features of either acute MIS-C or KD or fever with hyperinflammation beginning in January 2020. The IKDR is unique regarding broad patient selection and includes sites from North, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Patient groups stratified by COVID-19 status were compared. Result(s): As of October 6, 2021, 1330 patients were registered from 31 sites. COVID status was POSITIVE for 59% (confirmed household COVID-19 contact and/or positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or serology), POSSIBLE for 4% (suggestive clinical features but some negative tests or absent exposure), NEGATIVE for 23%, and UNKNOWN (no known exposure and testing not com-pleted) for 14% (TABLE). Most of the UNKNOWN patients were from early in the COVID-19 pandemic before MIS-C was defined and before COVID-19 serologic testing was widely used. POSITIVE and POSSIBLE patients were older, had fewer KD clinical criteria, greater gastrointestinal symptoms, were more likely to present with shock and require ICU admission and inotropic support. POSSIBLE patients had greater days from symptom onset to first immune modulation treatment, with no differences between groups regarding days from admission to first treatment. Most patients in each group received intravenous immune globu-lin, with POSITIVE and POSSIBLE patients more likely to have received steroids and anakinra. NEGATIVE and UNKNOWN patients had higher maximal coronary artery Z scores, with a trend to having higher categories of aneurysm involvement. Conclusion(s): While there was considerable overlap in presentation, management and outcomes between COVID-19 POSITIVE/POSSIBLE (presumed MIS-C) and COVID NEGATIVE/UNKNOWN patients (presumed KD), COVID-19 POSITIVE/POSSIBLE patients had more severe presentations and required more intensive management, although coronary artery outcomes trended to be less severe. Patient recruitment con-tinues, and in-depth comparison of laboratory features and appli-cation of machine learning approaches to patient differentiation and prediction of optimal management pathways are forthcoming.

13.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 9: 100438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061087

ABSTRACT

Objectives: When diagnosing Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), radiologists cannot make an accurate judgments because the image characteristics of COVID-19 and other pneumonia are similar. As machine learning advances, artificial intelligence(AI) models show promise in diagnosing COVID-19 and other pneumonias. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy and methodological quality of the models. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase, preprints from medRxiv and bioRxiv to locate studies published before December 2021, with no language restrictions. And a quality assessment (QUADAS-2), Radiomics Quality Score (RQS) tools and CLAIM checklist were used to assess the quality of each study. We used random-effects models to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity, I2 values to assess heterogeneity, and Deeks' test to assess publication bias. Results: We screened 32 studies from the 2001 retrieved articles for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We included 6737 participants in the test or validation group. The meta-analysis revealed that AI models based on chest imaging distinguishes COVID-19 from other pneumonias: pooled area under the curve (AUC) 0.96 (95 % CI, 0.94-0.98), sensitivity 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.88-0.94), pooled specificity 0.91 (95 % CI, 0.87-0.93). The average RQS score of 13 studies using radiomics was 7.8, accounting for 22 % of the total score. The 19 studies using deep learning methods had an average CLAIM score of 20, slightly less than half (48.24 %) the ideal score of 42.00. Conclusions: The AI model for chest imaging could well diagnose COVID-19 and other pneumonias. However, it has not been implemented as a clinical decision-making tool. Future researchers should pay more attention to the quality of research methodology and further improve the generalizability of the developed predictive models.

14.
2nd International Congress on Advances in Mechanical and Systems Engineering, CAMSE 2021 ; : 157-164, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2059746

ABSTRACT

Society is under tremendous tension and pressure due to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Coronavirus pandemic-2019 is a critical health emergency with respect to the international concern. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) disease first came in 2002 and then Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) affects us in 2012. SARS-CoV-2 is the third coronavirus to emerge in the past two decades, which are acting as a serious warning to humans. These pandemic presents major challenges to scientist and international medical agencies to save the earth by this global life-threatening pandemic. Fighting with these major issues, scientists and doctors pointed out the solutions for COVID and Related pandemics, in which the most populated solution, such as ultraviolet (UV)-based disinfection systems. This article is presenting a unique technology for the COVID-19 infected surfaces to either sides. The proposed research is the providing the solutions with the integration/merging of two different technologies in the portable form to provide a unique disinfection system to disinfect the infected/suspected surfaces by ‘Coronavirus disease’ from top and bottom side by exposing the specified samples like currencies/hand held devices/mobile phones/various types of cards, etc. According to the various literatures, ultraviolet-C light as well as 650 nm laser light has the power to destroy the COVID-19 and related viruses. The proposed system is developed to disinfect the above-mentioned items surfaces from COVID-19 like issues and has the ability to disinfect the items in few second (within 3–5 s). The proposed system has the capability to serve the nation at different level as it may be designed and developed in different sizes as per the application. This integrated technology can serve the society in most of the applications like, the major field for disinfection is food and agriculture sectors. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
Netherlands Journal of Critical Care ; 30(5):156-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058310

ABSTRACT

In the last two years we have experienced the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic in our lives and hospitals. Pandemics are part of the history of humanity and we can be certain that in the future new pandemics will appear. In fact, due to the growth in the human population, increased travel and global warming, it is to be expected that new pandemic pathogens will arise more frequently than before. Additionally, decreased barriers between animals and humans will give rise to spillover events, which will result in the introduction of new zoonotic pathogens in humans. In each of the parts of this series we will, in a short format, highlight a potential pandemic pathogen and describe its characteristics, history and potential for global pandemics. This part of the series focusses on MERS-CoV infection which, up until now, has been fairly contained in a small part of the world but definitely has traits that make it a pathogen to watch. As in previous parts of this series, we will highlight its clinical picture and explain why it should not be underestimated.

16.
International Medical Journal ; 27(5):521-526, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058127

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study sought to determine the level of knowledge, practices and barriers towards the COVID-19 infection prevention strategies among University Students in Northern Jordan. Design(s): This study adopted a descriptive quantitative design. Material(s) and Method(s): The researcher administered a survey to 501 participants, who were University Students in Northern Jordan. Categorical data was then analyzed using three statistical tools of SPSS (v 25);descriptive statistics, spearman's cor-relation and linear regression analysis. Result(s): Participants reported proper knowledge scores (84.4%), proper adherence to general hygiene (89.2%) hand hygiene (87.7%), and respiratory hygiene (80.8%) practices regarding COVID-19 infection prevention strategies. Lack of personal pro-tective equipment and the inconvenience of staying at home are the leading barriers to stopping the spread of COVID-19. Gender, marital status, level of education and age have a statistically significant impact (p < .05) on the participants knowledge towards the overall prevention of the corona virus spread. Discussion(s): This study reports outcomes that correlate with some previous quantitative research studies regarding level of knowledge. However, level of knowledge does not consistently correlate with the practice. Conclusion(s): The university students in Northern Jordan exhibit sufficient knowledge and reliable attitude regarding the prevention of COVID-19. Copyright © 2020 Japan Health Sciences University & Japan International Cultural Exchange Foundation.

17.
International Journal of Caring Sciences ; 15(2):1493-1504, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057769

ABSTRACT

Background: Many children were registered to be infected as a result of close contact with COVID-19 cases or due to travel through epidemic regions. On one hand, the responsibility of motherhood and the womans mental adjustment to this role, and on the other, the inadequate data about effects of COVID-19 on the baby may cause anxiety disorders in mothers. At the same time, social support provided during one of the vital crisis periods of parenting may assist in reducing stress on the individual. Objektive: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the anxiety and perceived social support levels felt by mothers with infants 0-1 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The sample of the study was comprised 146 mothers with infants from 0-1 years of age reached online. Study data were collected with a questionnaire Generalized Anxiety Disorder Test (GAD-7) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results: Forty one percent of mother had someone to support baby care, 81.5% followed news related to COVID19, 80.8% had sufficient knowledge levels about COVID-19 and 85.6% experienced worry about their babys health during the COVID-19 pandemic. GAD-7 test points of 96.9% of mothers had higher than limit for generalized anxiety disorder. Mothers MSPSS score were above the mean. Mothers with low income, insufficient knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic and experienced worry about the babys health had higher mean GAD7 7 points and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). Additionally, mean GAD7 7 were significantly correlated at low levels with the MSPSS total (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the study determined that as perceived social support reduced, anxiety levels increased among mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057733

ABSTRACT

High erythrocyte sedimentation rate and D-dimer were also observed.15 The main pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection as a respiratory system targeting virus was severe pneumonia, RNA anaemia, combined with the incidence of ground-glass opacities, and acute cardiac injury. The comparable viral load in a group of asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 was higher than that of the symptomatic carriers and increasing level of white blood cell count (12.4×109/L), neutrophil count (7.82×109/L), C-reactive protein level (189.2mg/L), low lymphocyte count (0.84×109/L) and platelet count (88×109/L) was found different than the normal range in asymptomatic patients.22 2.1 Clinical Evaluation of Asymptomatic Carriers: Many asymptomatic persons were actually a source of SARS-CoV-2 infection but were considered healthy before they underwent screening. CRP levels, LDH levels, and white blood cell counts were elevated occurred in 10, 13 and 1 patient, respectively.24 According to the study, asymptomatic infection was seldom seen in young people;the proportion with severe COVID-19 was low, and the proportion with ordinary COVID-19 was high. 2.3 Evaluation of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carriers: Table-1: Description of general characteristics responsible for evaluation of asymptomatic carriers of Covid-19. General characteristics Asymptomatic Carriers Symptomatic Carriers Normal range White blood cell count (× 10⁹ cells per L) 5.65 9.43 4.00–10.00 Neutrophil count (× 10⁹ cells per L) 3.62 8.21 1.80–6.30 Lymphocyte count (× 10⁹ cells per L) 1.55 0.69 1.10–3.20 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 0.69 202.03 0.0–5.0 3 Prophylactic Regimens for Prevention from Sars Cov-II Virus: This review aims to interrogate the current evidence base, and present the potential immune-mediating, antioxidant, and antimicrobial roles of vitamins A to E in the context of respiratory disease, and to extrapolate this evidence to evaluate the potential roles in the fight against COVID-19.

19.
International Journal of Medical Dentistry ; 26(3):398-410, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2057446

ABSTRACT

Pathophysiologically, SARS-CoV-2 is similar to SARS-CoV-1, causing a strong characteristic inflammatory reaction that damages the airways [8]. [...]combined antiviral and host responses contribute to disease severity, as seen in cases of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV infections [9]. [...]a spurt of cytokines released in response to viral infection results in cytokine storm and sepsis, leading to a mortality rate of 28% in critical COVID-19 cases [10]. [...]SARS-CoV-2 decreases ACE2 receptor expression, which is associated with acute lung injury and disease pathology. Since ACE2 controls the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), its suppression can impair RAS homeostasis and influence blood pressure, electrolyte equilibrium, inflammation, and vascular permeability in the airways [14]. The enhanced requirement for antioxidants and consumption of vitamin C by leukocytes could explain the reduction in vitamin C levels observed during infections in general, during lung infections specifically [29], and in critically ill patients [30]. Besides the antioxidative effects of vitamin C, its beneficial functions during pneumonia act via signaling pathways associated with inflammation suppression and enhancement of immunoregulation [31].

20.
Journal of Clinical and Basic Research ; 6(1):37-45, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2057220

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is one of the most important healthcare and social challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on depression and quality of life among women with chronic pain during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown.

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