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1.
Vaccine ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236472

ABSTRACT

The "risk compensation hypothesis" holds that vaccinated individuals may be less motivated to protect themselves using other COVID-19 mitigation behaviors-e.g., masking, distancing and hand hygiene-given that they may percieve thier infection risk to be lower. The current investigation provides an empirical test of the risk compensation hypothesis in the COVID-19 context using prospective data from the Canadian COVID-19 Experiences Survey (CCES). The survey comprised 1,958 unvaccinated and fully vaccinated individuals drawn from a representative sample, using quota sampling to ensure substantial representation of unvaccinated individuals. Two waves of data were collected 6 months apart. Findings revealed that vaccinated individuals performed COVID-19 mitigation behaviors significantly more frequently than their unvaccinated counterparts, and they also showed lower rates of attenuation as the pandemic continued. In summary, our findings do not support the risk compensation hypothesis; instead they support the notion that people adopt vaccination and other protective behaviors in parallel.

2.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 362, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The precautions and restrictions imposed by the recent Covid-19 pandemic drew attention to the criticality of quality of care in long-term care facilities internationally, and in Canada. They also underscored the importance of residents' quality of life. In deference to the risk mitigation measures in Canadian long-term care settings during Covid-19, some person-centred, quality of life policies were paused, unused, or under-utilised. This study aimed to interrogate these existing but latent policies, to capture their potentiality in terms of positively influencing the quality of life of residents in long-term care in Canada. METHODS: The study analysed policies related to quality of life of long-term care residents in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia). Three policy orientations were framed utilising a comparative approach: situational (environmental conditions), structural (organisational content), and temporal (developmental trajectories). 84 long term care policies were reviewed, relating to different policy jurisdictions, policy types, and quality of life domains. RESULTS: Overall, the intersection of jurisdiction, policy types, and quality of life domains confirms that some policies, particularly safety, security and order, may be prioritised in different types of policy documents, and over other quality of life domains. Alternatively, the presence of a resident focused quality of life in many policies affirms the cultural shift towards greater person-centredness. These findings are both explicit and implicit, and mediated through the expression of individual policy excerpts. CONCLUSION: The analysis provides substantive evidence of three key policy levers: situations-providing specific examples of resident focused quality of life policy overshadowing in each jurisdiction; structures-identifying which types of policy and quality of life expressions are more vulnerable to dominance by others; and trajectories-confirming the cultural shift towards more person-centredness in Canadian long-term care related policies over time. It also demonstrates and contextualises examples of policy slippage, differential policy weights, and cultural shifts across existing policies. When applied within a resident focused, quality of life lens, these policies can be leveraged to improve extant resource utilisation. Consequently, the study provides a timely, positive, forward-facing roadmap upon which to enhance and build policies that capitalise and enable person-centredness in the provision of long-term care in Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long-Term Care , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , British Columbia , Policy
3.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236287

ABSTRACT

Meeting the mental health needs of perinatal women during the COVID-19 pandemic is a serious concern. This scoping review looks at how to prevent, mitigate or treat the mental health problems faced by women during a pandemic, and lays out suggestions for further research. Interventions for women with pre-existing mental health problems or health problems that develop during the perinatal period are included. The literature in English published in 2020-2021 is explored. Hand searches were conducted in PubMed and PsychINFO using the terms COVID-19, perinatal mental health and review. A total of 13 systematic and scoping reviews and meta-analyses were included. This scoping review shows that every woman should be assessed for mental health issues at every stage of her pregnancy and postpartum, with particular attention to women with a history of mental health problems. In the COVID-19 era, efforts should be focused on reducing the magnitude of stress and a perceived sense of lack of control experienced by perinatal women. Helpful instructions for women with perinatal mental health problems include mindfulness, distress tolerance skills, relaxation exercises, and interpersonal relationship building skills. Further longitudinal multicenter cohort studies could help improve the current knowledge. Promoting perinatal resilience and fostering positive coping skills, mitigating perinatal mental health problems, screening all prenatal and postpartum women for affective disorders, and using telehealth services appear to be indispensable resources. In future, governments and research agencies will need to pay greater attention to the trade-offs of reducing the spread of the virus through lockdowns, physical distancing, and quarantine measures and developing policies to mitigate the mental health impact on perinatal women.

4.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233658

ABSTRACT

In March 2021, Emergency Intake Sites (EIS) were created to address capacity shortfalls during a surge of Unaccompanied Children at the Mexico-United States land border. The COVID-19 Zone Plan (ZP) was developed to decrease COVID-19 transmission. COVID-19 cumulative percent (%) positivity was analyzed to evaluate the impact of the ZP, venue type and bed capacity across EIS from April 1-May 31, 2021. Results: Of 11 EIS sites analyzed, 54% implemented the recommended ZP. The overall % positivity was 2.47% (95% CI 2.39-2.55). The % positivity at EIS with the ZP, 1.83% (95% CI 1.71-1.95), was lower than that at EIS without the ZP, 2.83%, ( 95% CI 2.72-2.93), and showed a lower 7-day moving average of % positivity. Conclusion: Results showed a possible effect of the ZP on % positivity when controlling for venue type and bed capacity in a specific EIS group comparison, indicating that all three variables could have had effect on % positivity. They also showed that smaller intake facilities may be recommendable during public health emergencies.

5.
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series ; : 277-284, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20245240

ABSTRACT

Non-Drug Intervention (NDI) is one of the important means to prevent and control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the implementation of this series of measures plays a key role in the development of the epidemic. The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of different mitigation measures on the situation of the COVID 19, and effectively respond to the prevention and control situation in the "post-epidemic era". The present work is based on the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Remove-Susceptible (SEIRS) Model, and adapted the agent-based model (ABM) to construct the epidemic prevention and control model framework to simulate the COVID-19 epidemic from three aspects: social distance, personal protection, and bed resources. The experiment results show that the above NDI are effective mitigation measures for epidemic prevention and control, and can play a positive role in the recurrence of COVID-19, but a single measure cannot prevent the recurrence of infection peaks and curb the spread of the epidemic;When social distance and personal protection rules are out of control, bed resources will become an important guarantee for epidemic prevention and control. Although the spread of the epidemic cannot be curbed, it can slow down the recurrence of the peak of the epidemic;When people abide by social distance and personal protection rules, the pressure on bed resources will be eased. At the same time, under the interaction of the three measures, not only the death toll can be reduced, but the spread of the epidemic can also be effectively curbed. © 2022 ACM.

6.
Geoscientific Model Development ; 16(11):3313-3334, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20245068

ABSTRACT

Using climate-optimized flight trajectories is one essential measure to reduce aviation's climate impact. Detailed knowledge of temporal and spatial climate sensitivity for aviation emissions in the atmosphere is required to realize such a climate mitigation measure. The algorithmic Climate Change Functions (aCCFs) represent the basis for such purposes. This paper presents the first version of the Algorithmic Climate Change Function submodel (ACCF 1.0) within the European Centre HAMburg general circulation model (ECHAM) and Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model framework. In the ACCF 1.0, we implement a set of aCCFs (version 1.0) to estimate the average temperature response over 20 years (ATR20) resulting from aviation CO2 emissions and non-CO2 impacts, such as NOx emissions (via ozone production and methane destruction), water vapour emissions, and contrail cirrus. While the aCCF concept has been introduced in previous research, here, we publish a consistent set of aCCF formulas in terms of fuel scenario, metric, and efficacy for the first time. In particular, this paper elaborates on contrail aCCF development, which has not been published before. ACCF 1.0 uses the simulated atmospheric conditions at the emission location as input to calculate the ATR20 per unit of fuel burned, per NOx emitted, or per flown kilometre.In this research, we perform quality checks of the ACCF 1.0 outputs in two aspects. Firstly, we compare climatological values calculated by ACCF 1.0 to previous studies. The comparison confirms that in the Northern Hemisphere between 150–300 hPa altitude (flight corridor), the vertical and latitudinal structure of NOx-induced ozone and H2O effects are well represented by the ACCF model output. The NOx-induced methane effects increase towards lower altitudes and higher latitudes, which behaves differently from the existing literature. For contrail cirrus, the climatological pattern of the ACCF model output corresponds with the literature, except that contrail-cirrus aCCF generates values at low altitudes near polar regions, which is caused by the conditions set up for contrail formation. Secondly, we evaluate the reduction of NOx-induced ozone effects through trajectory optimization, employing the tagging chemistry approach (contribution approach to tag species according to their emission categories and to inherit these tags to other species during the subsequent chemical reactions). The simulation results show that climate-optimized trajectories reduce the radiative forcing contribution from aviation NOx-induced ozone compared to cost-optimized trajectories. Finally, we couple the ACCF 1.0 to the air traffic simulation submodel AirTraf version 2.0 and demonstrate the variability of the flight trajectories when the efficacy of individual effects is considered. Based on the 1 d simulation results of a subset of European flights, the total ATR20 of the climate-optimized flights is significantly lower (roughly 50 % less) than that of the cost-optimized flights, with the most considerable contribution from contrail cirrus. The CO2 contribution observed in this study is low compared with the non-CO2 effects, which requires further diagnosis.

7.
Victims & Offenders ; 18(5):818-841, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244273

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic instantly changed the day-to-day practices of the criminal justice system. The court system, traditionally reliant on face-to-face interaction, had to quickly alter operations to decrease the virus' spread while remaining functional as an integral role in the criminal justice system. The current exploratory study examines the response strategies U.S. court systems implemented, impacts on case processing, case backlogs, and additional consequences endured due to the pandemic. Using responses from self-report surveys of court staff (e.g., judges, clerks), results indicated that courts prioritized the types of cases heard and implemented multiple mitigation strategies that were deemed effective, some of which may be sustainable post-pandemic. Despite an increase in virtual jury trials and hearings, many courts saw a surge in backlogged cases and complications in assembling juries. The overall findings may inform judiciary policy and practice concerning short and long-term pandemic outcomes on court processing and future pandemic preparedness.

8.
Mobilities ; 18(3):445-467, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20243976

ABSTRACT

Academics have long regarded air travel as vital to pursuing a successful career. Meanwhile, many academics are at the frontline of climate change science and advocate the urgency to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conflict between combating global warming and high aeromobility practices traps academics in a loop of hypocrisy. However, COVID-19 presents an opportunity for academics to advance their research and careers with reduced aeromobility. This research investigates how academics have adapted to virtual working experiences during COVID-19 and the implications for establishing changes in aeromobility practices. Informed by the theory of practice change, this paper reports the findings of a comprehensive survey and interview programme in New Zealand. It provides insights into the prospects for reduced aeromobility and the institutional policy frameworks required to embed a new normal, considering the unique circumstances faced by academics working at geographically remote institutions. The findings reveal that instead of being trapped in a loop of hypocrisy, New Zealand academics face a moral quandary in being concerned about climate change and wishing to reduce aeromobility practices, while wanting to avoid compromising career success. Recommendations for academics to face this moral quandary and their institutions to support practice change are proposed. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mobilities is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
Journal of Namibian Studies ; 33:305-318, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243559

ABSTRACT

This study explored the level of readiness of schools in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to use remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. To safeguard students and ensure the continuity of education, the UAE's education system implemented online learning to address extended school closures and sudden changes in normal school operations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, schools were forced to quickly adapt to online instruction despite its challenges during lockdowns and isolation. Furthermore, the study provided insight into the theoretical underpinnings of the UAE's massive implementation of distance learning in schools. Moreover, various distance learning programs were implemented by schools to facilitate students' and instructors' education across schools. The findings of this study may be used to strengthen educational systems and accelerate educational opportunities by providing evidence for better orienting and adapting policy responses in emergencies in the UAE. © 2023 Otjivanda Presse.Essen. All rights reserved.

10.
ERS Monograph ; 2023(99):68-79, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243330

ABSTRACT

Housing quality and affordability are well established as social determinants of health through direct and indirect mechanisms. Respiratory illnesses related to housing are nearly all the result of housing disrepair that allows intrusion into the home of environmental agents that are directly or indirectly associated with disease. Structural deficiencies such as leaks, cracks in the foundation or holes in the home's exterior can facilitate the presence of mould, which is causally linked to the development of asthma and is associated with exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children and adults. Indoor cleanliness can also contribute to the presence of mice and cockroaches. Proper ventilation can improve air quality, reducing exposure to PM, VOCs and infectious respiratory agents. Disparities in exposure to the housing conditions associated with respiratory disease are readily apparent across socioeconomic lines. Low-income families are less likely to be able to afford the costs of maintaining a home, which prevents them from making repairs that could improve respiratory health.Copyright © ERS 2023.

11.
Acta Colombiana de Cuidado Intensivo ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243180

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Post-ICU syndrome (PICS) is a syndrome that is becoming increasingly important due to the growing number of patients surviving critical illness, a phenomenon that has been accentuated especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus of the medical practice that cares for these patients should be oriented toward the best available interventions to prevent and rehabilitate the sequelae of PICS. Objective: To synthesize the evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of strategies for preventing and rehabilitating PICS in adult patients. Methods: Umbrella review (CRD42022321610). PubMed, Scopus, Ovid (Cochrane), and LILACS were searched for systematic reviews evaluating any intervention to prevent or rehabilitate PICS and its effect on any of the PICS domain(s) (i.e., mental, cognitive, or physical outcomes). Results: 20 studies were included, and 10 were classified as of low or very-low methodological quality, so they were not included in the summary of results. Therapies at the mental and cognitive levels seem to have a beneficial effect but with limited evidence. The interventions analyzed in the physical sphere are very heterogeneous and have contradictory results, with little quality of evidence. Conclusions: Considering the systematic reviews included in this work, this research allows us to conclude that there is low-quality and contradictory information on the efficacy of interventions for the prevention or rehabilitation of PICS. Future practice should focus on developing high- quality studies. © 2023 Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Crítica y Cuidado lntensivo

12.
Ultrasound ; 31(2):NP34, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243053

ABSTRACT

UK obstetric sonographers adapted their working practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in response to new guidance issued by professional organisations, and requirements for on-going departmental risk assessments. This study aimed to provide an insight into the implementation of this guidance, completion of risk assessments and perception of support within UK obstetric ultrasound departments during the pandemic period. Obstetric sonographers working in the UK (n=138) used the Qualtrics XMTM platform to complete an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey about their working experiences during the pandemic. Participants responded to closed questions about national guidance, risk assessments and their perception of support whilst providing fetal ultrasound screening services. Respondents provided additional detail about their experiences in these areas via free-text boxes. Over 90% of respondents were aware of, or had read guidance issued by professional organisations, although sonographers rated the overall usefulness of new guidelines at an average of 5.2/10 (where 0 = not useful at all, and 10 = extremely useful). Challenges for the implementation of guidance in departments were also identified, mostly related to the clinical working environment, including limitations of physical space (76.3%), time constraints (67.5%) and ventilation (61.3%). Most sonographers (77.2%) were aware that a departmental risk assessment had been undertaken, with waiting areas, scan rooms and clinically vulnerable staff highlighted as the most concerning factors. Sonographers felt most supported by their ultrasound colleagues (83.5%) and line managers (41.2%). They felt least supported by senior management and leadership personnel (60.8%), other antenatal colleagues (51.5%) and professional organisations (41.2%). Whilst most sonographers were aware of published COVID-19 guidance, challenges for its implementation in clinical departments were identified. Local risk mitigation strategies often did not prioritise the scan room environment, despite it being highlighted as a concern. Support from the wider, senior service team and professional organisations will be essential to facilitate post-pandemic recovery of the workforce.

13.
2nd International Conference on Business Analytics for Technology and Security, ICBATS 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243047

ABSTRACT

In order to slow the COVID-19 pandemic's rapid spread and put an end to it, the world needs to take extraordinary action. The knowledge, attitude, and practises (KAP) of outpatients concerning COVID-19 have an impact on the adherence to control measures. As a result, this research serves as a baseline analysis to assess Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice and serve as the foundation for our mitigation efforts. The outpatients were given this self-administrated survey. The ten-item survey was created in a way that allowed for an accurate evaluation of the knowledge, attitude, and practise components. Using SPSS software, the statistical analysis was conducted. The replies from the Google sheet were loaded into SPSS after being exported to Excel. Data were described using frequency and percentages, and chi square analysis was conducted to see whether there was any correlation between the variables. 85 outpatients in total took part in the survey. While 80% of the participants were aware of the life trajectory of Covid-infected individuals and 77.6% of them paid close attention to government directives, the overall level of awareness about COVID-19 and its prevention was rather high. 54.12% of the participants used hand sanitizer and wore masks constantly. The outcomes indicated that the participants had sound knowledge and a positive outlook. To combat this epidemic, media propaganda and instructional video production must continue to be produced and distributed. © 2023 IEEE.

14.
Geo-Economy of the Future: Sustainable Agriculture and Alternative Energy: Volume II ; 2:175-187, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242920

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study is to identify the specifics of the socio-economic development of the countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to determine effective tools for overcoming the crisis phenomena in the economy. The study of the growth rate of gross domestic product calculated by the expenditure method and the number of cases of coronavirus diseases were the grounds for sampling countries for the following analysis. The analysis of socio-economic indicators and identification of the development's specifics during the pandemic is carried out on the example of the United States, France, Great Britain, Spain, Italy, and Germany. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that the least effective implementation of anti-COVID measures is in Italy and Spain, as a result of the lack of effective programs to support lending to the real sector, state support for companies in terms of maintaining employment, and making investments to support business. The German public administration system effectively used a package of anti-crisis measures based on the balance of increasing budget and extra-budgetary infusions into the economy, easing monetary policy, so the country managed to maintain investment activity at the pre-crisis level and create a serious basis for the subsequent recovery from the global economic crisis. © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

15.
Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition ; 18(3):311-326, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242615

ABSTRACT

This study explores the association between experiencing food insecurity and COVID-19 diagnosis in the United States, and what sociodemographic characteristics moderate this relationship. We analyzed a national sample of adults in the United States (n = 6,475). Multiple logistic regression results revealed respondents experiencing food insecurity had an approximately 3.0 times significantly higher odds of a positive COVID-19 diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38-6.32, p < 0.01), which remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographics and COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.09-6.18, p < 0.05). Age group had a significant moderating effect (OR = 42.55, 95% CI = 3.13-579.15, p < 0.01). Results indicate experiencing food insecurity is associated with contracting COVID-19.Copyright © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

16.
33rd Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS 2022 ; 9:6542-6552, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242586

ABSTRACT

In the aircraft cabin, passengers must share a confined environment with other passengers during boarding, flight, and disembarkation, which poses a risk for virus transmission and requires risk-appropriate mitigation strategies. Spacing between passenger groups during boarding and disembarkation reduces the risk of transmission, and optimized sequencing of passenger groups helps to significantly reduce boarding and disembarkation time. We considered passenger groups to be an important factor in overall operational efficiency. The basic idea of our concept is that the members of a group should not be separated, since they were already traveling as a group before entering the aircraft. However, to comply with COVID-19 regulations, different passenger groups should be separated spatially. For the particular challenge of disembarkation, we assume that passenger groups will be informed directly when they are allowed to leave for disembarkation. Today, cabin lighting could be used for this information process, but in a future digitally connected cabin, passengers could be informed directly via their personal devices. These devices could also be used to check the required distances between passengers. The implementation of optimized group sequencing has the potential to significantly reduce boarding and disembarkation times, taking into account COVID-19 constraints. © 2022 ICAS. All Rights Reserved.

17.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20240698

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Covid-19 has swept the globe and has disproportionately affected the United States with over 600,000 deaths in just over one year. The Centers for Disease Control recommendations for reducing the spread of Covid-19 have focused on physical distancing (PD), the practice of maintaining a distance greater than 6 feet from individuals not in the same household. When employed, this health behavior has been found to reduce the incidence of Covid-19. A review of the measurement literature evaluating PD indicates that PD has been measured at the community level via GPS, using proxy measures of the behavior, or as a construct. These methods can be useful in some situations;however, PD is an observable health behavior and can be reported as such. This study sought to address the issues in measuring PD by creating a new measure of self-reported PD that was: 1) appropriate for individual level measurement, 2) based on participant's self-report of the behavior of PD, and 3) presented a less ambiguous representation of the self-reported behavior. Method: Fifty college students from the University of New Mexico were sampled at a single time-point to evaluate the convergent and concurrent validity of the O'Sickey Distancing Test (ODT). Analysis Plan: To establish convergent validity, individual violations of PD as measured by the ODT were correlated with the Social Distancing Measure (SDM) and participant steps per day using Spearman's rank correlations and by comparing the correlations between the ODT and the number of participant self-reported steps per day and a measure of social distancing and participant steps per day using Steiger's t-test of correlated correlations within a sample. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 84(8-B):No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20240186

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to many policy changes across the U.S. justice system that aimed to reduce the spread of the deadly virus. The present dissertation provides novel insights into community sentiment toward justice system COVID-19 mitigation policies such as the early release of prisoners, the pretrial release of defendants, the suspension of fines and fees, and the prioritization of prisoner vaccination. Using a student sample (study 1) and a demographically-representative U.S. community sample (study 2), this dissertation found that political conservatism was negatively associated with support for justice system COVID-19 mitigation policies across both samples. Prison reform attitudes and COVID-19 anxiety were also positively associated with support for justice system mitigation policies in the community sample. In addition to exploring direct relationships, this research examined mechanisms between political conservatism and support for justice system COVID-19 mitigation policies. The results provide evidence that people high in political conservatism show low support for justice system COVID-19 mitigation policies because of authoritarian attitudes and their moral disengagement from those in the justice system. The results of this research contribute to the growing literature on how individual differences can affect COVID-19 pandemic-related attitudes. They also provide policymakers with an idea of how to tailor a more effective public health strategy to promote the welfare of one of the most vulnerable populations to public health crises - those involved in the justice system. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
International Journal of Toxicological and Pharmacological Research ; 13(5):111-116, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240162

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The effects of COVID-19 on surgical practice are extensive and include modifications to perioperative practice and ways of working, workforce and staffing difficulties, procedural prioritization, intraoperative viral transmission risk, and surgical training and education. There is a lack of information about the way this pandemic has impacted medical professionals because of surgical practice. Aims and Objectives: The current study's goal was to determine the dispersion of COVID 19 through patients to healthcare professionals utilising PPE during emergency surgeries. Material(s) and Method(s): The study was conducted as a hospital based retro prospective observational study at the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College and hospital of central India. After receiving institutional ethical committee permission and the informed written consent, 36 patients receiving emergency surgeries during COVID-19 Era and 109 health care professionals involved in patient care were evaluated for the onset of any COVID 19 symptom for 5 days postoperatively. All the data collected were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 26. Result(s): Among these 36 emergency surgeries patients, 86.1% (n=31) had COVID positive report during admission, mostly had complain of respiratory symptoms. Out of 16 COVID positive health workers, 81.25% (n=13) suffered from respiratory symptoms, 43.75% (n=7) had G.I symptoms and 12.50% (n=2) were asymptomatic. Analysis showed a positive relation between COVID positive status and depression in health care professionals (p=0.028). Out of 93 COVID negative health care workers involved in emergency surgeries, 90.32 % (n=84) were asymptomatic. Only 9.67% (n=9) health care workers had respiratory symptoms and 2.1% (n=2) had gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusion(s): The current study may aid in the development of mitigation measures to enhance mental well-being, as well as the identification of factors of poor mental state and therapies to treat people suffering from a mental condition. Postoperative assessments in a digital environment on an individual basis allow team members to voice their worries and comments to the system as a mitigating technique. Evidence-based training and education for HCWs on pandemic preparation has been shown to be critical for improving hospital staff expertise, abilities, and mental well-being during a pandemic.Copyright © 2023, Dr. Yashwant Research Labs Pvt. Ltd.. All rights reserved.

20.
COVID-19 through the lens of mental health in India: Present status and future directions ; : 1-21, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20240128

ABSTRACT

In the current chapter, we have detailed the course and results of our research to evaluate the five constructs of Health Behaviour Model (HBM) as well as the degree of compliance to preventive measures to contain the spread of COVID-19 among the Indian citizens. Additionally, we also examined the degree of association of the HBM constructs with the compliance. Finally, we investigated whether these constructs differed across various socio-demographic group. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

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