Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 226
Filter
1.
Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open ; 3(6), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2172884

ABSTRACT

Painful tongue lesions at the time of emergency department presentation TABLE 1 Laboratory and imaging results Test Result Reference Range Units White blood cell count 7.2 3.4 - 11.0 K/mcL Hemoglobin 17.4 13.0 - 17.1 g/dL Platelets 172 150 - 425 K/mcL Sodium 133 137 - 145 mmol/L Potassium 4.1 3.5 - 5.1 mmol/L Chloride 95 98 - 107 mmol/L Bicarbonate 26 22 - 30 mmol/L Blood urea nitrogen 17 9 - 20 mg/dL Creatinine 1.00 0.70 - 1.30 mg/dL Calcium 8.6 8.4 - 10.2 mg/dL Glucose 105 70 - 125 mg/dL Magnesium 2.1 1.6 - 2.3 mg/dL Bilirubin, total 0.6 0.2 - 1.3 mg/dL Alkaline phosphatase 99 38 - 126 Units/L Alanine transaminase (ALT) 61 ≤ 49 Units/L Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 58 17 - 59 Units/L Lactic acid, venous 2.6 0.70 - 2.10 mmol/L Absolute CD4+ 231 430 - 1800 cells/μL Absolute CD3 496 570 - 2400 cells/μL Treponemal antibody screen Reactive Non-Reactive Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) Positive (titer 1:8) Non-Reactive RPR, 38 months prior1 Positive (titer 1:2) Non-Reactive RPR, 45 months prior1 Positive (titer 1:2) Non-Reactive HIV viral load (PCR) <20 20 - 10,000,000 copies/mL COVID-19 Rapid (PCR/NAAT) Not Detected Not Detected Influenza A/B (PCR) Not Detected Not Detected Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (PCR) Not Detected Not Detected Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (PCR) Not Detected Not Detected Monkeypox (PCR) x2 lesions Detected Not Detected Coxsackievirus Single titer ≥ 1:80 may indicate past or current infection Antibody B type 1 1:20 Antibody B type 2 1:10 Antibody B type 3 1:10 Antibody B type 4 1:20 Antibody B type 5 <1:10 Antibody B type 6 <1:10 Urinalysis Color Yellow Yellow Clarity Clear Clear Specific Gravity 1.005 1.005-1.030 g/cm3 pH 6.0 5.0 - 8.5 pH Protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, occult blood, leukocyte esterase, and nitrite Negative Negative Urobilinogen 0.2 <2.0 mg/dL Urine Toxicology Positive for amphetamine Blood cultures x2 No growth after 5 days (final result) Chest X-Ray IMPRESSION: Polymerase chain reaction testing was positive for monkeypox and negative for herpes simplex virus and coxsackievirus. There was no history of contact with infected skin, body fluids, or respiratory droplets, the primary routes of monkeypox virus transmission. 1,2 Hospitalization for inability to tolerate oral intake due to oropharyngeal pain is reported in 0.95% monkeypox cases. 3 Clinicians should consider monkeypox as a cause for isolated tongue lesions.

2.
JAMA ; 329(1):63, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2172174

ABSTRACT

Importance Recent advances in treatment and prevention of HIV warrant updated recommendations to guide optimal practice. Objective Based on a critical evaluation of new data, to provide clinicians with recommendations on use of antiretroviral drugs for the treatment and prevention of HIV, laboratory monitoring, care of people aging with HIV, substance use disorder and HIV, and new challenges in people with HIV, including COVID-19 and monkeypox virus infection. Evidence Review A panel of volunteer expert physician scientists were appointed to update the 2020 consensus recommendations. Relevant evidence in the literature (PubMed and Embase searches, which initially yielded 7891 unique citations, of which 834 were considered relevant) and studies presented at peer-reviewed scientific conferences between January 2020 and October 2022 were considered. Findings Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended as soon as possible after diagnosis of HIV. Barriers to care should be addressed, including ensuring access to ART and adherence support. Integrase strand transfer inhibitor–containing regimens remain the mainstay of initial therapy. For people who have achieved viral suppression with a daily oral regimen, long-acting injectable therapy with cabotegravir plus rilpivirine given as infrequently as every 2 months is now an option. Weight gain and metabolic complications have been linked to certain antiretroviral medications;novel strategies to ameliorate these complications are needed. Management of comorbidities throughout the life span is increasingly important, because people with HIV are living longer and confronting the health challenges of aging. In addition, management of substance use disorder in people with HIV requires an evidence-based, integrated approach. Options for preexposure prophylaxis include oral medications (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide plus emtricitabine) and, for the first time, a long-acting injectable agent, cabotegravir. Recent global health emergencies, like the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and monkeypox virus outbreak, continue to have a major effect on people with HIV and the delivery of services. To address these and other challenges, an equity-based approach is essential. Conclusions and Relevance Advances in treatment and prevention of HIV continue to improve outcomes, but challenges and opportunities remain.

3.
BioPharm International ; 35(9):6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2169815
4.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 10(1):2287-2296, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2167575

ABSTRACT

Aim: To reiterate the extent of problem of Monkey pox in our country and to acknowledge the problem and to implement the preventive measures as suggested by the Indian government (ICMR guidelines) by Health care professionals as well as Indian public. Objective(s): Monkey pox is a zoonotic infection caused by a virus that belongs to DNA family Poxviridae. Recently there has been upsurge in the number of monkey pox cases in our country. This has led to increase in the awareness programs in our country by WHO as well as Indian Government. Especially with strict implementation of preventive measures this viral disease can be easily preventable as happened recently with smallpox virus which belongs to same family. This review of literature is made simple for the awareness of the preventive measures suggested by WHO for health care professionals as well as general public. This DNA virus shows mutations less frequently compared to COVID -19 which has recently caused devastating Pandemic all over the world. An account on life cycle and pathogenesis is useful for further research in directing the different therapeutic modalities against the disease. Standard ICMR guidelines needed to be followed for laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of the suspected cases. Proper transportation of the appropriate specimens like nasopharyngeal swabs, skin lesion materials to apex laboratories through IDSP portal, in triple packing especially need proper guidelines suggested by WHO. This review can give overview on all the aforementioned aspects. Conclusion(s): Monkey pox in our country is still less prevalent compared to western Africa. Proper awareness on laboratory diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures can almost all make it less significant disease in our country. Copyright © 2023 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

5.
Annals of Gastroenterology ; 36(1):1-5, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2204760

ABSTRACT

The current monkeypox virus (MPV) outbreak is now a global health concern. MPV, a zoonotic double-stranded DNA virus, may be transmitted from human to human or by contaminated surfaces. Understanding the clinical characteristics and risks of MPV transmission are important, especially for health care workers, who may unknowingly encounter the virus while fulfilling their clinical responsibilities. The World Health Organization has recognized this orthopoxvirus outbreak as a public health emergency and the knowledge gaps regarding MPV's transmission are likely to have contributed to its spread. Instituting proper infection controls in all settings, including the endoscopy suite, is critical to stemming this developing epidemic. Direct contact with skin lesions is the primary mode of transmission, and anorectal lesions are the most common skin manifestation. Hence, gastroenterologists and endoscopists are very likely to see patients with MPV infection. In this context, patients may present with symptoms of proctitis, or lesions may be encountered unexpectedly during anoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy. In consequence, preprocedural exams and endoscopic procedures may increase exposure risk, especially if characteristic lesions go unrecognized. In this review, we provide background epidemiological and virological information, but focus on the potential risk of MPV exposure during gastrointestinal endoscopy and evaluate current practices regarding personal protective equipment and post-procedure instrument and endoscopy suite decontamination. Copyright © 2023 Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology.

6.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(11), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2203326

ABSTRACT

Human monkeypox is caused by a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus that resembles smallpox. It is challenging to identify the illness from varicella and smallpox. The rapid spread of cases across countries has raised serious concerns among public health officials around the world, prompting accelerated investigations to identify the origins and causes of the rapid expansion of cases. When people come into contact with infected animals, they may unintentionally contract monkeypox. The monkeypox virus is transferred by direct exposure to lesions, respiratory droplets, body fluids, and contaminated objects like blood. Fever, rash, and lymph nodes frequent swelling are clinical signs of monkeypox, which can cause a multitude of health problems. The disease's worldwide significance is shown by the advent of outbreaks outside of Africa. To understand the constantly shifting epidemiology of this disease that is reemerging, monkeypox cases require improved monitoring and case identification. Before smallpox's eradication and the consequent absence of immunization attempts, vaccinia vaccination provided coincidental protection to the monkeypox virus;however, monkeypox gained therapeutic relevance. Additionally, given that rural Africa is where monkeypox cases are most common, it is possible that underreporting could result in an underestimate of the pathogen's potential impact. In recent months, cases of human monkeypox have alarmingly increased in nations where the illness is not prevalent. The current monkeypox outbreak, in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, represents a fresh threat. Clinicians need to be aware of this novel scenario, which differs from previous epidemics' scenarios. The transmission of monkeypox should be reduced by the development of efficient solutions by global health systems.

7.
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis ; 71(4):538, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2201698
8.
Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine ; 23(1):5-16, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2201646

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox (MPXV) is an emerging zoonotic disease carrying a global health threat. Using a multi-disciplinary approach, we review the current MPXV virus infection outbreak including virology, prevention, clinical presentation, and disaster management. MPXV is caused by a double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid virus. Despite its clinical similarities with smallpox, it is less severe with low mortality. Human-to-human transmission occurs through prolonged direct or close contact, or through blood, body fluids, or mucosal lesions. Risk groups include frontline health workers who care for MPXV patients, household members of an infected patient, and men who have sex with men. Skin lesions are usually, but not always, at the same stage. They may affect the face followed by the distal extremities with fewer lesions on the trunk (centrifugal distribution). Lesions may involve the mouth, genitalia, conjunctiva, and rectum. The majority of cases are mild. Nevertheless, the disease may have long-term effects on the skin, the neurological system, and the eye. Vaccination against MPXV is available but meanwhile should be limited to those who are at high risk. Those vaccinated against smallpox (usually older than 40 years) might be immune against MPXV. Infectious diseases are without borders. If proper action is not taken, there is considerable risk that MPXV will be entrenched worldwide. Our world has a delicate balance between animals, environment, and humans reflecting the need for a "one globe, one health approach" to address this risk. Following the principles of disaster management and using the lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic will reduce the impact of the MPXV outbreak. [ FROM AUTHOR]

9.
African Vision and Eye Health ; 82(1), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2201529

ABSTRACT

Dear editor, We had not yet recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its consequences, which have affected all aspects of life, whether health or economic, before a new epidemic appeared in some countries called the monkeypox virus. The first human monkeypox case was reported in 1971 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 1 West and Central Africa are considered endemic areas for the monkeypox virus. 2 On 07 May 2022, a monkeypox outbreak was reported in nonendemic areas such as Europe, the Americas and Australia. 3 Appearance of this outbreak in those countries may be because of the stoppage of smallpox vaccination, the migration of people from endemic areas to those countries or increased contact between people and monkeys after their migration into the forest. 4 Monkeypox is transmitted from animal to human through bites or scratches. 5 It then spreads from human to human through salivary or respiratory droplets or direct contact with the exudate of the skin lesion. 6 We suggest that monkeypox can spread to the eye through direct contact between the eyes and the infected hands or the respiratory droplets of the patients. [...]topical steroids must not be used, as they help virus persistence and increase corneal complications. 5 As shown in Figure 1 , our message to ophthalmologists is that if any patient presents with conjunctivitis and skin rash, examine the patient for other monkeypox manifestations.

10.
Symmetry-Basel ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2200826

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this work is to develop the fuzzy fractional mathematical model that will be used to examine the dynamics of monkeypox viral transmission. The proposed dynamical model consists of human and rodents individuals and this monkeypox infection model is mathematically formulated by fuzzy fractional differential equation defined in Caputo's sense. We provide results that demonstrate the existence and uniqueness of the considered model's solution. We observe that our results are accurate, and that our method is applicable to the fuzzy system of fractional ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Furthermore, this monkeypox virus model has been identified as a generalization of SEIQR and SEI models. The results show that keeping diseased rodents apart from the human population reduces the spread of disease. Finally, we present brief discussions and numerical simulations to illustrate our findings.

11.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 12(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2200454

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the spread of the human monkeypox virus (MPXV) an "emerging threat of moderate health concern" on 23 June 2022. Although about 20,000 cases of Monkeypox (MPX) were recorded in Europe and more than 28,000 in the United States from May to October 2022, their number is still small compared to the number of dental patients treated annually. Therefore, the likelihood of oral healthcare workers encountering an MPX case is relatively low in not endemic regions. In addition, MPX-positive individuals are considered contagious only during the prodromal or acute phase. However, the exact shedding and transmission routes of MPX and the associated risk of transmission in the dental setting remain unclear. Moreover, infected subjects whose disease is confined to the head and neck may require oral and dental care because they complain of lymphadenopathy involving the cervical lymph nodes. Furthermore, MPX lesions may first appear in the oral cavity or perioral area. Therefore, given the recent spread of MPXV in non-endemic areas where dentists are not used to considering this disease in the differential diagnosis and taking appropriate preventive measures, all oral healthcare providers nowadays should be aware of the oral presentation of MPX for adequate oral screening and appropriate preventive measures for infection control in the dental practice.

12.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(24):15941, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2200322

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox infection is caused by a virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, a member of the Poxviridae family. Monkeypox virus is transmitted from individual to individual through contact with lesions, body fluids, and respiratory droplets. The infection caused by monkeypox is usually a self-limited disease with mild symptoms lasting 2 to 4 weeks. Monkeypox typically presents with fever, rash, and enlarged lymph nodes. New vaccines have recently been authorized for the prevention of monkeypox infection, whereas there are no specific pharmacological antiviral treatments for monkeypox infection. However, because the viruses which cause adult smallpox and monkeypox are similar, antiviral drugs developed in the past have also shown efficacy against monkeypox. In this review, we highlight the in vitro and clinical evidence found in the literature on the efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents with antiviral activity against monkeypox infection and the different regulatory aspects of countries.

13.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(24) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2200248

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox, a viral zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus, is clinically characterized by fever, headache, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, rash and burdened by some complications that can be severe and life threatening. Monkeypox, endemic in some central and west African countries, in tropical areas near equator, rose to the headlines following its recent outbreak in non-endemic countries of Europe and the USA. Thus, the World Health Organization, worried about the growing dimension of the problem, declared monkeypox a global public health emergency. Now, after months of careful observation, the western scientific research is drawing conclusion that African endemic countries represent a reserve pool able to feed, through travelers and sexual networks, the outbreak in non-endemic countries in which high-risk communities such as gay and bisexual men are the most affected. Prevention through vaccination and early diagnosis are the core to breaking the chain of diffusion of this epidemic. Particular attention should be paid to avoid the spread from endemic countries, also implementing the economic investments in their public health system. Information campaigns and assistance to high-risk classes in non-endemic countries are important priorities, however, assuming that specific treatments for this disease are still tentative. Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13:1094346, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198923

ABSTRACT

In this paper we aimed to study the characteristics, laboratory data and outcomes of monkeypox virus (MPV) and COVID-19 co-infection. On 2(nd) October 2022, we used the search term "("monkeypox virus" OR "MPV" OR "monkey pox" OR "monkeypox") AND ("COVID-19" OR "COVID 19" OR "novel coronavirus" OR "SARS-CoV-2")" in five databases to collect the relevant articles. We found three male patients, who had sex with men prior to the infection, had multiple comorbid conditions, were diagnosed with PCR, and were admitted to the hospital. The length of hospital stay was 4, 6, and 9 days. On admission, two cases had multiple vesicular lesions on various sites of the body associated with tonsillar inflammation, while the third case had genital ulcers and inguinal lymph node enlargement. All cases were managed in the hospital and recovered well. It might still be too early to establish solid evidence about the exact cause-effect association between SARS-CoV-2 and MPV co-infection and patient's outcomes because of the current low sample size. Accordingly, future relevant investigations, estimating the risk ratio of this association are needed to formulate definite evidence.

15.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 309(7965), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196674
16.
Science ; 379(6627):26-27, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2193409

ABSTRACT

Dating back to the origins of modern epidemiology, wastewater surveillance has predominantly been used to track pathogens spread by fecal-oral transmission such as those that cause cholera and polio. However, more than just these "enteric” pathogens are shed via the gut, as highlighted by the success of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) wastewater surveillance (1, 2), recent work on tracking influenza virus (3) and monkeypox virus (4), and observations of extensive pathogen diversity in stool (5, 6). Wastewater is now a core component of infectious disease monitoring, providing a variant-specific, community-representative picture of public health trends that captures previously undetected spread and pathogen transmission links. Building on recent laboratory and analytical advances to identify the diverse pathogens present in sewage will be essential to ongoing efforts to understand disease risks and will transform infectious disease surveillance.

17.
Transfusion Medicine ; 32(6):443-444, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2193287
18.
2022 Medical Technologies Congress, TIPTEKNO 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2192096

ABSTRACT

One of the viral diseases that has caused concern in many countries after the COVID-19 pandemic is monkeypox virus. To date, outbreaks have been reported in 75 countries. Monkeypox is difficult to diagnose at an early stage because its symptoms in the human body are similar to those of chickenpox and measles. Because this virus was a rare disease before the current epidemic, it has created an information gap among health professionals. It is thought that computer-aided detection methods will be useful in cases where the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests needed to diagnose the disease are not yet available. Recently, many diseases, including COVID-19, have been successfully detected by deep learning methods after sufficient images were available. In this study, classification was performed using the previously trained CNN networks MobileNetV2, VGG16, and VGG19 on the Monkeypox Skin Image Dataset, which was made open source in 2022, and the accuracy metrics of these three methods were compared. The highest performance scores were obtained with MobileNetV2, with 91.38% accuracy, 90.5% precision, 86.75% recall and 88.25% f1 score. The VGG16 method achieved 83.62% accuracy and the VGG19 method achieved 78.45% accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

19.
2nd IEEE Mysore Sub Section International Conference, MysuruCon 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2192043

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a zoonosis that is becoming more prevalent and is the most significant orthopoxvirus epidemic in humans in the models that show the elimination of smallpox. The clinical signs of smallpox and monkeypox are identical. Approximately 1 to 11% of cases lead to death, although among survival, disfigurement and other side effects are common. A rapid clinical identification and diagnosis of monkeypox may be challenging due to its resemblance to measles and chickenpox. In situations whereby confirmatory Polymerase Chain reactions methods aren't always readily available, computer-assisted monkeypox histopathologic identification may be extremely helpful for monitoring and rapid identification of cases reported. Deep learning techniques devise revealed to be effective in the automatic identification of skin infections when there are sufficient training samples available. The paper provides a brief investigation into the growth and spread of monkeypox throughout the world while also deploying a pre-trained deep learning model for illness prediction based on symptoms. Monkeypox might cause an epidemic breakout and a worse crisis than COVID-19, which would have a bigger negative economic impact on Asian nations. The paper concludes by emphasizing that, in trying to make the environment more secure for people, society needs an automated monkeypox prediction and diagnosis system. © 2022 IEEE.

20.
22nd IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering, BIBE 2022 ; : 152-157, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191684

ABSTRACT

Although a bit more of 2 months from the outbreak of Monkeypox pandemic, global data of number of infections are exhibiting an exponential behavior due to a fast propagation. In this paper it is analyzed the reported data up to end of July. It is observed that data possibly is not following a similar shape than the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. With this, a model is developed to be confronted to current data. Furthermore, the spread of Monkeypox is discussed in terms of geographical topologies. From it, it is demonstrated that a diffusion equation might be underlying the spatial propagation that would depend on the velocity of transmission. A mathematical interpretation of ongoing data in terms of proposed model based at peaked and exponential distributions is presented. © 2022 IEEE.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL