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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 818, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are highly effective in reducing hospitalization and mortality among early symptomatic COVID-19 patients in clinical trials and real-world data. While resistance to some mAbs has since emerged among new variants, characteristics associated with treatment failure of mAbs remain unknown. METHODS: This multicenter, observational cohort study included patients with COVID-19 who received mAb treatment between November 20, 2020, and December 9, 2021. We utilized electronic health records from a statewide health system plus state-level vaccine and mortality data. The primary outcome was mAb treatment failure, defined as hospitalization or death within 28 days of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. RESULTS: COVID-19 mAb was administered to 7406 patients. Hospitalization within 28 days of positive SARS-CoV-2 test occurred in 258 (3.5%) of all patients who received mAb treatment. Ten patients (0.1%) died within 28 days, and all but one were hospitalized prior to death. Characteristics associated with treatment failure included having two or more comorbidities excluding obesity and immunocompromised status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.56), lack of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.01-3.77), non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.20-3.82), obesity (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.36-2.34), one comorbidity (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.11-2.57), age ≥ 65 years (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.13-2.35), and male sex (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21-2.02). Immunocompromised status (none, mild, or moderate/severe), pandemic phase, and type of mAb received were not associated with treatment failure (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities, lack of prior SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, obesity, age ≥ 65 years, and male sex are associated with treatment failure of mAbs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Outpatients , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Obesity , Treatment Failure , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
2.
Life (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099641

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and the cause of the pandemic is extremely contagious among people and has spread around the world. Antivirals, immunomodulators, and other medications, such as antibiotics, stem cells, and plasma therapy, have all been utilized in the treatment of COVID-19. To better understand the clinical efficacy of these agents and to aid in the selection of effective COVID-19 therapies in various countries, this study reviewed the effectiveness of the various pharmacologic agents that have been used for COVID-19 therapy globally by summarizing the clinical outcomes that have been obtained from the clinical trials published on each drug related to COVID-19 infection. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the use of remdesivir, paxlovid, molnupiravir, baricitinib, tixagevimab-cilgavimab, and bebtelovimab for the management of COVID-19. On the other hand, most research advises against using chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 patients because they are not beneficial. Although the FDA has given emergency use authorization for some monoclonal antibodies, including bamlanivimab, etesevimab, casirivimab, and imdevimab for managing COVID-19, they are not currently approved for use because the Omicron variant has significantly reduced their in vitro susceptibility. In this study, we also included a wide range of alternative therapy strategies that effectively treat COVID-19 patients, although further randomized studies are necessary to support and assess their applicability.

3.
International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making ; : 1-72, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098018

ABSTRACT

Context: When the epidemic first broke out, no specific treatment was available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The urgent need to end this unusual situation has resulted in many attempts to deal with SARS-CoV-2. In addition to several types of vaccinations that have been created, anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have added a new dimension to preventative and treatment efforts. This therapy also helps prevent severe symptoms for those at a high risk. Therefore, this is one of the most promising treatments for mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 cases. However, the availability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAb therapy is limited and leads to two main challenges. The first is the privacy challenge of selecting eligible patients from the distribution hospital networking, which requires data sharing, and the second is the prioritization of all eligible patients amongst the distribution hospitals according to dose availability. To our knowledge, no research combined the federated fundamental approach with multicriteria decision-making methods for the treatment of SARS-COV-2, indicating a research gap. Objective: This paper presents a unique sequence processing methodology that distributes anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs to eligible high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 based on medical requirements by using a novel federated decision-making distributor. Method: This paper proposes a novel federated decision-making distributor (FDMD) of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs for eligible high-risk patients. FDMD is implemented on augmented data of 49,152 cases of patients with SARS-CoV-2 with mild and moderate symptoms. For proof of concept, three hospitals with 16 patients each are enrolled. The proposed FDMD is constructed from the two sides of claim sequencing: central federated server (CFS) and local machine (LM). The CFS includes five sequential phases synchronised with the LMs, namely, the preliminary criteria setting phase that determines the high-risk criteria, calculates their weights using the newly formulated interval-valued spherical fuzzy and hesitant 2-tuple fuzzy-weighted zero-inconsistency (IVSH2-FWZIC), and allocates their values. The subsequent phases are federation, dose availability confirmation, global prioritization of eligible patients and alerting the hospitals with the patients most eligible for receiving the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs according to dose availability. The LM independently performs all local prioritization processes without sharing patients' data using the provided criteria settings and federated parameters from the CFS via the proposed Federated TOPSIS (F-TOPSIS). The sequential processing steps are coherently performed at both sides. Results and Discussion: (1) The proposed FDMD efficiently and independently identifies the high-risk patients most eligible for receiving anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs at each local distribution hospital. The final decision at the CFS relies on the indexed patients' score and dose availability without sharing the patients' data. (2) The IVSH2-FWZIC effectively weighs the high-risk criteria of patients with SARS-CoV-2. (3) The local and global prioritization ranks of the F-TOPSIS for eligible patients are subjected to a systematic ranking validated by high correlation results across nine scenarios by altering the weights of the criteria. (4) A comparative analysis of the experimental results with a prior study confirms the effectiveness of the proposed FDMD. Conclusion: The proposed FDMD has the benefits of centrally distributing anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs to high-risk patients prioritized based on their eligibility and dose availability, and simultaneously protecting their privacy and offering an effective cure to prevent progression to severe SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization or death.

4.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094586

ABSTRACT

A patient with immunodeficiency due to a B-cell lymphoma has repeatedly been tested positive for SARS-CoV­2 during the ongoing SARS-CoV­2 pandemic and has twice received in-hospital treatment. Chronic and recurrent SARS-CoV­2 infections are a threat to the individual health of immunodeficient patients. Only few therapeutic options are available especially due to emerging virus variants with immune escape mechanisms. The medical care of immunodeficient patients with SARS-CoV­2 infections is a great challenge to the treating physician in the ongoing pandemic.

5.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 675-682, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is an effective method of etiotropic therapy for SARS-CoV-2 in patients of high-risk groups of severe COVID-19. Regdanvimab is a single-component monoclonal antibodies immunoglobulin G1, whose mechanism of action is aimed at binding SARS-CoV-2 virus at the RBD site of the spike protein S1 domain. In the Russian Federation, regdanvimab is approved for emergency administration in COVID-19 for adult patients not requiring respiratory therapy who are at high risk of developing a severe course of the disease. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapy with regdanvimab in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in a short-term hospital unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virus-neutralizing therapy with regdanvimab was performed at the short-term hospital unit of the Moscow City Clinic. An open retrospective observational single-center study included 92 adult patients with mild/moderate coronavirus infection. All patients had comorbid chronic diseases and belonged to the high-risk group for the development of a severe COVID-19. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age 18 to 75 years; presence of a verified diagnosis of COVID-19 of mild/moderate COVID-19, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed; one or more chronic diseases; first 7 days from the onset of the first symptoms of COVID-19 (including day 7). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: need for oxygen support. Clinical efficacy was assessed according to the World Health Organization Сlinical Progression Scale and supplemented with laboratory markers at baseline and in dynamics, as well as with monitoring of virus elimination by PCR. STATISTICS: Calculations were performed using the statistical computing environment R 4.1.3 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Austria). For quantitative indices the median (1; 3 quartiles) was indicated. For binomial signs we calculated 95% confidence intervals according to Wilson's method. Time interval analysis was performed according to the KaplanMeier method. The significance level was determined at p0.05. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the severity of clinical manifestations according to the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale was noted by patients by day 4 after regdanvimab administration. All 92 patients in the cohort were discharged from the hospital l on average on day 5 after regdanvimab administration and on day 9 of the disease. On day 4 after drug administration 82% of patients was being PCR negative. No adverse events related to the administration of regdanvimab were reported during the study. CONCLUSION: In real clinical practice, the efficacy and safety of regdanvimab in patients at high risk of severe COVID-19 was confirmed once again, with a positive clinical result observed in a mixed cohort by the causative agent omicron and delta strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Time Factors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Oxygen
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090384

ABSTRACT

The current century has witnessed infections of pandemic proportions caused by Coronaviruses (CoV) including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related CoV (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related CoV (MERS-CoV) and the recently identified SARS-CoV2. Significantly, the SARS-CoV2 outbreak, declared a pandemic in early 2020, has wreaked devastation and imposed intense pressure on medical establishments world-wide in a short time period by spreading at a rapid pace, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, there is a compelling need to combat and contain the CoV infections. The current review addresses the unique features of the molecular virology of major Coronaviruses that may be tractable towards antiviral targeting and design of novel preventative and therapeutic intervention strategies. Plant-derived vaccines, in particular oral vaccines, afford safer, effectual and low-cost avenues to develop antivirals and fast response vaccines, requiring minimal infrastructure and trained personnel for vaccine administration in developing countries. This review article discusses recent developments in the generation of plant-based vaccines, therapeutic/drug molecules, monoclonal antibodies and phytochemicals to preclude and combat infections caused by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Efficacious plant-derived antivirals could contribute significantly to combating emerging and re-emerging pathogenic CoV infections and help stem the tide of any future pandemics.

7.
Future Virol ; 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089662

ABSTRACT

Aim: Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein have dramatically changed the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the virus. Therefore, we studied the binding affinity of Omicron spike-receptor binding domain (S-RBD) with human ACE2 receptor. Materials & methods: We used pyDockWEB and HADDOCK 2.4 docking for our study. Results: Computational docking indicated higher binding affinity of Omicron S-RBD as compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and Delta S-RBD with ACE2. Interface analysis suggested four mutated residues of Omicron S-RBD for its enhanced binding. We also showed decreased binding affinity of Omicron and Delta S-RBDs with monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion: Compared with wild-type SARS-CoV-2, Omicron S-RBD exhibit higher binding with ACE2 and lower affinity against monoclonal antibodies.

8.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 18(1): 91, 2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first reported case of COVID-19, infections due to the virus have ranged from mild to severe. Patients with inborn errors of immunity are thought to be at increased risk for infections such as COVID-19 due to the nature of their disease and being immunocompromised. Similarly, pregnant women by nature of physiological changes in immunity are susceptible to infections and consequently are felt to be at greater risk of contracting COVID-19 with potential grave consequences for not only the mother but also the fetus. Early treatment with novel therapeutics against the SARS-CoV-2 virus to prevent progression and these complications is paramount. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old woman with a 22-year history of common variable immunodeficiency on subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy and 24 weeks pregnant with her third child presented to the Emergency Department with two-day history of pharyngitis that progressed to include nasal and chest congestion, non-productive cough and shortness of breath. Her vitals indicated temperature of 35 degrees Celsius, heart rate of 109 beats per minute, blood pressure 142/92 mmHg, respiratory rate 22/min and an oxygen saturation of 99% on room air. A workup was done and she was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 virus confirmed by PCR. She had a close contact, her husband, who had tested positive a few days prior. She had been previously vaccinated with three doses of the Moderna COVID-19 (Spikevax ®) vaccine. As she met the criteria for monoclonal antibody treatment, she received Sotrovimab on the same day of testing positive and tolerated it well with no side-effects. Her symptoms resolved within two to three days. CONCLUSION: Our case, is the first to our knowledge, of a pregnant patient with common variable immunodeficiency diagnosed with COVID-19 and symptomatic successfully receiving treatment with Sotrovimab. Her rapid resolution of symptoms makes the use of monoclonal antibodies such as Sotrovimab a safe and useful option in this unique population.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 793, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antivirals have been approved for early therapy of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), however, in the real-life setting, there are difficulties to prescribe these therapies within few days from symptom onset as recommended, and effectiveness of combined use of these drugs have been hypothesised in most-at-risk patients (such as those immunocompromised) but data supporting this strategy are limited. METHODS: We describe the real-life experience of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals and/or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and focus on the hospitalisation rate due to the progression of COVID-19. Clinical results obtained through our risk-stratification algorithm and benefits achieved through a strategic proximity territorial centre are provided. We also report a case series with an in-depth evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 genome in relationship with treatment strategy and clinical evolution of patients. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-eight patients were analysed; 94/288 (32.6%) patients were treated with mAb monotherapy, 171/288 (59.4%) patients were treated with antivirals, and 23/288 (8%) patients received both mAbs and one antiviral drug. Haematological malignancies were more frequent in patients treated with combination therapy than in the other groups (p = 0.0003). There was a substantial increase in the number of treated patients since the opening of the centre dedicated to early therapies for COVID-19. The provided disease-management and treatment appeared to be effective since 98.6% patients recovered without hospital admission. Moreover, combination therapy with mAbs and antivirals seemed successful because all patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 did not receive such therapies, while none of the most-at-risk patients treated with combination therapy were hospitalized or reported adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: A low rate of COVID-19 progression requiring hospital admission was observed in patients included in this study. The dedicated COVID-19 proximity territorial service appeared to strengthen the regional sanitary system, avoiding the overwhelming of other services. Importantly, our results also support early combination therapy: it is possible that this strategy reduces the emergence of escape mutants of SARS-CoV-2, thereby increasing efficacy of early treatment, especially in immunocompromised individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Secondary Prevention , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
10.
mBio ; : e0169922, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078712

ABSTRACT

We conducted a post hoc analysis in seropositive patients who were negative or borderline for functional neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at baseline from a phase 1, 2, and 3 trial of casirivimab and imdevimab (CAS+IMD) treatment in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients on low-flow or no supplemental oxygen prior to the emergence of Omicron-lineage variants. Patients were randomized to a single dose of 2.4 g CAS+IMD, 8.0 g CAS+IMD, or placebo. Patients seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at baseline were analyzed by their baseline neutralizing antibody status. At baseline, 20.6% (178/864) of seropositive patients were negative or borderline for neutralizing antibodies, indicating negative or very low functionally neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. CAS+IMD reduced viral load in patients who were negative or borderline for neutralizing antibodies versus placebo, but not in patients who were positive for neutralizing antibodies. In patients who were negative or borderline for neutralizing antibodies, we observed a trend in reduction of the proportion of patients who died or required mechanical ventilation, as well as in all-cause mortality, by day 29 with CAS+IMD versus placebo. The proportions of patients who died or required mechanical ventilation from days 1 to 29 were 19.1% in the placebo group and 10.9% in the CAS+IMD combined-dose group, and the proportions of patients who died (all-cause mortality) from days 1 to 29 were 16.2% in the placebo group and 9.1% in the CAS+IMD combined-dose group. In patients who were positive for neutralizing antibodies, no measurable harm or benefit was observed in either the proportion of patients who died or required mechanical ventilation or the proportion of patients who died (all-cause mortality). In hospitalized COVID-19 patients on low-flow or no supplemental oxygen, CAS+IMD reduced viral load, the risk of death or mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality in seropositive patients who were negative or borderline for neutralizing antibodies. IMPORTANCE The clinical benefit of CAS+IMD in hospitalized seronegative patients with COVID-19 has previously been demonstrated, although these studies observed no clinical benefit in seropositive patients. As the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-seropositive individuals rises due to both vaccination and previous infection, it is important to understand whether there is a subset of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 who could benefit from anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody treatment. This post hoc analysis demonstrates that there is a subset of hospitalized seropositive patients with inadequate SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (i.e., those who were negative or borderline for neutralizing antibodies) who may still benefit from CAS+IMD treatment if infected with a susceptible SARS-CoV-2 variant. Therefore, utilizing serostatus alone to guide treatment decisions for patients with COVID-19 may fail to identify those seropositive patients who could benefit from anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody therapies known to be effective against circulating strains, dependent upon how effectively their endogenous antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077606

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: In an effort to expedite the publication of articles, AJHP is posting manuscripts online as soon as possible after acceptance. Accepted manuscripts have been peer-reviewed and copyedited, but are posted online before technical formatting and author proofing. These manuscripts are not the final version of record and will be replaced with the final article (formatted per AJHP style and proofed by the authors) at a later time. PURPOSE: To evaluate the success of a clinic for subcutaneous administration of casirivmab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV; Regeneron) for treatment of patients with symptomatic mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in terms of preventing disease progression and healthcare utilization. METHODS: This retrospective single-center, propensity-matched cohort study examined healthcare utilization outcomes for patients who received subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab at a pharmacist-led clinic of an academic health system. Eligible patients were treated between August 1, 2021, and January 5, 2022, and were at high risk for COVID-19 disease progression. Treatment patients were propensity matched with high-risk control patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in the same timeframe who did not receive casirivimab and imdevimab. Patients were followed for 30 days for collection of data on inpatient admissions, emergency department visits, and mortality. Risk of a 30-day healthcare utilization event was assessed and tested for statistical significance utilizing McNemar's test. RESULTS: A total of 585 patients who received treatment with subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab were matched with 585 patients who did not receive casirivimab and imdevimab therapy. Patients who received casirivimab and imdevimab had significantly lower risk of a 30-day all-cause inpatient admission event than untreated patients (relative risk reduction, 61.2%; P < 0.0001). Treated patients also had a significantly lower risk of 30-day all-cause emergency department visit than untreated subjects (relative risk reduction, 36.6%; P = 0.0021). There were 6 mortality events in the untreated group and no mortality events in the treatment group. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of a subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab clinic in preventing progression of symptomatic mild to moderate COVID-19.

12.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2133666, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077521

ABSTRACT

The intense international focus on the COVID-19 pandemic has provided a unique opportunity to use a wide array of novel tools to carry out scientific studies on the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The value of these comparative studies extends far beyond their consequences for SARS-CoV-2, providing broad implications for health-related science. Here we specifically discuss the impacts of these comparisons on advances in vaccines, the analysis of host humoral immunity, and antibody discovery. As an extension, we also discuss potential synergies between these areas.Abbreviations: CoVIC: The Coronavirus Immunotherapeutic Consortium; EUA: Emergency Use Authorization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 71(3): 171-174, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072922

ABSTRACT

This study describes a cohort of 223 patients who received anti-S protein monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for COVID-19 after having met the indication criteria set by the national guidelines in the Czech Republic at the time. The authors compare the vaccinated and unvaccinated subpopulations of this cohort. The results show that most of the patients (73.5%) already had significant circulating levels of anti-S antibodies detectable at the time of treatment. The authors confirm a positive correlation between number of vaccine doses and S-protein antibody levels. The data show, that vaccinated patients are overall less likely to be hospitalized than unvaccinated ones. The authors recommend a change in the national guidelines for mAb treatment in the Czech Republic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29247, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072204

ABSTRACT

Objective There have been many efforts to research and produce treatment modalities for COVID-19. Monoclonal antibodies have been one of the effective treatments since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under emergency use authorization (EUA) in 2020. This study surveyed COVID-19 patients about their disease course and experience with monoclonal antibody treatment. Methods Patients who received monoclonal antibody treatment between February 12, 2021, and June 2, 2021, at a South Florida community hospital were enrolled in the study. This included patients over 18 years of age with a confirmed positive COVID-19 test result, with mild to moderate symptoms within 10 days of onset and identified as high risk for progression to severe disease. There were no exclusion criteria. After 30 days, patients were followed up via a structured telephone survey regarding subsequent emergency department (ED) visits for worsening COVID-19 symptoms, need for oxygenation, intubation, and death. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects and patient perceptions. Results Among the 119 patients who received monoclonal antibodies during the established time frame, 93 (78.1%) consented to participate in the telephone survey. Of these, 11.8% had a subsequent visit to the ED for worsening COVID-19 symptoms, 6.5% required oxygen, and 2.2% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). There were no reported intubations or deaths. The vast majority (91.4%) would recommend monoclonal antibody treatment to others. Conclusion Patients who received monoclonal antibody therapy had low rates of subsequent ED visits and rarely required oxygen or ICU admission. The majority of patients would recommend treatment with monoclonal antibodies to others.

15.
BMJ Military Health ; 168(5):e1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064144

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCombination monoclonal antibody therapy has recently been approved for prevention and treatment of severe COVID-19 infection in the UK. Available data suggests benefit is limited to those yet to mount an effective immune response from natural infection or vaccination, but concern exists around ability to make timely assessment of immune status of community-based patients.MethodsHealthcare workers were invited to undergo paired laboratory-based and rapid point-of- care (POC) lateral flow anti-spike antibody testing. Three commercial POC tests were selected to represent currently available testing methods: a split IgM/IgG anti-spike antibody test, an anti-receptor binding domain total antibody test and an anti-spike neutralisation assay. Qualitative POC colourmetric band intensities were independently scored and correlated with quantitative IgG neutralising antibody titres (Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Quant II chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay [CMIA]). CMIA titres were correlated with the World Health Organisation international reference standard for neutralising antibody. Negative controls were carried out using 2018 pre-pandemic sera and post-pandemic individuals with negative CMIA results (target population).Results190 individuals (median 40 years, IQR 29-49;76.2% female) underwent paired testing, with a further 40 pre-pandemic sera tested. Assays demonstrated high performance characteristics: split IgM/IgG assay sensitivity 96.2% (95%CI 92.4.5–98.5), specificity 100.0% (95%CI 91.8–100.0);anti-receptor binding domain total antibody assay sensitivity 100.0% (95%CI 95.5–100.0), specificity 100.0% (95%CI 69.2–100.0). The neutralising antibody assay had a specificity of 97.0% (95%CI 84.2–99.9%) and strongly correlated with neutralising antibody titre (p<0.001). Probability for matched paired results was significant (McNemar’s p<0.001) while band intensity correlated strongly with neutralising titres (p<0.0001). Positive and negative predictive values for total antibody and neutralising assays were both >99%.ConclusionsPOC assays were found to be reliable predictors of both antibody status and broadly of neutralising antibody titre. Anti-S POC assays have potential to act as suitable alternatives for rapid identification of community patient immune status at presentation.

16.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(10): ofac411, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062946

ABSTRACT

Background: Antispike monoclonal antibodies are recommended for early treatment of high-risk persons with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, clinical outcomes of their use during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron wave are limited. Methods: This is a descriptive retrospective study of high-risk adult patients who received treatment with sotrovimab (January 1-March 20, 2022) or bebtelovimab (March 21-April 30, 2022). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who progressed to severe outcome within 30 days after receiving antispike-neutralizing monoclonal antibody infusion. Results: A total of 3872 high-risk patients (median age, 62.7 years; 41.1% male) with mild to moderate COVID-19 received sotrovimab (n = 2182) or bebtelovimab (n = 1690). Among sotrovimab-treated patients, the most common comorbidities were an immunosuppressed condition (46.7%), hypertension (38.2%), and diabetes (21.2%). The rates of severe outcome, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality were 2.2%, 1.0%, and 0.4%, respectively, after sotrovimab infusion. Among bebtelovimab-treated patients, the most common comorbidities were hypertension (42.7%), diabetes (17.1%), and an immunosuppressed condition (17.0%). The rates of severe disease, ICU admission, and mortality were 1.3%, 0.5%, and 0.2%, respectively, after bebtelovimab infusion. Older age, immunosuppressed status, and several comorbidities were associated with severe disease progression, while COVID-19 vaccination was associated with lower risk. No anaphylaxis was reported during monoclonal antibody infusion. Conclusions: This real-world analysis of a large cohort of high-risk patients demonstrates low rates of severe disease after treatment with sotrovimab during the era dominated by Omicron B.1.1.529 and after treatment with bebtelovimab during the era dominated by BA.2 and Omicron subvariants.

17.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(12): 1529-1535, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062698

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been authorized for the treatment of COVID-19 in pediatric populations, however, there is a lack of evidence for their use in these populations. AREAS COVERED: We outline the evidence of mAbs for COVID-19, discuss their use in the treatment of COVID-19 infection for pediatric patients, and consider alternative treatment options and challenges to COVID-19 drug approvals. EXPERT OPINION: Limited evidence exists for the safety and efficacy of mAbs to treat COVID-19 in children as new variants emerge. In rare pediatric outpatient settings, such as profound immunodeficiency or severe pulmonary disease, the benefits of antiviral treatment for COVID-19 likely outweigh the relatively small risks. However, for the great majority of pediatric patients, mAb treatment is likely not indicated. Small molecule antiviral therapies are another potential treatment for COVID-19 in children in an outpatient setting, though neither mAb nor small molecule antiviral treatments have significant supporting evidence in children and developing a strong evidence base for these decisions will be challenging if not impractical. Ultimately, these decisions are likely to be made at the level of individual cases using expert opinion as the primary guiding principle.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Clinical Medicine ; 22(5):468-474, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2056338

ABSTRACT

While vaccines against COVID-19 are being rolled out, an ongoing need remains for therapies to treat patients who have symptomatic COVID-19 before vaccination or in whom breakthrough infection develops. Dexamethasone and interleukin-6 inhibitors have been the mainstay of treatment for severe to critical COVID-19 requiring hospitalisation. However, in the previous few months, several therapies have been approved in the UK for hospitalised and n on-hospitalised patients with COVID-19. In particular, the development of neutralising monoclonal antibodies and novel antivirals represents a welcome expansion in the armamentarium against COVID-19, not only therapeutically to reduce mortality but also because they can be used in mild or moderate disease to prevent hospitalisation. This update is based on guidance from NHS England as well as the World Health Organization, and provides practical support and guidance to all clinicians involved or interested in the management of COVID-19 patients, whether based in community, outpatient or inpatient settings. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Medicine is the property of Royal College of Physicians and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
Indian Journal of Rheumatology ; 17(3):300-305, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055743

ABSTRACT

The current report describes successful treatment of a rapidly progressive severe breakthrough COVID-19 in a female physician, a known case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). She received monoclonal antibody (Mab) combination cocktail (Casirivimab™ plus Imdevimab™) infusion on day 4 after the onset of symptoms. RA was in prolonged remission with tofacitinib. She had completed vaccination 6 weeks earlier and worked in a COVID hospital. Post infusion, there was substantial improvement, and she was discharged after 3 days. However, she required intermittent domiciliary oxygen for a fortnight. Fatigue and ageusia persisted for 5 weeks. Several Mabs were recently approved for emergency use in mild-to-moderate ambulant COVID-19 patients. Controlled drug trials confirmed excellent efficacy and safety. Selected data on clinical relevance and limitations are currently described. RA is susceptible to COVID-19, and some vaccines may be less effective. Intervention with Mabs ought to be judicious and timely. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.

20.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054717

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which originated in Wuhan, the Hubei region of China, has become a pandemic worldwide. It can transmit through droplets and enter via oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes. It consists of single-stranded RNA (positive-sense), nonstructural proteins including enzymes and transcriptional proteins, and structural proteins such as Spike, Membrane, Envelope, and Nucleocapsid -proteins. SARS-CoV-2 mediates S-proteins entry and exit via binding to host cell surface proteins like tetraspanins. The transmembrane tetraspanins, CD151, CD9, and tetraspanin 8 (TSPAN8), facilitate the entry of novel coronaviruses by scaffolding host cell receptors and proteases. Also, CD151 was reported to increase airway hyperresponsiveness to calcium and nuclear viral export signaling. They may facilitate entry and exit by activating the serine proteases required to prime S-proteins in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). This article updates recent advances in structural proteins, their epitopes and putative receptors, and their regulation by proteases associated with TEMs. This review furnishes recent updates on the role of CD151 in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2. We describe the role of CD151 in a possible mechanism of entry and exit in the airway, a major site for infection of SARS-CoV-2. We also updated current knowledge on the role of CD9 and TSPAN 8 in the entry and exit mechanism of coronaviruses. Finally, we discussed the importance of some small molecules which target CD151 as possible targeted therapeutics for COVID-19. In conclusion, this study could identify new targets and specific therapeutics to control emerging virus infections.

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