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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9):e067393, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2029508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity, and is performed yearly in over 8000 patients in Canada. Over 50% of those who live with obesity also have a history of mental health disorder. The COVID-19 pandemic has made it difficult for people living with obesity to manage their weight even after undergoing bariatric surgery, which combined with pandemic-related increases in mental health distress, has the potential to adversely impact obesity outcomes such as weight loss and quality of life. Reviews of virtual mental health interventions during COVID-19 have not identified any interventions that specifically address psychological distress or disordered eating in patients with obesity, including those who have had bariatric surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 140 patients across four Ontario Bariatric Centres of Excellence to examine the efficacy of a telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy intervention versus a control intervention (online COVID-19 self-help resources) in postoperative bariatric patients experiencing disordered eating and/or psychological distress. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to either group. Changes in the Binge Eating Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale will be examined between groups across time (primary outcomes). Qualitative exit interviews will be conducted, and data will be used to inform future adaptations of the intervention to meet patients' diverse needs during and post-pandemic. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received ethics approvals from the following: Clinical Trials Ontario (3957) and the University Health Network Research Ethics Committee (22-5145), the Board of Record. All participants will provide written informed consent prior to enrolling in the study. Results will be made available to patients with bariatric surgery, the funders, the supporting organisations and other researchers via publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05258578.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020045

ABSTRACT

IntroductionEsketamine is the S-enantiomer of racemic ketamine and has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of treatment resistant depression, demonstrating effective and long-lasting benefits. The objective of this observational study is to elucidate the association of intranasal (IN) esketamine with beneficial and negative outcomes in the management of treatment resistant major depressive disorder.Methods and analysisThis is a multicentre prospective cohort observational study of naturalistic clinical practice. We expect to recruit 10 patients per research centre (6 centres, total 60 subjects). After approval to receive IN esketamine as part of their standard of care management of moderate to severe treatment resistant depression, patients will be invited to participate in this study. Association of esketamine treatment with outcomes in the management of depression will be assessed by measuring the severity of depression symptoms using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and tolerability by systematically tracking common side effects of ketamine treatment, dissociation using the simplified 6-Item Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptom Scale and potential for abuse using the Likeability and Craving Questionnaire (LCQ). Change in depressive symptoms (MADRS total scores) over time will be evaluated by within-subject repeated measures analysis of variance. We will calculate the relative risk associated with the beneficial (reduction in total scores for depression) outcomes, and the side effect and dropout rates (tolerability) of adding IN esketamine to patients’ current pharmacological treatments. Covariate analysis will assess the impact of site and demographic variables on treatment outcomes.Ethics and disseminationApproval to perform this study was obtained through the Health Sciences Research Ethics Board at Queen’s University. Findings will be shared among collaborators, through departmental meetings, presented on different academic venues and publishing our manuscript.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020027

ABSTRACT

IntroductionPostpartum depression and anxiety (PPDA) is experienced by up to 20% of families in the first year. The condition impacts not only parents but also their developing child. While mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) have shown to be beneficial for this population, many parents do not have access to treatment or find it challenging to commit or complete the treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened some of the challenges that parents face. The ability to find time for needed self-care and health interventions is also affected by limited childcare support. The opportunity to attend a group online may significantly improve the accessibility to group MBI but may also bring challenges. This study aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of online MBI groups for parents in families affected with PPDA.Methods and analysisIn this feasibility study, participants will include mothers diagnosed with PPDA and their partners. Two online MBI groups will run simultaneously for 8 weeks: one for mothers with PPDA and another one for their partners. The primary outcome will be feasibility of conducting the online groups, assessed from the facilitators’ perspective, participants’ perspective and attrition throughout the study. The participants’ perspectives on feasibility will be assessed by questions including how difficult it was for them to make it to the sessions, specific obstacles encountered and their scheduling preferences. The facilitators’ perspective will be assessed by frequency of technical difficulties encountered, of disruptions in the online sessions and of episodes where parents leave the screen (eg, to calm their child). Secondary outcomes will include mental health, couple relationship, satisfaction and acceptability which will also be evaluated through participant questionnaires.Ethics and disseminationThe study has received ethics approval from the University of British Columbia Children’s and Women’s Research Ethics Board. Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences.Trial registration numberNCT04617132.

4.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990625

ABSTRACT

Severe mental disorders have been associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the vaccination campaign against COVID-19 after 1 year using exhaustive population-based data. In this nationwide population-based study, we used data from the French national medico-administrative database (SNDS) and the COVID Vaccine teleservice from January 4, 2021 (date of activation of the teleservice) to January 30th, 2022. As of January 30th, 2022, the rate of first injection in France was 80.2% (54 million people) and the rate of booster vaccination was 78.3% (52.7 million people). Except for opioid use disorder, all individuals with chronic illnesses or risk factors for poor COVID-19 outcome (e.g., smoking and obesity) had higher rates of vaccination than the general population (from 83.4 to 94.5% vs. 78.3%). However, the four diseases ranking last for both initial and booster vaccinations were mental disorders: alcohol use disorders (86 and 84.3%), neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders (85.3 and 83.7%), schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (85 and 83.4%) and opioid use disorders (72.9 and 69.4%). Except for opioid disorders, all patients with mental disorders had higher rates of vaccination compared to the general population. However, these rates were lower than other chronic diseases at risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes. Vaccination campaigns must redouble their efforts to improve vaccination penetration in patients with mental disorders.

5.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in mental ill health compared with prepandemic levels. Longer-term trajectories of depression in adults during the pandemic remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We used latent growth curve modelling to examine individual trajectories of depression symptoms, and their predictors, beyond the early stage of the pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected in three waves in May 2020, September/October 2020 and February/March 2021 in four UK cohorts (Millennium Cohort Study, Next Steps cohort, British Cohort and National Child Development Study). We included n=16 978 participants (mean age at baseline: 20, 30, 50 and 62, respectively). Self-reported depressive symptoms were the study outcome. FINDINGS: Symptoms of depression were higher in younger compared with older age groups (d=0.7) across all waves. While depressive symptoms remained stable from May 2020 to Autumn 2020 overall (standardized mean difference (SMD)=0.03, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.04), they increased in all age groups from May 2020 to Spring 2021 (SMD=0.12, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.13). Feelings of loneliness were the strongest predictor and concurrent correlate of increasing depressive symptoms across all cohorts, prepandemic mental health problems and having a long-term illness were also significantly associated with an increase in depression symptoms across all ages. By contrast, compliance with social distancing measures did not predict an increase in depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Feeling lonely and isolated had a large effect on depression trajectories across all generations, while social distancing measures did not. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: These findings highlight the importance of fostering the feeling of connectedness during COVID-19-related distancing measures.

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e057197, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962241

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety and stress) and associated factors among healthcare professionals working at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Institution-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: This study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants were healthcare professionals from University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. They were selected for the study using a stratified sampling technique. MEASUREMENT: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to assess the depression, anxiety and stress levels. Descriptive and analytical statistics were used to present the findings. To determine the predictor variables for depression, anxiety and stress, a binary logistic regression model was fitted. Finally, variables with p value <0.05 in the final model were declared as significantly associated with psychological distress. RESULT: Almost half (49.5) of the participants have psychological distress. The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers was 167 (42.7%), 201 (51.4%) and 242 (61.9%), respectively. In multivariable analysis, respondents found in the ages between 35 and 44; unmarried marital status; educational status with specialty, subspecialty and PhD holders; anaesthesia professionals; and healthcare professionals with known medical illness were significantly associated with depression. Unmarried marital status, anaesthesia professional, laboratory technologist and living with family were significantly associated with anxiety. Unmarried marital status; educational status with specialty, subspecialty and PhD holders; and anaesthesia professional were also statistically significant with stress. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic among the Gondar University healthcare professionals was high. This could contribute to implementation of mitigation measures in a standardised and sustainable manner and emphasis should be given to this aspect of health even for future similar and unanticipated events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e052554, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962189

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is often associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the association of risk factors with GDM diagnosis, maternal and neonatal health outcomes is less established when compared with women without GDM. We aim to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the conventional and novel risk factors for a GDM diagnosis and their impact on maternal and neonatal health outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This retrospective cohort and nested case-control study at six public health clinics is based on medical records and questionnaire survey of women between 2 and 12 months postpartum. The estimated required sample size is 876 complete records (292 cases, 584 control, at a ratio of 1:2). Oral glucose tolerance test results will be used to identify glucose dysregulation, and maternal and neonatal outcomes include maternal weight gain, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, mode of delivery, preterm or postdate birth, complications in labour, birth weight, gestational age at birth, Apgar score, congenital anomaly, congenital hypothyroidism, neonatal death or stillbirth, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Psychosocial measures include the WHO Quality of Life: brief, mother-infant bonding (14-item Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and 19-item Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale), anxiety (7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder), depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale symptoms) questionnaires. The comparative incidences of maternal and neonatal health outcomes, the comparative prevalence of the psychosocial outcomes between women with GDM and without GDM, specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of the risk factors, separately and combined, will be reported. All GDM risk factors and outcomes will be modelled using multivariable regression analysis and the receiver operating characteristics curve will be reported. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Malaysia Research and Ethics Committee, Ministry of Health Malaysia. Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. Findings will be submitted for publications in scientific journals.


Subject(s)
Diabetes, Gestational , Case-Control Studies , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055333, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women remains a major global public health problem with harmful consequences for individuals and society. People's lifestyles have been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the prevalence of and relationship between IPV and anxiety and depression in pregnant Chinese women during the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This investigation was conducted in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China from 15 September to 15 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3434 pregnant women were screened with the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire to evaluate IPV and General Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Pregnant women with perinatal health records at Shenzhen District Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospitals who consented to participate were enrolled. Women with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania or substance dependence and pregnant women who refused to participate were excluded. Data were analysed with the χ2 test and by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women was 2.2%. Mental violence was the most common type of violence (2.2%), followed by physical (0.6%) and sexual (0.7%) violence. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 9.8% and 6.9%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, there was a statistically significant association between IPV and prenatal anxiety (OR=4.207, 95% CI: 2.469 to 7.166) and depression (OR=3.864, 95% CI: 2.095 to 7.125). CONCLUSIONS: IPV increased the risk of prenatal anxiety and depression in pregnant women in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts should be made by the government and civil society to promote long-lasting antenatal interventions to ensure the safety and protect the mental health of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
9.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews suggest school-based mindfulness training (SBMT) shows promise in promoting student mental health. OBJECTIVE: The My Resilience in Adolescence (MYRIAD) Trial evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SBMT compared with teaching-as-usual (TAU). METHODS: MYRIAD was a parallel group, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Eighty-five eligible schools consented and were randomised 1:1 to TAU (43 schools, 4232 students) or SBMT (42 schools, 4144 students), stratified by school size, quality, type, deprivation and region. Schools and students (mean (SD); age range=12.2 (0.6); 11-14 years) were broadly UK population-representative. Forty-three schools (n=3678 pupils; 86.9%) delivering SBMT, and 41 schools (n=3572; 86.2%) delivering TAU, provided primary end-point data. SBMT comprised 10 lessons of psychoeducation and mindfulness practices. TAU comprised standard social-emotional teaching. Participant-level risk for depression, social-emotional-behavioural functioning and well-being at 1 year follow-up were the co-primary outcomes. Secondary and economic outcomes were included. FINDINGS: Analysis of 84 schools (n=8376 participants) found no evidence that SBMT was superior to TAU at 1 year. Standardised mean differences (intervention minus control) were: 0.005 (95% CI -0.05 to 0.06) for risk for depression; 0.02 (-0.02 to 0.07) for social-emotional-behavioural functioning; and 0.02 (-0.03 to 0.07) for well-being. SBMT had a high probability of cost-effectiveness (83%) at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life year. No intervention-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings do not support the superiority of SBMT over TAU in promoting mental health in adolescence. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is need to ask what works, for whom and how, as well as considering key contextual and implementation factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN86619085. This research was funded by the Wellcome Trust (WT104908/Z/14/Z and WT107496/Z/15/Z).

10.
Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine ; 11(2):5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1928839

ABSTRACT

Depressive and anxious disorders could be experienced by children and adolescents worldwide and are associated with psychiatric syndromes diagnosed in adulthood. In this context, the COVID-19 outbreak and digital media arising use have worsened mental conditions in the pediatric population. Older adolescents, girls, and patients living with neurodiversity and/or chronic physical conditions are more likely to develop negative mental health outcomes. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) is a medicinal plant whose most biologically relevant components are two carotenoids (crocin and crocetin) and two apocarotenoids (picrocrocin and safranal). Crocin seems to inhibit the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, while safranal inhibits the serotonin reuptake;in vitro and in animal models, crocin also displayed neuroprotective abilities, increasing the intracellular levels of neurotrophic factors. Further studies are required to strengthen these results;however, multiple studies have already demonstrated significant positive effects of saffron on psychiatric disorders - including depression and anxiety in young patients. Saffron administration appears to reduce depression symptoms and to strengthen antidepressant effects of current drugs (fluoxetine), also lowering adverse events of these therapies. Consequently, saffron could have an important role as a complementary therapy for depressive and anxious disorders in children and teenagers.

11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e058669, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In India about 95% of individuals who need treatment for common mental disorders like depression, stress and anxiety and substance use are unable to access care. Stigma associated with help seeking and lack of trained mental health professionals are important barriers in accessing mental healthcare. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health integrates a community-level stigma reduction campaign and task sharing with the help of a mobile-enabled electronic decision support system (EDSS)-to reduce psychiatric morbidity due to stress, depression and self-harm in high-risk individuals. This paper presents and discusses the protocol for process evaluation of SMART Mental Health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The process evaluation will use mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate implementation fidelity and identify facilitators of and barriers to implementation of the intervention. Case studies of six intervention and two control clusters will be used. Quantitative data sources will include usage analytics extracted from the mHealth platform for the trial. Qualitative data sources will include focus group discussions and interviews with recruited participants, primary health centre doctors, community health workers (Accredited Social Health Activits) who participated in the project and local community leaders. The design and analysis will be guided by Medical Research Council framework for process evaluations, the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, and the normalisation process theory. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee of the George Institute for Global Health, India and the Institutional Ethics Committee, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Findings of the study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, stakeholder meetings, digital and social media platforms. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CTRI/2018/08/015355.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Community Health Workers , Humans , India , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Referral and Consultation
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e050417, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to family life, society and essential health and other services. A rapid review of evidence was conducted to examine emerging evidence on the effects of the pandemic on three components of nurturing care, including responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security. DESIGN: Two academic databases, organisational websites and reference lists were searched for original studies published between 1 January and 25 October 2020. A single reviewer completed the study selection and data extraction with verification by a second reviewer. INTERVENTIONS: We included studies with a complete methodology and reporting on quantitative or qualitative evidence related to nurturing care during the pandemic. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies reporting on outcomes related to responsive caregiving, early learning, and safety and security were included. RESULTS: The search yielded 4410 citations in total, and 112 studies from over 30 countries met our eligibility criteria. The early evidence base is weighted towards studies in high-income countries, studies related to caregiver mental health and those using quantitative survey designs. Studies reveal issues of concern related to increases in parent and caregiver stress and mental health difficulties during the pandemic, which was linked to harsher and less warm or responsive parenting in some studies. A relatively large number of studies examined child safety and security and indicate a reduction in maltreatment referrals. Lastly, studies suggest that fathers' engagement in caregiving increased during the early phase of the pandemic, children's outdoor play and physical activity decreased (while screen time increased), and emergency room visits for child injuries decreased. CONCLUSION: The results highlight key evidence gaps (ie, breastfeeding support and opportunities for early learning) and suggest the need for increased support and evidence-based interventions to ensure young children and other caregivers are supported and protected during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Pandemics , Parenting , Parents
13.
Journal of Personalized Medicine ; 12(5):686, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871940

ABSTRACT

Difficult asthma describes asthma in which comorbidities, inadequate treatment, suboptimal inhaler technique and/or poor adherence impede good asthma control. The association of anxiety and depression with difficult asthma outcomes (exacerbations, hospital admissions, asthma control, etc.) is unclear. This study assessed the clinical associations of anxiety and depression with difficult asthma outcomes in patients with a specialist diagnosis of difficult asthma. Using real-world data, we retrospectively phenotyped patients from the Wessex Asthma Cohort of Difficult Asthma (N = 441) using clinical diagnoses of anxiety and depression against those without anxiety or depression (controls). Additionally, we stratified patients by severity of psychological distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We found that depression and/or anxiety were reported in 43.1% of subjects and were associated with worse disease-related questionnaire scores. Each psychological comorbidity group showed differential associations with difficult asthma outcomes. Anxiety alone (7.9%) was associated with dysfunctional breathing and more hospitalisations [anxiety, median (IQR): 0 (2) vs. controls: 0 (0)], while depression alone (11.6%) was associated with obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea. The dual anxiety and depression group (23.6%) displayed multimorbidity, worse asthma outcomes, female predominance and earlier asthma onset. Worse HADS-A scores in patients with anxiety were associated with worse subjective outcomes (questionnaire scores), while worse HADS-D scores in patients with depression were associated with worse objective (ICU admissions and maintenance oral corticosteroid requirements) and subjective outcomes. In conclusion, anxiety and depression are common in difficult asthma but exert differential detrimental effects. Difficult asthma patients with dual anxiety and depression experience worse asthma outcomes alongside worse measures of psychological distress. There is a severity-gradient association of HADS scores with worse difficult asthma outcomes. Collectively, our findings highlight the need for holistic, multidisciplinary approaches that promote early identification and management of anxiety and depression in difficult asthma patients.

14.
Frontline Gastroenterology ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1865186

ABSTRACT

Mood disturbances such as anxiety and depression are common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and impact negatively on their quality of life and disease course. An integrated multidisciplinary IBD team, which includes access to psychology and psychiatry opinion, makes possible the prompt recognition and management of psychological disturbance in patients with IBD. Based on our experience and existing literature, including systematic reviews of the effectiveness of available treatment modalities, a stepwise approach to the maintenance and restoration of psychological well-being is recommended, evolving upwards from lifestyle advice, through behavioural therapies to pharmacotherapy.

15.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) has been widely used in low and middle-income countries. We reviewed literature describing interventions and training programmes beyond the mhGAP-IG, in primary healthcare (PHC) and community-based healthcare (CBH). DESIGN: We searched studies excluded from our updated mhGAP-IG systematic review, and included in other relevant systematic reviews, for evidence and experience of initiatives integrating mental health into PHC and CBH. Our 24 November 2020 mhGAP-IG search encompassed MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, ScieELO, Cochrane, PubMed databases, 3ie and Google Scholar. Although heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis, we descriptively summarised the evidence-base. RESULTS: Out of 1827 results, we identified 208 relevant records. They described randomised controlled trials of mental health interventions (98 studies, n=55 523 participants), non-randomised studies measuring clinical outcomes (22 studies, n=7405), training outcomes (36 studies, n=12 280) and implementation outcomes (21 studies, n=1090), plus descriptive accounts (18 studies, n=2526), baseline surveys and exploratory studies (6 studies, n=17 093) and commentaries (7 studies). Most (40%) were conducted in the African region, region of the Americas (16%), and South-East Asia (13%). Randomised and non-randomised studies reported improved symptoms, substance use, functioning, parenting and child outcomes. Non-randomised studies reported improved clinical knowledge, confidence and skills following training. CONCLUSIONS: The literature beyond the mhGAP-IG is extensive and shares common findings. Future priorities are less-studied regions, interventions for severe mental illness, exploring ways that mhGAP-IG and alternative approaches complement each other in different contexts and scaling-up mental health integration.PROSPERO registration numberCRD42017068459.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054821, 2022 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although mental health at work is a pressing and growing concern, mental healthcare accounts for less than 2% of global healthcare, with marked inequality across continents. Africa has the smallest proportion of mental health service providers, and the highest rate of out-of-pocket expenditure for mental health service users. Poor mental health at work results in costs to workers, employers and the economy. This review aims to collaborate with stakeholders to identify literature on workplace-based occupational therapy interventions supporting the mental health of workers in Africa. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search Medline (PubMed), EBSCOhost (Academic Search Premier, AfricaWide Information, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic), Scopus, Web of Science, Sabinet, Cochrane and OTSeeker for qualitative and quantitative primary research studies. Grey literature will be searched via Sabinet and ProQuest. No language or date restrictions will be applied. Title and abstract screening as well as full-text screening will be done independently by two reviewers. Data extracted will include information about the articles, characteristics of studies and interventions, and findings. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting results. Three groups of stakeholders will be consulted during the review process: service users/workers, employers and service providers/occupational therapists. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethics approval. Findings of the review will be disseminated through stakeholder engagements, peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services , Occupational Therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Occupational Therapists , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Workplace
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1849454

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThis study aimed to examine the prevalence of peritraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs), perceived threat, social support and factors contributing to clinically significant PTSS among frontline COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) in China.Design and settingAn online survey through self-administered questionnaires was conducted from 18 February to 4 March 2020, during the outbreak of COVID-19.Outcomes measuresPTSS was assessed using the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) self-rating scale. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, self-reported health, physical/psychological symptoms, perceived threat from frontline work and perceived social support were investigated. Multivariable line regression analysis distinguished factors associated with HCWs’ PTSS scores.ResultsA total of 676 (58.1%) HCWs have shown clinically significant high levels of PTSS. Only 441 (37.9%) self-reported good health. Most had physical symptom(s) (915 (78.7%)), psychological symptom(s) (906 (77.9%)), inability to vent emotions (284 (24.4%)), emotional exhaustion (666 (57.3%)) and 1037 (89.2%) needed professional respect. Moreover, social support received was less than expected, and the receipt of psychological services/help scored the lowest (3.11±1.73). Combined psychological and physical symptoms, difficulty in releasing tension and venting emotions timely, fear of infection, emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are significantly associated with PTSS scores among frontline HCWs. Working ≥8 hours, having the senior professional title, self-reported health, enjoying perfect protection and control measures, economic subsidy and control policy on reducing discriminatory practices are negatively correlated with PTSS scores.ConclusionsDuring the outbreak of COVID-19, frontline HCWs experienced clinically significant high levels of PTSS and heavy workload, and the emergency resulted in their inadequate psychosocial support. If this is left unchecked, HCWs have a higher risk of developing PTSD. Early detection, identification and person-directed, targeted multidisciplinary interventions should be undertaken to address various influencing factors. Comprehensive measures, including setting up emotional release channels, as well as providing psychological and social support intervention for HCWs globally, are highly recommended.

18.
BMJ Open ; 12(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848930

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesEmergency department physicians and nurses are at high risk of compassion fatigue, burnout and depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the inter-relationship between compassion fatigue, burnout, compassion satisfaction and depression in emergency department physicians and nurses.DesignA cross-sectional study.SettingThis study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in five different cities across the province of Sichuan, China, in 2021.ParticipantsA total of 342 emergency department physicians and nurses participated in the study.Main outcome measuresCompassion fatigue, burnout, compassion satisfaction and depression scores.ResultsAmong the study participants, 100% were found to have depressive symptoms, 27.8% had low compassion satisfaction, 2.3% had high burnout and 3.8% had compassion fatigue. In the final multiple linear regression model, marital status (p=0.008;95% CI –5.205 to –0.789), history of chronic disease (p=0.003;95% CI –6.461 to –1.386), compassion satisfaction (p<0.001;95% CI 0.593 to 1.274), burnout (p=0.019;95% CI 0.084 to 0.930) and compassion fatigue (p<0.001;95% CI –1.527 to –1.053) among emergency department physicians and nurses were considered to be significant predictors of depression.ConclusionsThe prevalence of depression among emergency department physicians and nurses is high in the province of Sichuan, China. Compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction were significantly associated with depression in emergency department physicians and nurses. Hospital administrations should consider these findings to develop appropriate psychological interventions and strategies, to prevent, alleviate or treat severe depression among emergency department physicians and nurses in the province of Sichuan.

19.
BMJ Open ; 12(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1848534

ABSTRACT

IntroductionDigital health tools such as smartphones and wearable devices could improve psychological treatment outcomes in depression through more accurate and comprehensive measures of patient behaviour. However, in this emerging field, most studies are small and based on student populations outside of a clinical setting. The current study aims to determine the feasibility and acceptability of using smartphones and wearable devices to collect behavioural and clinical data in people undergoing therapy for depressive disorders and establish the extent to which they can be potentially useful biomarkers of depression and recovery after treatment.Methods and analysisThis is an observational, prospective cohort study of 65 people attending psychological therapy for depression in multiple London-based sites. It will collect continuous passive data from smartphone sensors and a Fitbit fitness tracker, and deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments through smartphone-based apps. Objective data on sleep, physical activity, location, Bluetooth contact, smartphone use and heart rate will be gathered for 7 months, and compared with clinical and contextual data. A mixed methods design, including a qualitative interview of patient experiences, will be used to evaluate key feasibility indicators, digital phenotypes of depression and therapy prognosis. Patient and public involvement was sought for participant-facing documents and the study design of the current research proposal.Ethics and disseminationEthical approval has been obtained from the London Westminster Research Ethics Committee, and the Health Research Authority, Integrated Research Application System (project ID: 270918). Privacy and confidentiality will be guaranteed and the procedures for handling, processing, storage and destruction of the data will comply with the General Data Protection Regulation. Findings from this study will form part of a doctoral thesis, will be presented at national and international meetings or academic conferences and will generate manuscripts to be submitted to peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration numberhttps://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/PMYTA

20.
Evid Based Ment Health ; 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people with mental disorders in communities exposed to adversity in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) do not receive effective care. Digital mental health interventions are scalable when digital access is adequate, and can be safely delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a new WHO-guided digital mental health intervention, Step-by-Step, supported by a non-specialist helper in Lebanon, in the context of concurring economic, humanitarian and political crises, a large industrial disaster and the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a single-blind, two-arm pragmatic randomised trial, comparing guided Step-by-Step with enhanced care as usual (ECAU) among people suffering from depression and impaired functioning. Primary outcomes were depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9)) and impaired functioning (WHO Disability Assessment Schedule-12 (WHODAS)) at post-treatment. FINDINGS: 680 people with depression (PHQ-9>10) and impaired functioning (WHODAS>16) were randomised to Step-by-Step or ECAU. Intention-to-treat analyses showed effects on depression (standardised mean differences, SMD: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.97), impaired functioning (SMD: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.65), post-traumatic stress (SMD: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.79), anxiety (SMD: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.49 to 0.99), subjective well-being (SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.62) and self-identified personal problems (SMD: 0.56; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.83). Significant effects on all outcomes were retained at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Guided digital mental health interventions can be effective in the treatment of depression in communities exposed to adversities in LMICs, although some uncertainty remains because of high attrition. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Guided digital mental health interventions should be considered for implementation in LMICs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03720769.

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