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1.
Brain Disord ; 4: 100021, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1426913

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have emerged as alarming pathogens owing to their inherent ability of genetic variation and cross-species transmission. Coronavirus infection burdens the endoplasmic reticulum (ER.), causes reactive oxygen species production and induces host stress responses, including unfolded protein response (UPR) and antioxidant system. In this study, we have employed a neurotropic murine ß-coronavirus (M-CoV) infection in the Central Nervous System (CNS) of experimental mice model to study the role of host stress responses mediated by interplay of DJ-1 and XBP1. DJ-1 is an antioxidant molecule with established functions in neurodegeneration. However, its regulation in virus-induced cellular stress response is less explored. Our study showed that M-CoV infection activated the glial cells and induced antioxidant and UPR genes during the acute stage when the viral titer peaks. As the virus particles decreased and acute neuroinflammation diminished at day ten p.i., a significant up-regulation in UPR responsive XBP1, antioxidant DJ-1, and downstream signaling molecules, including Nrf2, was recorded in the brain tissues. Additionally, preliminary in silico analysis of the binding between the DJ-1 promoter and a positively charged groove of XBP1 is also investigated, thus hinting at a mechanism behind the upregulation of DJ-1 during MHV-infection. The current study thus attempts to elucidate a novel interplay between the antioxidant system and UPR in the outcome of coronavirus infection.

2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 59(10): 5970-5986, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930554

ABSTRACT

We recently reported acute COVID-19 symptoms, clinical status, weight loss, multi-organ pathological changes, and animal death in a murine hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) coronavirus mouse model of COVID-19, which were similar to that observed in humans with COVID-19. We further examined long-term (12 months post-infection) sequelae of COVID-19 in these mice. Congested blood vessels, perivascular cavitation, pericellular halos, vacuolation of neuropils, pyknotic nuclei, acute eosinophilic necrosis, necrotic neurons with fragmented nuclei, and vacuolation were observed in the brain cortex 12 months post-MHV-1 infection. These changes were associated with increased reactive astrocytes and microglia, hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 and tau, and a decrease in synaptic protein synaptophysin-1, suggesting the possible long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on defective neuronal integrity. The lungs showed severe inflammation, bronchiolar airway wall thickening due to fibrotic remodeling, bronchioles with increased numbers of goblet cells in the epithelial lining, and bronchiole walls with increased numbers of inflammatory cells. Hearts showed severe interstitial edema, vascular congestion and dilation, nucleated red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs infiltrating between degenerative myocardial fibers, inflammatory cells and apoptotic bodies and acute myocyte necrosis, hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Long-term changes in the liver and kidney were less severe than those observed in the acute phase. Noteworthy, the treatment of infected mice with a small molecule synthetic peptide which prevents the binding of spike protein to its respective receptors significantly attenuated disease progression, as well as the pathological changes observed post-long-term infection. Collectively, these findings suggest that COVID-19 may result in long-term, irreversible changes predominantly in the brain, lung, and heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Necrosis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 886611, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903019

ABSTRACT

Rhinoviruses (RV) have been shown to inhibit subsequent infection by heterologous respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To better understand the mechanisms whereby RV protects against pulmonary coronavirus infection, we used a native murine virus, mouse hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1), that causes severe disease in the lungs of infected mice. We found that priming of the respiratory tract with RV completely prevented mortality and reduced morbidity of a lethal MHV-1 infection. Replication of MHV-1 was reduced in RV-primed mouse lungs although expression of antiviral type I interferon, IFN-ß, was more robust in mice infected with MHV-1 alone. We further showed that signaling through the type I interferon receptor was required for survival of mice given a non-lethal dose of MHV-1. RV-primed mice had reduced pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage and influx of leukocytes, especially neutrophils, in the airways upon MHV-1 infection. Although MHV-1 replication was reduced in RV-primed mice, RV did not inhibit MHV-1 replication in coinfected lung epithelial cells in vitro. In summary, RV-mediated priming in the respiratory tract reduces viral replication, inflammation, and tissue damage, and prevents mortality of a pulmonary coronavirus infection in mice. These results contribute to our understanding of how distinct respiratory viruses interact with the host to affect disease pathogenesis, which is a critical step in understanding how respiratory viral coinfections impact human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Enterovirus Infections , Murine hepatitis virus , Pneumonia , Animals , Lung , Mice , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792411

ABSTRACT

Combined in silico, in vitro, and in vivo comparative studies between isogenic-recombinant Mouse-Hepatitis-Virus-RSA59 and its proline deletion mutant, revealed a remarkable contribution of centrally located two consecutive prolines (PP) from Spike protein fusion peptide (FP) in enhancing virus fusogenic and hepato-neuropathogenic potential. To deepen our understanding of the underlying factors, we extend our studies to a non-fusogenic parental virus strain RSMHV2 (P) with a single proline in the FP and its proline inserted mutant, RSMHV2 (PP). Comparative in vitro and in vivo studies between virus strains RSA59(PP), RSMHV2 (P), and RSMHV2 (PP) in the FP demonstrate that the insertion of one proline significantly resulted in enhancing the virus fusogenicity, spread, and consecutive neuropathogenesis. Computational studies suggest that the central PP in Spike FP induces a locally ordered, compact, and rigid structure of the Spike protein in RSMHV2 (PP) compared to RSMHV2 (P), but globally the Spike S2-domain is akin to the parental strain RSA59(PP), the latter being the most flexible showing two potential wells in the energy landscape as observed from the molecular dynamics studies. The critical location of two central prolines of the FP is essential for fusogenicity and pathogenesis making it a potential site for designing antiviral.


Subject(s)
Demyelinating Diseases , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Mice , Peptides/metabolism , Proline , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
5.
Virology ; 567: 1-14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1628759

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein comprises two RNA-binding domains connected by a central spacer, which contains a serine- and arginine-rich (SR) region. The SR region engages the largest subunit of the viral replicase-transcriptase, nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3), in an interaction that is essential for efficient initiation of infection by genomic RNA. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis of the SR region of the N protein of mouse hepatitis virus in order to more precisely define its role in RNA synthesis. We further examined the N-nsp3 interaction through construction of nsp3 mutants and by creation of an interspecies N protein chimera. Our results indicate a role for the central spacer as an interaction hub of the N molecule that is partially regulated by phosphorylation. These findings are discussed in relation to the recent discovery that nsp3 forms a molecular pore in the double-membrane vesicles that sequester the coronavirus replicase-transcriptase.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/chemistry , Viral Replicase Complex Proteins/genetics , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism
6.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 21(3): 210-216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592276

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus, also known as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-19), with its rapid rate of transmission, has progressed with a great impact on respiratory function and mortality worldwide. The nasal cavity is the promising gateway of SARS-CoV-2 to reach the brain via systemic circulatory distribution. Recent reports have revealed that the loss of involuntary process of breathing control into the brainstem that results in death is a signal of neurological involvement. Early neurological symptoms, like loss of smell, convulsions, and ataxia, are the clues of the involvement of the central nervous system that makes the entry of SARS-CoV-2 further fatal and life-threatening, requiring artificial respiration and emergency admission in hospitals. Studies performed on patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 has revealed three-stage involvement of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in the progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Direct involvement of CNS with headache, ataxia, dizziness, altered or impaired consciousness, acute stroke or seizures as major symptoms, peripheral involvement with impaired taste, smell, vision, and altered nociception, and skeletal muscle impairment that includes skeletal muscle disorders leading to acute paralysis in a particular area of the body. In the previous era, most studied and researched viruses were beta coronavirus and mouse hepatitis virus, which were studied for acute and chronic encephalitis and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Although the early symptoms of SARS-CoV are respiratory pathogenesis, the differential diagnosis should always be considered for neurological perspective to stop the mortalities.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Brain/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374535

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic, causes a respiratory illness that can severely impact other organ systems and is possibly precipitated by cytokine storm, septic shock, thrombosis, and oxidative stress. SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals may be asymptomatic or may experience mild, moderate, or severe symptoms with or without pneumonia. The mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infects humans are largely unknown. Mouse hepatitis virus 1 (MHV-1)-induced infection was used as a highly relevant surrogate animal model for this study. We further characterized this animal model and compared it with SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. MHV-1 inoculated mice displayed death as well as weight loss, as reported earlier. We showed that MHV-1-infected mice at days 7-8 exhibit severe lung inflammation, peribronchiolar interstitial infiltration, bronchiolar epithelial cell necrosis and intra-alveolar necrotic debris, alveolar exudation (surrounding alveolar walls have capillaries that are dilated and filled with red blood cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, hyaline membrane formation, the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages, and interstitial edema. When compared to uninfected mice, the infected mice showed severe liver vascular congestion, luminal thrombosis of portal and sinusoidal vessels, hepatocyte degeneration, cell necrosis, and hemorrhagic changes. Proximal and distal tubular necrosis, hemorrhage in interstitial tissue, and the vacuolation of renal tubules were observed. The heart showed severe interstitial edema, vascular congestion, and dilation, as well as red blood cell extravasation into the interstitium. Upon examination of the MHV-1 infected mice brain, we observed congested blood vessels, perivascular cavitation, cortical pericellular halos, vacuolation of neuropils, darkly stained nuclei, pyknotic nuclei, and associated vacuolation of the neuropil in the cortex, as well as acute eosinophilic necrosis and necrotic neurons with fragmented nuclei and vacuolation in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that the widespread thrombotic events observed in the surrogate animal model for SARS-CoV-2 mimic the reported findings in SARS-CoV-2 infected humans, representing a highly relevant and safe animal model for the study of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 for potential therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Animals , Biomarkers , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Genome, Viral , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Function Tests , Mice , Mortality , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load
8.
J Virol ; 95(15): e0076621, 2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305511

ABSTRACT

All coronaviruses (CoVs) contain a macrodomain, also termed Mac1, in nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) that binds and hydrolyzes mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) covalently attached to proteins. Despite several reports demonstrating that Mac1 is a prominent virulence factor, there is still a limited understanding of its cellular roles during infection. Currently, most of the information regarding the role of CoV Mac1 during infection is based on a single point mutation of a highly conserved asparagine residue, which makes contact with the distal ribose of ADP-ribose. To determine if additional Mac1 activities contribute to CoV replication, we compared the replication of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) Mac1 mutants, D1329A and N1465A, to the previously mentioned asparagine mutant, N1347A. These residues contact the adenine and proximal ribose in ADP-ribose, respectively. N1465A had no effect on MHV replication or pathogenesis, while D1329A and N1347A both replicated poorly in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), were inhibited by PARP enzymes, and were highly attenuated in vivo. Interestingly, D1329A was also significantly more attenuated than N1347A in all cell lines tested. Conversely, D1329A retained some ability to block beta interferon (IFN-ß) transcript accumulation compared to N1347A, indicating that these mutations have different effects on Mac1 functions. Combining these two mutations resulted in a virus that was unrecoverable, suggesting that the combined activities of Mac1 are essential for MHV replication. We conclude that Mac1 has multiple functions that promote the replication of MHV, and that these results provide further evidence that Mac1 is a prominent target for anti-CoV therapeutics. IMPORTANCE In the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic, there has been a surge to better understand how CoVs replicate and to identify potential therapeutic targets that could mitigate disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other prominent CoVs. The highly conserved macrodomain, also termed Mac1, is a small domain within nonstructural protein 3. It has received significant attention as a potential drug target, as previous studies demonstrated that it is essential for CoV pathogenesis in multiple animal models of infection. However, the functions of Mac1 during infection remain largely unknown. Here, using targeted mutations in different regions of Mac1, we found that Mac1 has multiple functions that promote the replication of MHV, a model CoV, and, therefore, is more important for MHV replication than previously appreciated. These results will help guide the discovery of these novel functions of Mac1 and the development of inhibitory compounds targeting this domain.


Subject(s)
Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Mutation, Missense , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Virus Replication/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Animals , HeLa Cells , Humans , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
9.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242675

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need for new approaches to limit the severity of coronavirus infections. Many cells of the immune system express receptors for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and GABA-receptor (GABA-R) agonists have anti-inflammatory effects. Lung epithelial cells also express GABA-Rs, and GABA-R modulators have been shown to limit acute lung injuries. There is currently, however, no information on whether GABA-R agonists might impact the course of a viral infection. Here, we assessed whether clinically applicable GABA-R agonists could be repurposed for the treatment of a lethal coronavirus (murine hepatitis virus 1, MHV-1) infection in mice. We found that oral GABA administration before, or after the appearance of symptoms, very effectively limited MHV-1-induced pneumonitis, severe illness, and death. GABA treatment also reduced viral load in the lungs, suggesting that GABA-Rs may provide a new druggable target to limit coronavirus replication. Treatment with the GABAA-R-specific agonist homotaurine, but not the GABAB-R-specific agonist baclofen, significantly reduced the severity of pneumonitis and death rates in MHV-1-infected mice, indicating that the therapeutic effects were mediated primarily through GABAA-Rs. Since GABA and homotaurine are safe for human consumption, they are promising candidates to help treat coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , GABA-A Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/therapeutic use
10.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(5): 1062-1070, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121340

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent enveloped, ss RNA viruses with the ability to infect a range of vertebrates causing mainly lung, CNS, enteric, and hepatic disease. While the infection with human CoV is commonly associated with mild respiratory symptoms, the emergence of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the potential for CoVs to cause severe respiratory and systemic disease. The devastating global health burden caused by SARS-CoV-2 has spawned countless studies seeking clinical correlates of disease severity and host susceptibility factors, revealing a complex network of antiviral immune circuits. The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is, like SARS-CoV-2, a beta-CoV and is endemic in wild mice. Laboratory MHV strains have been extensively studied to reveal coronavirus virulence factors and elucidate host mechanisms of antiviral immunity. These are reviewed here with the aim to identify translational insights for SARS-CoV-2 learned from murine CoVs.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology
11.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1072-1080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056514

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (CoV) infects a broad range of hosts including humans as well as a variety of animals. It has gained overwhelming concerns since the emergence of deadly human coronaviruses (HCoVs), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, followed by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2015. Very recently, special attention has been paid to the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 due to its high mobility and mortality. As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, despite vast research efforts, the effective pharmaceutical interventions are still not available for clinical uses. Both expanded knowledge on structure insights and the essential function of viral nucleocapsid (N) protein are key basis for the development of novel, and potentially, a broad-spectrum inhibitor against coronavirus diseases. This review aimed to delineate the current research from the perspective of biochemical and structural study in cell-based assays as well as virtual screen approaches to identify N protein antagonists targeting not only HCoVs but also animal CoVs.

12.
Virology ; 556: 9-22, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985483

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses rearrange endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes to form a reticulovesicular network (RVN) comprised predominantly of double membrane vesicles (DMVs) involved in viral replication. While portions of the RVN have been analyzed by electron tomography (ET), the full extent of the RVN is not known, nor how RVN formation affects ER morphology. Additionally the precise mechanism of DMV formation has not been observed. In this work, we examined large volumes of coronavirus-infected cells at multiple timepoints during infection using serial-section ET. We provide a comprehensive 3D analysis of the ER and RVN which gives insight into the formation mechanism of DMVs as well as the first evidence for their lysosomal degradation. We also show that the RVN breaks down late in infection, concurrent with the ER becoming the main budding compartment for new virions. This work provides a broad view of the multifaceted involvement of ER membranes in coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Viral Replication Compartments/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Electron Microscope Tomography , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/ultrastructure , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Replication Compartments/ultrastructure , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Replication
13.
RNA ; 26(12): 1976-1999, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973202

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus EndoU inhibits dsRNA-activated antiviral responses; however, the physiologic RNA substrates of EndoU are unknown. In this study, we used mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) and cyclic phosphate cDNA sequencing to identify the RNA targets of EndoU. EndoU targeted viral RNA, cleaving the 3' side of pyrimidines with a strong preference for U ↓ A and C ↓ A sequences (endoY ↓ A). EndoU-dependent cleavage was detected in every region of MHV RNA, from the 5' NTR to the 3' NTR, including transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRS). Cleavage at two CA dinucleotides immediately adjacent to the MHV poly(A) tail suggests a mechanism to suppress negative-strand RNA synthesis and the accumulation of viral dsRNA. MHV with EndoU (EndoUmut) or 2'-5' phosphodiesterase (PDEmut) mutations provoked the activation of RNase L in BMM, with corresponding cleavage of RNAs by RNase L. The physiologic targets of EndoU are viral RNA templates required for negative-strand RNA synthesis and dsRNA accumulation. Coronavirus EndoU cleaves U ↓ A and C ↓ A sequences (endoY ↓ A) within viral (+) strand RNA to evade dsRNA-activated host responses.


Subject(s)
Murine hepatitis virus/enzymology , RNA/chemistry , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mutation , Nucleotide Motifs , Protein Binding , RNA/metabolism , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
14.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889854

ABSTRACT

Supply shortages of N95 respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have motivated institutions to develop feasible and effective N95 respirator reuse strategies. In particular, heat decontamination is a treatment method that scales well and can be implemented in settings with variable or limited resources. Prior studies using multiple inactivation methods, however, have often focused on a single virus under narrowly defined conditions, making it difficult to develop guiding principles for inactivating emerging or difficult-to-culture viruses. We systematically explored how temperature, humidity, and virus deposition solutions impact the inactivation of viruses deposited and dried on N95 respirator coupons. We exposed four virus surrogates across a range of structures and phylogenies, including two bacteriophages (MS2 and phi6), a mouse coronavirus (murine hepatitis virus [MHV]), and a recombinant human influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (IAV), to heat treatment for 30 min in multiple deposition solutions across several temperatures and relative humidities (RHs). We observed that elevated RH was essential for effective heat inactivation of all four viruses tested. For heat treatments between 72°C and 82°C, RHs greater than 50% resulted in a >6-log10 inactivation of bacteriophages, and RHs greater than 25% resulted in a >3.5-log10 inactivation of MHV and IAV. Furthermore, deposition of viruses in host cell culture media greatly enhanced virus inactivation by heat and humidity compared to other deposition solutions, such as phosphate-buffered saline, phosphate-buffered saline with bovine serum albumin, and human saliva. Past and future heat treatment methods must therefore explicitly account for deposition solutions as a factor that will strongly influence observed virus inactivation rates. Overall, our data set can inform the design and validation of effective heat-based decontamination strategies for N95 respirators and other porous surfaces, especially for emerging viruses that may be of immediate and future public health concern.IMPORTANCE Shortages of personal protective equipment, including N95 respirators, during the coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have highlighted the need to develop effective decontamination strategies for their reuse. This is particularly important in health care settings for reducing exposure to respiratory viruses, like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19. Although several treatment methods are available, a widely accessible strategy will be necessary to combat shortages on a global scale. We demonstrate that the combination of heat and humidity inactivates a range of RNA viruses, including both viral pathogens and common viral pathogen surrogates, after deposition on N95 respirators and achieves the necessary virus inactivation detailed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidelines to validate N95 respirator decontamination technologies. We further demonstrate that depositing viruses onto surfaces when suspended in culture media can greatly enhance observed inactivation, adding caution to how heat and humidity treatment methods are validated.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Ventilators, Mechanical , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Inactivation , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Saline Solution , Saliva , Serum Albumin, Bovine
15.
Immunol Lett ; 217: 25-30, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888577

ABSTRACT

In a previous work we demonstrated that inhibition of mouse indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by methyltryptophan (MT) exacerbated the pathological actions of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) infection, suggesting that tryptophan (TRP) catabolism was involved in viral effects. Since there is a second enzyme that dioxygenates TRP, tryptophan-2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO), which is mainly located in liver, we decided to study its role in our model of MHV-infection. Results showed that in vivo TDO inhibition by LM10, a derivative of 3-(2-(pyridyl) ethenyl) indole, resulted in a decrease of anti- MHV Ab titers induced by the virus infection. Besides, a reduction of some alarmin release, i.e, uric acid and high-mobility group box1 protein (HMGB1), was observed. Accordingly, since alarmin liberation was related to the expression of autoantibodies (autoAb) to fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), these autoAb also diminished. Moreover, PCR results indicated that TDO inhibition did not abolish viral replication. Furthermore, histological liver examination did not reveal strong pathologies, whereas mouse survival was hundred percent in control as well as in MHV-infected mice treated with LM10. Data presented in this work indicate that in spite of the various TDO actions already described, specific TDO blockage could also restrain some MHV actions, mainly suppressing autoimmune reactions. Such results should prompt further experiments with various viruses to confirm the possible use of a TDO inhibitor such as LM-10 to treat either viral infections or even autoimmune diseases triggered by a viral infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/enzymology , Autoimmunity/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Liver/enzymology , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , Tryptophan Oxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Tryptophan Oxygenase/metabolism , Alarmins/metabolism , Animals , Autoantibodies/drug effects , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HMGB1 Protein/blood , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Hydrolases/immunology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Liver/drug effects , Liver/immunology , Liver/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Tryptophan/metabolism , Tryptophan Oxygenase/genetics , Uric Acid/blood , Uric Acid/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 14: 116, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831021

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-induced murine neuroinflammation serves as a model to study acute meningoencephalomyelitis, hepatitis, and chronic neuroinflammatory demyelination; which mimics certain pathologies of the human neurologic disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). MHV-induced acute neuroinflammation occurs due to direct glial cell dystrophy instigated by central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia and astrocytes, in contrast to peripheral CD4+T cell-mediated myelin damage prevalent in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS. Viral envelope Spike glycoprotein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion is an essential mechanistic step for MHV-induced CNS pathogenicity. Although Azadirachta indica (Neem), a traditional phytomedicine, is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and spermicidal activities, not much is known about anti-neuroinflammatory properties of its bark (NBE) in MHV-induced acute neuroinflammation and chronic demyelination. Recombinant demyelinating MHV strain (RSA59) was preincubated with NBE to arrest the infection-initiation event, and its effect on viral replication, viral transcription, cytokine expression, and successive pathogenicity were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Virus-free Luciferase assay explained NBE's anti-virus-to-cell fusion activity in vitro. Intracranial inoculation of RSA59 preincubated with NBE into the mouse brain significantly reduces acute hepatitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, and chronic progressive demyelination. Additionally, NBE effectively restricts viral entry, dissemination in CNS, viral replication, viral transcription, and expression of the viral nucleocapsid and inflammatory cytokines. From mechanistic standpoints, RSA59 preincubated with NBE reduced viral entry, viral replication and cell-to-cell fusion, as a mode of viral dissemination. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection with NBE (25 mg/kg B.W.) into mice revealed a significant reduction in viral Nucleocapsid protein expression in vivo. Conclusively, A. indica bark extract may directly bind to the virus-host attachment Spike glycoprotein and suppresses MHV-induced neuroinflammation and neuropathogenesis by inhibiting cell-to-cell fusion and viral replication. Further studies will focus on combining bioanalytical assays to isolate potential NBE bioactive compound(s) that contribute towards the anti-viral activity of NBE.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 295(20): 6926-6935, 2020 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830746

ABSTRACT

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV; murine coronavirus) causes meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and optic neuritis followed by axonal loss and demyelination. This murine virus is used as a common model to study acute and chronic virus-induced demyelination in the central nervous system. Studies with recombinant MHV strains that differ in the gene encoding the spike protein have demonstrated that the spike has a role in MHV pathogenesis and retrograde axonal transport. Fusion peptides (FPs) in the spike protein play a key role in MHV pathogenesis. In a previous study of the effect of deleting a single proline residue in the FP of a demyelinating MHV strain, we found that two central, consecutive prolines are important for cell-cell fusion and pathogenesis. The dihedral fluctuation of the FP was shown to be repressed whenever two consecutive prolines were present, in contrast to the presence of a single proline in the chain. Using this proline-deleted MHV strain, here we investigated whether intracranial injection of this strain can induce optic neuritis by retrograde axonal transport from the brain to the retina through the optic nerve. We observed that the proline-deleted recombinant MHV strain is restricted to the optic nerve, is unable to translocate to the retina, and causes only minimal demyelination and no neuronal death. We conclude that an intact proline dyad in the FP of the recombinant demyelinating MHV strain plays a crucial role in translocation of the virus through axons and subsequent neurodegeneration.


Subject(s)
Axonal Transport/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Axonal Transport/physiology , Axons/metabolism , Axons/virology , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Demyelinating Diseases/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Optic Nerve/metabolism , Optic Nerve/virology , Peptides/metabolism , Proline/metabolism , Sequence Deletion/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
18.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717762

ABSTRACT

The fatal acute respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020, infection and mortality rates have been rising steadily worldwide. The lack of a vaccine, as well as preventive and therapeutic strategies, emphasize the need to develop new strategies to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and pathogenesis. Since mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 share a common genus, lessons learnt from MHV and SARS-CoV could offer mechanistic insights into SARS-CoV-2. This review provides a comprehensive review of MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans, thereby highlighting further translational avenues in the development of innovative strategies in controlling the detrimental course of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, we have focused on various aspects, including host species, organotropism, transmission, clinical disease, pathogenesis, control and therapy, MHV as a model for SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 as well as mouse models for infection with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. While MHV in mice and SARS-CoV-2 in humans share various similarities, there are also differences that need to be addressed when studying murine models. Translational approaches, such as humanized mouse models are pivotal in studying the clinical course and pathology observed in COVID-19 patients. Lessons from prior murine studies on coronavirus, coupled with novel murine models could offer new promising avenues for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Murine hepatitis virus/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Host Specificity , Humans , Mice , Murine hepatitis virus/genetics , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , /pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication
19.
J Biol Chem ; 295(41): 14040-14052, 2020 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704089

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have caused several zoonotic infections in the past two decades, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Balanced regulation of cell death and inflammatory immune responses is essential to promote protection against coronavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that control these processes remain to be resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cell death in the form of PANoptosis. Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (GSDMD) led to an initial reduction in cell death followed by a robust increase in the incidence of caspase-8- and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated inflammatory cell deathafter coronavirus infection. Additionally, loss of GSDMD promoted robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the amounts of some cytokines released during coronavirus infection were significantly altered in the absence of GSDMD. Altogether, our findings show that inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, is induced by coronavirus infection and that impaired NLRP3 inflammasome function or pyroptosis can lead to negative consequences for the host. These findings may have important implications for studies of coronavirus-induced disease.


Subject(s)
Caspase 8/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptor-Interacting Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/genetics , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Necroptosis , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/genetics , Phosphate-Binding Proteins/metabolism
20.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104474, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343529

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of viral infections involves an immune response by cytokines, causing a deleterious effect on organ function, in addition to tissue destruction due to viral replication. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of the human coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS CoV-2, indicate cytokine involvement. Our laboratory showed that an experimental murine coronavirus (MHV-A59) can be transmitted into the brain by intranasal or intracerebral exposure and that neurovirulence is mediated by cytokine secretion. In this study we investigated which cells in the brain produce cytokines, thus functioning as the brain's innate immune system. Using tissue cultures of microglia, and clonal populations of astrocytes, we found that microglia and type I astrocytes (but not types II and III), produced pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to MHV-A59 infection. A molecularly closely related, non-encephalitic strain of the virus (MHV-2) caused in vitro infection, but without cytokine induction. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry revealed that type I astrocytes and microglia have perivascular foot processes necessary for the formation of the perivascular glymphatic system, the anatomical site of the brain's innate immune system. Cytokine secretion by type I astrocytes and microglia, as part of the brain's glymphatic and innate immune system, contributes to the pathogenesis of an encephalitic coronavirus infection, and indicates the rationale for anti-cytokine therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Murine hepatitis virus/metabolism , Animals , Astrocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Mice , Microglia/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/immunology , Murine hepatitis virus/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/immunology , Virus Replication/physiology
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