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1.
Pathogens ; 11(10)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066305

ABSTRACT

Rodentia is the most speciose mammalian order, found across the globe, with some species occurring in close proximity to humans. Furthermore, rodents are known hosts for a variety of zoonotic pathogens. Among other animal species, rodents came into focus when the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread through human populations across the globe, initially as laboratory animals to study the viral pathogenesis and to test countermeasures. Under experimental conditions, some rodent species including several cricetid species are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and a few of them can transmit the virus to conspecifics. To investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 is also spreading in wild rodent populations in Germany, we serologically tested samples of free-ranging bank voles (Myodes glareolus, n = 694), common voles (Microtus arvalis, n = 2), house mice (Mus musculus, n = 27), brown or Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, n = 97) and Apodemus species (n = 8) for antibodies against the virus. The samples were collected from 2020 to 2022 in seven German federal states. All but one sample tested negative by a multispecies ELISA based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. The remaining sample, from a common vole collected in 2021, was within the inconclusive range of the RBD-ELISA, but this result could not be confirmed by a surrogate virus neutralization test as the sample gave a negative result in this test. These results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 has not become highly prevalent in wild rodent populations in Germany.

2.
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society ; 81(OCE1):E1-E58, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044707

ABSTRACT

This journal issue includes 48 articles that discuss development and validation of a novel quality assessment tool to measure the quality of nutrition information online;longitudinal association between takeaway food environment and secondary school adolescents BMI and body fat percentage;dietary practices, beliefs, and behaviours among adults with inflammatory bowel disease;postpartum depression in Irish mothers and associations with infant feeding practices;the impact of dietary saturated fat replacement with unsaturated fat on the plasma lipidome and cardiometabolic disease risk;ole of brain serotonin in age-related decline in physical activity in mice;ey stakeholder perceptions of food allergies within the airline industry;sleep quality of higher education students during COVID-19 and its association with diet quality and lifestyle behaviours.

3.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(8):685-692, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040046

ABSTRACT

An investigation of coronavirus (CoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in rodents was performed to understand CoV and HEV infection of rodents in Dali City, Yunnan Province. Rodent samples were obtained in the four towns of Dali city through traps from August 2020 to August 2021. A total of 76 rodents belonging to six species and five genera were captured: Rattus tanezumi, Rattus norvegicus, Apodemus chevrieri, Eothenomys miletus, Niviventer fulvescens, and Mus Pahari. Detection of CoV and HEV was performed by nested-PCR. The infection rate of CoV was 40.74% (11/27) and 2.38% (1/42) in R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively. The infection rate of HEV was 14.81% (4/27) and 2.38% (1/42) in R. norvegicus and R. tanezumi, respectively. Co-infection with CoV and HEV was detected in two R. norvegicus, with a co-infection rate of 7.41% (2/27). A Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search was performed on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequences of CoV and HEV. Eleven strains from R. norvegicus were a-CoV, and matched best to strain KY370050 from Rattus losea (Fujian, China), with 99.73% to 99.74% nucleotide (nt) sequency identity. One strain was ss-CoV from R. tanezumi, which displayed 98.21% nt sequence identity with strain MT820632 from Bandicota indica (Yunnan, China). Five strains from R. norvegicus were all HEV-C, and showed 95.87% to 96.21% sequence similarity to strain MN450853 from a patient in Hong Kong, China. In conclusion, CoV and HEV infections are present in rodents in Dali City. Because the host animals of the two viruses are closely related to humans, surveillance and investigations of related viruses should be strengthened.

4.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):345-345, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034497

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, the new coronavirus (SARSCoV-2) has been mutating continuously, and it has now become prevalent in more than 200 countries. The cumulative number of confirmed cases in the world has exceeded 460 million, and the number of deaths has exceeded 6 million. The rapid mutation of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance of preventive and therapeutic drugs, however, effective therapeutic drugs for new coronary pneumonia are still very scarce. It is still the common goal of scientists from all over the world to develop a safe and effective drug for the treatment of new coronary pneumonia that can inhibit the infection of multiple SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains.

5.
Zoonoses ; 1(6), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025742

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that produces major symptoms of pneumonia, has been a disaster worldwide. The traceability of SARSCoV- 2 and the discovery of susceptible animal species is crucial to halt viral transmission and explore the mechanism of cross-species transmission. We selected 82 representative ACE2 sequences from the 1000 sequences with the closest homology to the hACE2 protein. All selected ACE2 proteins were subjected to homology modeling. Potential natural and intermediate hosts, as well as animal species susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, were analyzed systematically by calculation of the binding free energy of ACE2 protein to the RBD of SARSCoV- 2. Primates, some wild Felidae, civets, goats, spotted hyenas and golden hamsters are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and may be potential intermediate hosts, whereas pangolins, birds and reptiles are unlikely to be intermediate hosts. Mice, rats and guinea pig are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Given their possible susceptibility, non-human primates, goats and golden hamsters could potentially be used as experimental models to examine SARS-CoV-2 infection without transgenesis. Herein, possible candidates for the natural and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 are suggested, to provide guidance for subsequent studies.

6.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 7(23), 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025659

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to screen an ideal adjuvant for an inactivated porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCoV) vaccine to induce mucosal immunity and reduce the side effect of the vaccine. We used different mucosal adjuvants to prepare the inactivated PDCoV vaccines. We then used mouse model to evaluate the humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses induced by the inactivated vaccines via different immunization routes.

7.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(9):1430-1434, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2012147

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the opinion that the aerosol plays a key role in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been controversial. The COVID-19 pandemic has continued interpersonal transmission for more than two years, especially after the emergence of Delta and Omicron variants, making the situation of COVID-19 pandemic more severe. The transmission of SARS-COV-2 variants was significantly accelerated and the time of transmission between generations was significantly shortened. Therefore, it has been questioned to attribute the close-range infection to droplet transmission. The point that the aerosol can also has a close-range transmission and may play a dominant role is neglected under the influence of traditional transmission mode of respiratory infectious diseases. A large number of studies have shown that normal breath, talk and cough could release a large number of respiratory aerosol particles, and the virus particles were mainly tiny particles(=5.0 micro m). The biological activity and infectivity of the droplet nuclei have been questioned in the studies on their physicochemical properties. Animal models of ferrets and hamsters showed that SARS-COV-2 could transmit via aerosol. Therefore, the new evidence for the aerosol transmission of SARS-COV-2 was reviewed in the article so as to provide latest evidence-based evidence for prevention and control of COVID-19.

8.
Acta Veterinaria et Zootechnica Sinica ; 53(5):1536-1543, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994512

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the protective effect of infected piglets which were immunized with different dose of inactivated porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) vaccines. The number of infective virus particles and total virus particles of PEDV with different concentrations were determined, and the mice were immunized with different concentration vaccine prepared as antigen, respectively. The humoral and cellular immune production were determined by ELISA antibody detection method, neutralization test and ELISPOT method. Vaccine with appropriate antigen content was selected to immunize piglets, then the antibody was determined. The relationship between concentrated vaccine and protective effect was studied by challenge experiment. The results showed that, when the antigen dose was equal or greater than 8x106 pfu.mL-1, the inactive vaccine could effectively stimulate mice to produce humoral and cellular immunity. The piglets immunized with 2 mL inactivated PEDV vaccine containing 8x106 pfu.mL-1 antigen could resist diarrhea and continuous viral shedding caused by PEDV challenge. Compared with the total number of virus particles, the number of infectious virus particles was significantly correlated with antibody production (r=0.998 1), and neutralization titer was significantly correlated with piglet protection (r=0.974 7). PEDV inactivated vaccine can provide good immune protection, in which the number of infectious virus particles is the key factor to improve the antibody level. Antibody titer, as an index of humoral immunity, is an important reference for judging immune protection.

9.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):445-452, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994243

ABSTRACT

Immunobiotics, a group of probiotics, have the effect of anti-infection by regulating immune function, which can be added in in foods or used to make adjuvants or medicines (biologics). Immunobiotics can stimulate the mucosal immune system of the body, regulate innate and acquired immunity and exert non-specific anti-microbial (bacterial and viral) infection effects through oral, nasal mucosa, sublingual and other routes, but the immune regulation function of immunobiotics is species-specific. Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum GUANKE stimulated the increase and maintenance of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibodies in mice even 6 months after immunization. When L. plantarum GUANKE was given immediately after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the level of SARS-COV-2 specific neutralizing antibody in bronchoalveolar lavage increased by 8 times in mice, which improved the local and systematic cellular immune response to SARS-CoV-2 of mice. Clinical studies have found that immunobiotics have the auxiliary effect in the treatment of COVID-19 by mitigating the symptoms and increase the level of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody of the patients. It is necessary to conduct research and evaluation for the appropriate guideline of immunobiotics use as erly as possible to provide a new option for the prevention and control of COVID-19.

10.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(6):671-678, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1975502

ABSTRACT

In present study, in order to develop a new and effective porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)vaccine, three B cell epitopes and the truncated S1 gene of PEDV spike protein were combined and inserted into the immunodominant region of the HBcAg. Then the constructed recombinant plasmid HBcAg-PE was transformed to E. coli BL21 (DE3) for expression. After purification and identification by Western-blot, the expressed recombinant proteins HBPE were injected into BALB/c mice as vaccine antigen with different doses through intramuscular injection and its immune effect were preliminary evaluated. The results showed that the recombinant proteins HBPE was expressed as precipitation form and it could reacted specifically with PEDV-positive serum after purification and renaturation. Besides, the RH could induce anti-PEDV specific antibodies and the related Thl and Th2 cytokines in mice. The above results indicate that the recombinant compound epitope antigen of PEDV was successfully constructed. and its immunogenicity as a new vaccine candidate was evaluated in the mice in this study. The results of this study provided a new idea for the development of PEDV genetic engineering vaccine in the future.

11.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

12.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):14-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964618

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To identify the B-cell epitope peptide of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S2 gene by combinative use of bioinformatics software and monoclonal antibody technology. [Method] The B-cell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was screened using CLC Sequence viewer 6.8 software and IEDB online database, and the obtained epitope peptide was synthesized artificially. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with the conjugate of epitope peptide and keyhole hemocyanin (KLH) as antigen. Mice with higher antibody titers were identified by ELISA assay and then received an additional immunization. The spleen of the mice was taken 3 days post immunization to prepare the splenocyte suspension for cell fusion. The cells were grown on HAT selective medium to screen for effective hybridoma cells. The positive clones screened by ELISA assay were then used for expanding culture. Positive hybridoma cells were intraperitoneally injected to mice and ascites were collected. ELISA assay was used to determine the antibody titers in mice ascites and in the supernatants of monoclonal cell strains. The cells with the highest antibody titers was used as cell strain for subsequent use. [Result] The selected B-cell epitope peptide sequence was MQYVYTPTYYML Following immunization with the peptide antigen, the serum antibody titer before cell fusion reached 1:2 000. The ELISA assay of ascites from BALB/c mice and the supernatants from monoclonal cell strain cultures demostrated that the antibody liter reached 1:4 000. [Conclusion] The B-ell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was identified, which may be helpful for the vector construction of a epitope based peptide vaccine against PEDV.

13.
China Tropical Medicine ; 22(4):293-297, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the T cell epitopes of the COVID-19 vaccine carrying SARS-CoV-2 S, N and M genes in BALB/c mice.

14.
Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases ; 40(1):28-35, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876155

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of high-dose clodronate liposomes (CL) treatment on the growth of Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL) in mice.

15.
Postepy Fitoterapii ; 3:196-207, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865716

ABSTRACT

Diosmin is the 7-rutinoside of 3 ', 5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (7-O-rutinoside of diosmetin), and hespheridine is the 7-rutinoside of 3', 5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone (7 -O-rutinoside hesperetin). Diosmin, is a gray-yellow or pale-yellow, hygroscopic powder, whereas hesperidine is in the form of light-yellow spherocrystals. Diosmin was isolated from fruits of the Citrus genus (C. sinensis, C. limonia), now it is obtained semi-synthetically from natural hesperidin. These flavonoids have, among others: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, analgesic, antioxidant and possibly anti-virus activity, that cause COVID-19. The metabolism of diosmin takes place initially in the small intestine and involves demethoxylation and hydrolysis. In contrast, oxidation and conjugation take place in the liver. There is no presence of diosmin and diosmetin in the urine, which are mainly eliminated in the form of glucuronic acid conjugates. The dominant metabolite detected in urine samples is m-hydroxy-phenylpropionic acid, excreted in conjugated form. Diosmin may reduce the aggregation of Red Blood Cells, and thus it is able to reduce blood viscosity. The LD50 of the mixture of 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin for rats is over 3 g/kg. The tests did not reveal any mutagenic effects or effects on reproductive functions. It also does not pose a significant threat during breast feeding, as it poorly passes into breast milk.

16.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 2:672-685, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841702

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To explore whether porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) can infect and proliferate in different animal species-derived cell lines. [Methods] The Sichuan isolate CHN-SC2015of PDCoV was inoculated in twelve cell lines derived from hamster,poultry,monkey, human and swine. After at least five blindly passages in each cell line, the virus was identified by RT-PCR,RT-q PCR, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and sequencing. [Results] PDCoV caused distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in Vero,PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells at the 1st passage (P1) and proliferated to various degrees in PAM,PK15,ST, and LLC-PK1 cells, while the CPE gradually disappeared during subsequent passages in Vero and PAM cells. Except that in the three susceptible cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST), the viral copies of the infected cell lines gradually decreased with the increase in passages, and PDCoV could not be detected at P4 or P5 of DEF,Marc-145,HEK-293,ZYM-SIEC02, and PAM cells. PCR results showed that PDCoV could be detected only in CEF and Vero cells at P5. The IFA results showed that PDCoV could infect other cell lines except BHK-21 and ZYM-SIEC02, and specific immunofluorescence was observed in PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST cells at P1,P3, and P9. Therefore, only three cell lines (PK15,LLC-PK1, and ST) were suitable for serial passage, with the virus titers up to 107.11,107.00, and 107.37 TCID50/mL at P9,respectively. After passage in different cell lines,CHN-SC2015 accumulated 14 nucleotide mutations corresponding to 12 amino acid mutations. [Conclusion] This study indicates that PDCoV can infect a variety of cells in vitro, suggesting that it may have the potential of cross-species transmission.

17.
Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841545

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Data on PPE use and COVID-19 transmission in a healthcare setting is sparse. Method: This study is a retrospective descriptive study on PPE use and Covid-19 transmission in a hospital. Data collected during routine risk assessment was analyzed using SPSS_26 software.

18.
Veterinar ; 59(1):14-23, 2021.
Article in Croatian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837993

ABSTRACT

The first cases of human disease from COVID-19 were recorded in December 2019 in China, from where it spread rapidly around the world. COVID-19, the third emerging coronavirus infection in humans, is caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome in some infected individuals. Previous research has revealed the possible animal origin of SARS-CoV-2, with bats considered as natural reservoirs and pangolins as intermediate hosts. To better understand COVID-19 and more successfully control the spread, domestic and wild animals have been infected in experimental conditions. On the other hand, in some species, infections have been recorded in field conditions. Natural infections have been reported in dogs, cats, tigers, lions, and minks, who have been in contact with SARS-CoV-2 positive humans. The reverse transmission of the pathogen, from infected animals to humans, has only been recorded on intensive mink farms. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease's causative agent, drugs and vaccine trials, some experimental infections were performed on animal models, of which ferrets, rhesus macaques, and hamsters proved to be the most suitable. This article aimed to consolidate known data on the potential origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission to humans, infections in animals, and their significance in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

19.
Tier..rztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere ; 49(3):229-235, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1744014

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 25 papers from the 64th Annual Meeting of the Pathology Section of the German Veterinary Medical Association. Topics include tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in mammary carcinomas in domestic rabbits;what decides good or bad? - global gene expression analysis of the adenoma of the hepatoid perianal glands and adenocarcinoma the canine apocrine anal sac glands;the canine cutaneous histiocytoma - boring or perspective in immuno-oncology?;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;characterization of murine satellite glial cells of the dorsal root ganglia - a unique cell population with potential regenerative capacities;impact of antibiotic pretreatment on ventilator-induced lung injury: contradiction between histology and transcriptome analysis?;primary diffuse leptomeningeals oligodendrogliomatosis in a cat;pathomorphological studies of fibroadnexal dysplasia in dogs;pyogranulomatous inflammation in multiple Organs of a dog with evidence of Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum;ovary tumors in cats - overview of the examination material from 2009-2020 and case report of a recurrent dysgerminoma;atherosclerosis in the dog;spinal neuroenteric cyst in one Saint Bernard;MENX - an endogenous model for pseudohypoxic pheochromocytomas;molecular Level Evolution II: similarities of CLCA2 in sauropsids and mammals;in vivo detection of double-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) as an early detection marker unclear viral infections using the example of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) in experimental infected hamsters;the role of different mast cell subtypes in the context of intestinal carcinogenesis - a species-comparative approach;an underestimated treasure in paraffin - establishment of a global transcriptome analysis canine tumors from FFPE material based on QuantSeq 3' technology;well researched? - an approximation of the role of CLCA1 in joints through usage molecular databases;integration of digitized historical and cytopathology into an open source DICOM database and viewer system;3R 3D: skin model for the study of viral infections;CARD9 signaling promotes hippocampal neurogenesis and cytokine balance in a mouse model of virus-induced encephalitis;neuropathological changes after intranasal infection with Rift Valley fever virus - a murine model for human encephalitis;a T-cell a day keeps Theiler away - the influence non-reactive T-cells on the course of a Theiler virus infection in mice with C57BL/6 background;digitization in pathology - new opportunities and their obstacles;and specific features of satellite glial cells of dog and pig.

20.
Journal of Food Safety and Quality ; 12(23):9109-9116, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717220

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare the recombinant antigen and monoclonal antibody (mAb) of nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARA-CoV-2).

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