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1.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of myopia keeps increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to map the worldwide treatment preferences of ophthalmologists managing myopia control during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: An online questionnaire inquiring about pharmacological and optical treatment patterns during the first half of 2020 was sent to pediatric ophthalmology as well as general ophthalmology memberships worldwide. The results among pediatric ophthalmologists were compared to a previous study we performed before the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 2269 respondents from 94 countries were included. Most respondents were pediatric ophthalmologists (64.6%), followed by ophthalmologists from other subspecialties (32.3%). The preferred modality for all geographical regions was a combination therapy of pharmacological and optical treatments. When evaluated independently, the pharmacological treatment was more popular than the optical treatment in most regions other than East Asia (P < 0.001). Compared to a pre-pandemic questionnaire, the participation of pediatric ophthalmologists affiliated with non-university hospitals increased. Additionally, the prevalence of respondents utilizing either any type of pharmacological treatment and those that using only evidence-based treatments increased globally. Although a decline in the use of optical treatment was evident worldwide, the use of evidence-based optical treatments increased. CONCLUSION: Ophthalmologists around the world preferred a combination therapy of pharmacological and optical treatments. More pediatric ophthalmologists treated myopia progression and preferred a better evidence-based approach to control myopia. These trends reflect a positive response and more awareness of the rising prevalence of myopia due to the increased burden of myopia imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):265-A0119, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058538

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The COVID-19 pandemic has caused societal, behavioral changes that have resulted in increased near work and less outdoor time. These changes may influence myopia progression. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional prevalence study on the population base in Olmsted County, Minnesota to determine if there are short-term changes in myopia. Methods : Individuals living in Olmsted County who received ophthalmic care at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2018 to 2021 were analyzed. Exclusion criteria included 1) visually significant cataract, 2) pseudophakia, 3) prior refractive surgery and 4) Age < 6 years. Manifest refractions were converted to spherical equivalent (SE). Patients with a SE ≤ -0.5 D were classified as myopic while SE ≤ -6.0 D were classified with high myopia. Individual age, sex, visual acuity, and lens prescription data were recorded. An algorithm was designed to estimate prevalence for patients without a manifest refraction utilizing their visual acuity, as was used in the NHANES study . Results : We sampled 11,783 invidiual records (8,413 adults;3,370 children). In adults from 2018 to 2021, the prevalence of myopia was similar at 61% vs 59% (p=0.3887) and high myopia was also similar at 10% vs 9.9% (p=0.5447). In children from 2018 to 2021, the prevalence of both myopia was similar at 21% vs 17% (p=0.2) and high myopia was also similar at 2.6% and 3.8% (p=.37). Conclusions : From 2018 to 2021, we did not find any trends in myopia development over a relatively brief, 4-year window in either pediatric or adult patients living in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

3.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):247-A0101, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058288

ABSTRACT

Purpose : To explore whether the COVID-19 lockdown increased the incidence of myopia among age-school children. Methods : Retrospective study recruiting children aged 5-12. Selection: random. Inclusion criteria: healthy children presenting for an eye exam since 2016. Exclusion criteria: presence of ocular comorbidities other than refractive error, spherical equivalent (SE) less than -4D or greater than +4D, BCVA less than 20/20, blepharoptosis, media opacities, corneal or retinal dystrophies, strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, or concurrent therapy with atropine 0.01%. Outcome measure: age measured in months, SE of the right eye (RE) measured in diopters (D) under cycloplegia (cyclopentolate 1%). Statistical analysis: ANOVA, Chi-square, Tukey's test. Significance: p < .05. Results : A total of 803 children. In the years prior to COVID-19, the mean SE ± SD diopters in the RE: 0.54 ± 1.49 D in 2016 (n = 160), 0.43 ± 1.84 D in 2017 (n = 145), 0.34 ± 1.41 D in 2018 (n = 152), 0.35 ± 1.75 D in 2019 (n = 166) (ANOVA, p = .659) (Fig. 1). In 2021 (n = 180), the mean SE was -0.08 ± 1.44 D (ANOVA, p = .005). Using the Tukey's test, the mean SE of 2021 changed by -0.619 D 95% CI [-1.091, -0.147] and -0.501 D 95% CI [-0.986, -0.016] as compared to the SE of 2016 and 2017, respectively (Fig. 2). Mean age was comparable in all groups (ANOVA, p = .307). The decrease of the mean SE of the 2021 group corresponds to an increase in the percentage of myopes (≤-0.5D) and a decrease in the percentage of hyperopes (≥ 2D). Myopes represent the 24.10% of children aged 60-96 months, and 63.86% of children aged 97-144 months. Hyperopes represent 9.64% of children aged 60-96 months, and 6.02% of children aged 97-144 months. This represents a statistically-significant increase in the number of myopes (Chi-square, p = .016) and decrease in the number of hyperopes (Chi-square, p = .001), as compared to the previous years (2016- 2019). Conclusions : This retrospective study shows a statistically-significant decrease in the mean SE in children aged 5-12 in the year following the COVID-19 lockdown (2021). The percentage of myopes has increased significantly, while the percentage of hyperopes has decreased. Children aged 8-12 years showed the greatest refractive change. The lifestyle changes imposed by the lockdown were likely responsible for the increased prevalence of myopia observed in 2021.

4.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):258-A0112, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058041

ABSTRACT

Purpose : To battle the spreading of the COVID-19 virus, all over the world measures like home confinement and nation-wide lockdowns have been implemented at regular intervals. These measures have shown an increase in myopic incidence particularly in China, which applied a very strict lockdown and home confinement. The Netherlands used a so called “intelligent lockdown” which allowed children to go outside. We evaluated the association between COVID restrictions and myopia risk factors in an European cohort of adolescents. Methods : A total of 1101 participants (mean age 16.3 ± 3.65 yrs) of the population-based prospective birth-cohort study Generation R filled in a questionnaire about their behavior before, during, and after lockdown in the Netherlands. These participants had undergone cycloplegic refractive error measurement at 13 years of age. We evaluated time spent outdoors, time spent online (handheld or other devices), time spent on near work (education and non-educational) from March-October 2020 in myopic (spherical equivalent <-0.5D) and non-myopic children. We used a repeated measures ANOVA to compare differences between these time periods, and logistic regression corrected for age, gender, and ethnicity to evaluate differences between myopic and non myopic children. Results : During and after lockdown the children spent signicantly more time online (+113 and +59min/day) on both hand held (+64 and +10 min/day) and other devices (+49 and +7 min/day), and on educational nearwork (+73 and +63min/day). Non-educational near work increased only significantly during lockdown (+176 min/day). Time spent outside did not change significantly and was ±2 hours/day. Children of non-European descent spent more time online (235min/day vs 260 min/day, P= 0.004) and on non-educational near work (452 min/day vs 559 min/day, p=0.0002). We found no significant difference in behavior between myopic and non-myopic children. Conclusions : The Dutch lockdown for COVID increased digitized near work in adolescents, but did not affect outdoor exposure. Children without myopia did not do better than those already myopic. Based on these results, we expect that the COVID pandemic will also lead to an increase in myopia prevalence and progression in European children, but to a lesser extent than in Asia.

5.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1451-F0409, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057976

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The prevalence of myopia is accelerating worldwide possibly because of the decrease in outdoor activity including COVID-19 home confinement. We have reported the effective treatments of suppressing myopia progression, including oral administration of crocetin (Mori K et al. Sci Rep. 2019) and violet light exposure (Jiang X et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2021). In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of bunazosin, known as one of the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonists, in a lens-induced myopia mouse model. Methods : C57BL/6J mice were induced myopia at 3-week-old by a method established in our research group (Jiang X et al. Sci Rep. 2018). For 3 weeks, mice were equipped with lenses in both eyes, a left for 0 D lens as internal control and a right for -30 D lens as myopia induction. During this period, we administered 0.01% bunazosin hydrochloride solution by intraperitoneal injection (IP group) and eye drop (E group) once a day, and PBS as control. Ocular components including refraction error, axial length, and choroidal thickness before and after myopia induction were measured by an infrared photorefractor and an SD-OCT. The choroidal blood flow was evaluated by an SS-OCT angiography. Results : In the eye with -30D lens of control group, significant changes in a myopic shift of refraction (p < 0.01), axial elongation (p < 0.05), and choroidal thinning (p < 0.01) compared to 0D lens were observed. In contrast, IP or E groups showed no significant difference between both eyes, suggesting myopia progression was suppressed by bunazosin treatment. The choroidal blood flow of the eye with -30D in E group (58.9±8.9%) was higher than that of the control group -30D (44.0±6.4%)(p < 0.05). Conclusions : Bunazosin has a preventive effect on myopia progression by suppressing axial elongation and choroidal thinning together with an increase of choroidal blood flow.

6.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1731-F0191, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057633

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The main purpose of this study is to describe the fundoscopic alterations and retinal vessel caliber measurements in SARS-CoV2 positive patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in Madrid (Spain) and to correlate the retinal vessel caliber with the severity of the disease. Methods : A single-center cross-sectional observational study to document the retinal vascular findings in SARS-CoV2 patients admitted to a tertiary Hospital during the first wave in Madrid, Spain. Fundoscopy was performed in both eyes (when possible) with a manual retinography Zeiss Visuscout 100. All patients signed a consent form to participate in the study. Pharmacological mydriasis prior to retinography was achieved by applying one drop of tropicamide 1% in each eye. Data collected included previous medical and ophthalmic history, prescribed medical and postural treatments, and laboratory findings at the time of admission. All cases were classified according to their outcome as per the WHO clinical progression scale on a scale of 0 to 10, with being 0 the uninfected state and 10 being death. All the retinal images were analysed by two medical retina experts independently. Retinal vessel calibers were measured by a single masked grader using a validated research software with high reproducibility.The relationship between the WHO clinical progression scale and retinal vessel caliber was assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples. Results : In total, 81 patients and 154 eyes were included in the study. The fundus retinal assessment disclosed signs of hypertensive retinopathy in 8 right eyes (OD) (8/77) and 9 left eyes (OS) (9/77);vascular tortuosity was present in 13 OD (13/77) and 13 OS (13/77);age-related macular degeneration was found in 13 OD (13/77) and 12 OS (12/77);myopic retinopathy in 3 OD (3/77) and 3 OS (3/77);finally incidental choroidal nevi were found in 4 OD (4/77) and 2 OS (2/77). The retinal microvascular caliber assessment was performed in a total of 72 eyes from 72 subjects, the right eye was used in 61 cases, left eye in the rest. There was no statistically significant difference according to vessel caliber and WHO outcome score. Conclusions : COVID-19 has been linked to an increase risk of cardiovascular events. However, we could not find a correlation among retinal vascular findings and clinical outcome in our cohort.

7.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):4368-A0305, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057601

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Although the ICL is more invasive than laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), it is indicated for patients with very high myopia, commonly over -7D. ICL is associated with certain risks including cataract and glaucoma which may develop years after surgery requiring additional procedures. In this study, we examined the outcome and safety profile of ICL vs. LASIK at 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year postoperatively. Methods : In this retrospective study, we examined records from a single surgeon (KK) as well as 2 patients with post ICL complications requiring ICL removal. An important aim of this study was to use the 1 year follow up data since this is one of the standard ICL follow up visits. We hypothesized that the FDA approved ICL (2005) would have a comparable target refractive outcome and safety profile when compared to LASIK. Results : There were a total of 45 ICL eyes and 65 LASIK eyes. Preoperatively, ICL patients had a significantly higher manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) and cycloplegic refraction spherical equivalent (CRSE) than LASIK patients (p<0.05). For patients who received the ICL implants, the average MRSE at 1-week, 1-month, 1-year post-op was -0.37D±(0.13), -0.29D±(0.09), -0.53D±(0.15);and -1.60D±(0.16), -0.36D±(0.15), -0.36D±(0.07) for patients who received LASIK. The differences in post-op MRSE between ICL and LASIK were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The only significant differences were 1 month LogMAR best corrected visual acuity and 1 year LogMAR distance uncorrected visual acuity (p<0.05), in which LASIK had better visual acuity. Common postoperative findings in both groups were refractive target deviations and punctate keratitis. Reoperation rates in the ICL and LASIK groups were 21.4% and 10.8% respectively, which was not statistically significant (p>0.05). 42.6% of ICL patients underwent the procedure during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 26.2% of LASIK. Conclusions : Our results demonstrate that ICL is safe and effective for patients with high myopia. Although ICL patients had a significantly higher preoperative MRSE compared to the LASIK group, the ICL patients were able to achieve similar refractive targets. There were no cases of glaucoma or cataract at 1 year in the ICL group. In conclusion, ICL surgery is as safe and effective as LASIK surgery in correcting patients with high myopia, regardless of pre-operative refractive error.

8.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):248-A0102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057480

ABSTRACT

Purpose : To investigate the effect of online learning and other environmental factors on myopia progression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods : A retrospective, cohort study on children aged from 6 to 14 years with myopia. Data were gathered from 3 visits;pre-COVID 19, at the beginning of the pandemic, and during the pandemic. Patients' demographics (number of hours spent on screens for educational and recreational purposes, type of screen used, and number of hours spent outdoors), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and cycloplegic refraction to quantify spherical equivalent (SE) were measured for all participants. Progression of myopia was calculated based on difference between the three visits. Results : One hundred and fifty patients met our inclusion criteria. Mean age was 11±2.4 years. There were 70 males (47%). They mainly used mobile phones (62%) and had insufficient outdoor play (88%). Out of 300 eyes, 221 (74%) had progression in myopia. A significant difference was found in SE between pre-COVID-19 (-0.29 ±0.23) and post-COVID-19 (-0.40 ±0.11) with a p-value of 0.023. Additionally, UCVA showed difference between the initial Vs. 1st follow-up visit (0.57±0.37 vs 0.64±0.36, p-value =0.001), and first follow-up visit Vs. 2nd follow-up visit (0.64±0.36 vs 0.70±0.36, p-value =0.001). Survival analysis showed significant hazard ratio on change in SE for high age group (>9 years), (HR [95% CI], 0.71 [0.51-0.84]), recreational screen usage (HR [95% CI], 1.26 [1.15-1.66]) and insufficient outdoor time (HR [95% CI], 1.45 [1.35-1.67]). Conclusions : Myopia progression was accelerated compared to pre-COVID-19 times in terms of spherical equivalent. Younger age group, prolonged screen users and insufficient outdoor time contributed to the further increase in myopia. However, the type of device had no effect statistically on the progression of myopia.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(8): 3040-3044, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055701

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Novel coronavirus has brought huge changes in lifestyle, especially among children. Reports indicate that the prevalence of refractive errors among children has increased due to home confinement. Hence, this study was done to understand the current status of refractive errors among children from public schools in southern India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of school eye screening conducted between September and October 2021. Children between 14 and 17 years of age from public schools underwent a three-phased comprehensive eye examination. Children identified with refractive errors and an equal proportion of children without any refractive errors underwent a survey on outdoor activities. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Chi-square tests and regression analysis were used to understand the association between refractive error and other variables. Results: From the data of 3,850 (90.69%) children, the prevalence of vision impairment, refractive errors, and myopia in at least one eye was found to be 12.83% (n = 494), 21.51% (n = 828), and 19.53% (n = 752), respectively. The average myopic spherical equivalent error was found to be -2.17 ± 1.11D (range:-0.50 D to -14.00 D). Almost 96.82% of girls had less than 3 h of outdoor activities. Refractive errors were 7.42 and 2.77 times more (95% CI: 3.51-15.70), P < 0.001) among children who had outdoor activities less than 3 h per day and sleep less than 7 h per day. Conclusion: Comparing to previous studies from North Indian and South Indian public schools, this study reports a three- to six-fold rise in myopia post-home confinement among public school children from India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Refractive Errors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Myopia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Refractive Errors/epidemiology
10.
J Pers Med ; 12(8)2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023831

ABSTRACT

The changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness after orthokeratology are crucial in myopia retardation; this study aimed to identify the risk factors that could be incorporated into a predictive model for subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) that would provide further personalized and clinically specific information for myopia control. A one-year prospective study was conducted in the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. Basic information (age, gender, and height) was collected from all subjects. Initial spherical equivalent, axial length, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured, and the ocular environmental factors were also collected. All the measured parameters were recorded in the follow-up period for one year. After the analysis of univariate analysis, statistically significant factors were substituted into the multivariate three-level model. Thirty-three adolescents aged 8-14 years old were enrolled in this study; the results show that the subfoveal choroidal thickness in both eyes changed significantly after 12 months of lens wearing (pR < 0.0001, pL < 0.0001). The axial length was negatively correlated with the change in the SFChT after 12 months of lens wearing (r = -0.511, p = 0.002). After multilevel model analysis, the statistically significant factor was shown to have an important influence on the changes in the subfoveal choroidal thickness, which was the average near-work time. This suggested that the SFChT personal predictions can be made regarding changes in myopic adolescents after orthokeratology using the factor of daily average near-work time. Clinical practitioners will benefit from the results by obtaining a better understanding of the effects of orthokeratology on choroid and myopia progression.

11.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1605028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023044

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the changes of vision, including the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, poor vision, and the spherical equivalent refraction (SER), in school-aged children before and after the pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A school-based vision screening study was performed on children in 133 primary schools in Wuhan. This study was conducted in 4 consecutive years (2018-2021). Results: A total of 468,094 children (936,188 eyes) were recruited, 255,863 (54.7%) were boys. The SER decreased in 2020 compared to other years after the age of 10. A positive myopia shift was found in younger children aged 6 (0.1 D), 7 (0.05D), and 8 (0.03 D) in 2020 compared to 2019. The progression of vision has improved slightly in 2021. Among the students included in the study, 33.7% were myopia. Conclusion: The vision of older children decreased significantly during the COVID-19. After the pandemic, there is still a high risk for them. In the future, the focus on vision prevention and control should move forward to preschool children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Refraction, Ocular , Schools
12.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(4):1921-1927, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003368

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Myopia is a major health issue in our society. There is a large number of proportion remain undiagnosed. High myopia can be associated with multiple consequences as myopic retinopathy, myopic macular degeneration, retinal detachment and amblyopia. The aim of our study to focus on magnitude of childhood myopia, increase awareness for myopia in our society so that we can reduce vision threatening sequelae in children. Methods: Study was conducted in ophthalmology department and ENT department government medical college Saharanpur, medicine department Uttar Pradesh medical sciences, Saifai and pediatric department GTB medical college New Delhi. Children between 7 to 16 years with ametropia included in the study to find out magnitude of myopia among them. Result: A total of 1460 children between the age of 7-16 years with complains of eyeache, headache, heaviness of head diminution of vision, and with other asthenopic symptoms included in the study. Among these 320 children were myopic. It shows high magnitude of myopia in children. Out of these myopic children mild grade myopic children were in high proportion (35.9%). Conclusion: The study showed the pattern of myopia in children in Indian population. Screening in schools and early diagnosis of refractive error affect the learning and performances of children. In our study we showed the pattern of severity of myopia in children. Study also showed the effect of digital screen time of children with myopia.

13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 835449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987559

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has made many countries adopt restrictive measures like home quarantine. Children were required to study at home, which made parents worried about the rapid myopic progression of their children. To compare myopia progression during the COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine with the time before it and risk factors of myopia progression, we conducted this study. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to find literature from December 2019 to March 2022 related to COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine and children's myopia progression. Outcomes of myopia progression included axial length and spherical equivalent refraction. Factors of digital screen device time and outdoor activity time were analyzed. Results: Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to the same period before the COVID-19 pandemic, spherical equivalent refraction decreased (OR = -0.27; 95% CI = [-0.33, -0.21]; Z = 8.42; P < 0.00001). However, the subgroup analysis showed that there were no significant differences in spherical equivalent refraction between the two groups in higher-grade school-aged children (grades 4 and above, 11 to 18 years old) (OR = 0.01; 95% CI = [-0.05, 0.07]; Z =0.4; P = 0.69). The outcome of axial length showed no significant difference (OR = 0.06; 95% CI = [-0.31, 0.44]; Z = 0.34; P = 0.74). As for risk factors, the forest plots showed that digital screen device time (OR = 4.56; 95% CI = [4.45, 4.66]; Z = 85.57; P < 0.00001) and outdoor activity time (OR = -1.82; 95% CI = [-2.87, -0.76]; Z = 3.37; P = 0.0008) were risk factors of myopia progression. Conclusion: Compared with the time before the COVID-19 pandemic, myopia progression in children during COVID-19 pandemic home quarantine was accelerated, especially in younger children. Increased digital screen device and decreased outdoor activity times were risk factors. When home quarantine eases, more time on outdoor activities and less time on digital screen devices are needed for children. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/logout.php.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quarantine , Refraction, Ocular
14.
Clin Optom (Auckl) ; 14: 125-131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978921

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated specific public health measures, resulting in the alteration of lifestyles, such as increased digital screen time and fewer outdoor activities. Such conditions have increased the progression of myopia in children. However, no investigation of myopia progression in early adulthood has been conducted during this period. Consequently, this study aimed to evaluate the outbreak of COVID-19-related myopia progression among adults at an optometry clinic during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study in which participants aged 18-25 years who first visited (baseline) the optometry clinic between June 2019 and March 2020 were recruited for follow-up from November 2021 to March 2022. Spherical equivalent refraction (SER), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA), and binocular cross cylinder (BCC) were recorded at baseline and a follow-up visit. Using questionnaires, a survey was conducted to assess the lifestyle changes that transpired during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: In total, 37 participants with a mean age of 22.5±1.4 years were enrolled, of which 89.2% were female. Following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, most participants self-reported increased daily use of digital devices (89.2%), online education (86.5%), and spending more time at home (94.6%), which increased by approximately 7.6±3.2 hours, 5.9±1.7 hours, and 13.2±7.5 hours, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between SER and BCC at baseline and after approximately 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.05). The mean two-year myopia progression was -0.59±0.67 D (Maximum = 0.00 D, Minimum = -3.38 D). Conclusion: This study revealed that myopia could progress during adulthood among those who have lived under public health measures intended to address the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Children (Basel) ; 9(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969108

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people from almost all facets of life and it's impact is extremely palpable among students. In this review paper, we discuss about the risk factors for myopia progression that were exacerbated by the pandemic, which are supported by evidence from studies published recently. It is imperative that measures are put in place to address the rising incidence of myopia so as to prevent the impending myopia pandemic.

16.
Taiwan Gong Gong Wei Sheng Za Zhi ; 41(3):276-285, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964513

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected lifestyles and health worldwide, forcing countries to adopt different levels of epidemic prevention. In addition to restricting outdoor activities, some governments have suspended in-person classes, switching to online learning. Multiple scholars have conducted studies confirming that the prevalence of myopia among school children has worsened due to the implementation of pandemic restrictions. Since May 2020, the Taiwanese government has suspended all in-person classes, club activities, after-school tutoring, and parenting classes at schools, further escalating health experts' concerns about myopia. A literature review suggests that since the beginning of the pandemic, the prevalence of myopia increased considerably among school children, as they spent less than 1 hour in outdoor activities and at least 1 hour in online classes per day, often relying on mobile phones to complete coursework. Children also spent substantially more time engaged in close visual work and other screenrelated activities. During the pandemic, annual growth of diopter and axial length in school children were approximately >0.5-0.98 D and >0.2 mm, respectively. However, neither foreign nor domestic studies have proposed specific strategies for myopia prevention in the postpandemic era. Therefore, based on the literature review, this study proposes the following solutions: (1) strengthen life skills of children and parents in limiting close visual work;(2) assist teachers in adapting curriculum for online learning;(3) implement guidelines for the use and management of 3C products;and (4) introduce technological monitoring and tracking products. These 4 responses may prevent eyesight deterioration in school children due to pandemic restrictions. (Taiwan J Public Health. 2022;41(3):276-285)

17.
Adv Ther ; 39(6): 2999-3010, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959164

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To investigate changes in refractive error in schoolchildren before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This study included 2792 students, who underwent a 3-year follow-up from 2018 to 2020. All participants underwent yearly noncycloplegic refraction and ocular examinations. Time-related changes in sphere, cylinder, and spherical equivalent (SE) measurements in both genders were analyzed. RESULTS: The myopic sphere (- 0.78 ± 1.83 vs. - 1.03 ± 1.91 D; P = 0.025) and SE (- 1.04 ± 1.90 vs. - 1.32 ± 1.99 D; P = 0.015) progressed significantly from 2018 to 2019. Female participants had a significantly greater change in SE than male participants (P < 0.05), and the low hyperopia, emmetropia, and mild myopia groups significantly deteriorated (P < 0.001) from 2018 to 2019. Significant differences in sphere change (- 0.21 ± 0.97 vs. - 0.36 ± 0.96 D; P < 0.001) and SE change (- 0.23 ± 0.99 vs. - 0.38 ± 0.98 D; P < 0.001) were noted between 2019-2018 and 2020-2019, respectively. The respective changes in cylinder were statistically similar (- 0.03 ± 0.53 vs. - 0.05 ± 0.62 D; P = 0.400). CONCLUSIONS: The refractive status of schoolchildren showed an increasing myopic shift trend before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The low hyperopia, emmetropia, and mild myopia groups were more sensitive to environmental changes during COVID-19 than before. The myopic shift was greater in female participants than male participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hyperopia , Myopia , Refractive Errors , Child , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperopia/epidemiology , Male , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Refractive Errors/epidemiology
18.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt ; 42(6): 1227-1231, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study compared refractive and axial length (AL) changes in children wearing dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control (MiSight®) with myopic children wearing spectacles one year from the start of lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive, parallel-group, observational study reviewed the charts of 11 children who began treatment for myopia control with dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control (MiSight®) in March 2020 and 11 matched spectacle-wearing controls. The mean increase in spherical equivalent refraction (SER) and AL from the beginning of the lockdown and up to 1 year later were compared. The parents of the children were asked about the average time spent on near work, contact lens wearing time both during and after the strict confinement and whether they had discontinued contact lens wear during lockdown. RESULTS: During this first year of preventive COVID-19 measures (March 2020-March 2021), for the contact lens group the average SER and AL increased -0.14 ± 0.09D and 0.13 ± 0.05 mm, respectively. For the spectacle wearers, the corresponding increases were -0.54 ± 0.16D and 0.25 ± 0.08 mm, respectively. A significant difference was found between the groups for both SER (p < 0.001) and AL (p < 0.05). The average time spent outdoors was restricted for both groups during lockdown and increased after. However, statistically significant changes in the time spent outdoors during and after lockdown were only found for the spectacle group (p < 0.05; t-test), whereas this change was not significant for the contact lens group (p = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Over the observed time period, dual-focus soft contact lenses for myopia control were effective despite the decreased time spent outdoors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Myopia/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Refraction, Ocular , Retrospective Studies
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 897600, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952857

ABSTRACT

The myopia epidemic has become a global public health problem. Although myopia is progressing worldwide, the recent coronavirus infections 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has spurred myopia progression. The current evidence-based treatments for humans are atropine eye drops, optical treatment with defocus, use of orthokeratology, extending proximity working distance, pausing from near work every half hour and increased time outside the home. Studies on myopia using animal models have been conducted for more than 40 years. In recent years, new mechanisms of myopia suppression have been revealed from animal experiments such as inflammation control, intraocular pressure control, light control, and the activity of early growth response protein 1 control. This mini-review provides a summary of the scientific evidence currently available on the control of myopia, and the possible treatments mitigating myopia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , Atropine/therapeutic use , Disease Progression , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Myopia/therapy , Ophthalmic Solutions
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 918182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938654

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To review the association between children's behavioral changes during the restriction due to the pandemic of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the development and progression of myopia. Design: A literature review. Method: We looked for relevant studies related to 1) children's behavioral changes from COVID-19 restriction and 2) children's myopia progression during COVID-19 restriction by using the following keywords. They were "Behavior," "Activity," "COVID-19," "Lockdown," "Restriction," and "Children" for the former; "Myopia," "COVID-19," "Lockdown," "Restriction" for the latter. Titles, abstracts and full texts from the retrieved studies were screened and all relevant data were summarized, analyzed, and discussed. Results: Children were less active and more sedentary during COVID-19 restriction. According to five studies from China and six studies, each from Hong Kong, Spain, Israel, South Korea, Turkey and Taiwan included in our review, all countries without myopia preventive intervention supported the association between the lockdown and myopia progression by means of negative SER change ranging from 0.05-0.6 D, more negative SER change (compared post- to pre-lockdown) ranging from 0.71-0.98 D and more negative rate of SER changes (compared post- to pre-lockdown) ranging from 0.05-0.1 D/month. The reported factor that accelerated myopia is an increase in total near work, while increased outdoor activity is a protective factor against myopia progression. Conclusion: The pandemic of COVID-19 provided an unwanted opportunity to assess the effect of the behavioral changes and myopia in the real world. There is sufficient evidence to support the association between an increase in near work from home confinement or a reduction of outdoor activities and worsening of myopia during the COVID-19 lockdown. The findings from this review of data from the real world may help better understanding of myopia development and progression, which may lead to adjustment of behaviors to prevent myopia and its progression in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Factors
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