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1.
Biomark Med ; 16(9): 681-692, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834208

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the prediction capacity of urinary biomarkers for death in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Methods: This is a prospective study with critically ill patients due to COVID-19 infection. The urinary biomarkers NGAL, KIM-1, MCP-1 and nephrin were quantified on ICU admission. Results: There was 40% of death. Urinary nephrin and MCP-1 had no association with death. Tubular biomarkers (proteinuria, NGAL and KIM-1) were predictors of death and cut-off values of them for death were useful in stratify patients with worse prognosis. In a multivariate cox regression analysis, only NGAL remains associated with a two-mount survival chance. Conclusion: Kidney tubular biomarkers, mostly urinary NGAL, had useful capacity to predict death in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Biomarkers , Critical Illness , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Prospective Studies
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 30, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AKI is related to severe adverse outcomes and mortality with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, that early diagnosed and intervened is imperative. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is one of the most promising biomarkers for detection of acute kidney injury (AKI), but current detection methods are inadequacy, so more rapid, convenient and accuracy methods are needed to detect NGAL for early diagnosis of AKI. Herein, we established a rapid, reliable and accuracy lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on europium nanoparticles (EU-NPS) for the detection of NGAL in human urine specimens. METHODS: A double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay using europium doped nanoparticles was employed and the NGAL monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) conjugate as labels were generated by optimizing electric fusion parameters. Eighty-three urine samples were used to evaluate the clinical application efficiency of this method. RESULTS: The quantitative detection range of NGAL in AKI was 1-3000 ng/mL, and the detection sensitization was 0.36 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation (CV) of intra-assay and inter-assay were 2.57-4.98 % and 4.11-7.83 %, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation coefficient between europium nanoparticles-based lateral fluorescence immunoassays (EU-NPS-LFIA) and ARCHITECT analyzer was significant (R2 = 0.9829, n = 83, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, a faster and easier operation quantitative assay of NGAL for AKI has been established, which is very important and meaningful to diagnose the early AKI, suggesting that the assay can provide an early warning of final outcome of disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Europium , Fluoroimmunoassay/methods , Lipocalin-2/urine , Metal Nanoparticles , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , COVID-19/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Lipocalin-2/immunology , Mice , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637531

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of asymptomatic infection and the occurrence of symptomatic COVID-19 on specific biochemical, renal, and immune parameters-renalase, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) cystatin C (CysC), and creatinine-and their weekly fluctuations during a one-month observation period in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital. The study involved 86 individuals: 30 patients with diagnosed COVID-19, 28 people with asymptomatic infection confirmed with IgG antibodies-the IG(+) group-and 28 individuals without any (IgG, IgE) anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies-the IG(-) group. In the COVID-19 group, blood was drawn four times: (1) on day 0/1 after admission to hospital (C1 group), (2) 7 days later (C7 group), (3) 14 days later (C14 group), and (4) 28 days later (C28 group). In the IG(-) and IG(+) groups, blood was drawn once. There were no significant differences in creatinine, Cys C, and uric acid between any of the analyzed groups. NGAL levels were significantly higher in IG(+) and at all time-points in the COVID-19 groups than in controls. A similar observation was made for renalase at the C7, C14, and C28 time-points. Plasma renalase, NGAL, and CysC are unrelated to kidney function in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients and those with asymptomatic infection. Renalase and NGAL are most likely related to the activation of the immune system rather than kidney function. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a rise in plasma NGAL levels similar to those observed in symptomatic COVID-19 patients. Therefore, more attention should be paid to tracking and monitoring the health of these people.

4.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 79(2): 257-267.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575031

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with poor outcomes. Urinary biomarkers have been associated with adverse kidney outcomes in other settings and may provide additional prognostic information in patients with COVID-19. We investigated the association between urinary biomarkers and adverse kidney outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 (n=153) at 2 academic medical centers between April and June 2020. EXPOSURE: 19 urinary biomarkers of injury, inflammation, and repair. OUTCOME: Composite of KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) stage 3 AKI, requirement for dialysis, or death within 60 days of hospital admission. We also compared various kidney biomarker levels in the setting of COVID-19 versus other common AKI settings. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression to associate biomarker level with composite outcome. RESULTS: Out of 153 patients, 24 (15.7%) experienced the primary outcome. Twofold higher levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (HR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.14-1.57]), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) (HR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.09-1.84]), and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.99]) were associated with highest risk of sustaining primary composite outcome. Higher epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels were associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47-0.79]). Individual biomarkers provided moderate discrimination and biomarker combinations improved discrimination for the primary outcome. The degree of kidney injury by biomarker level in COVID-19 was comparable to other settings of clinical AKI. There was evidence of subclinical AKI in COVID-19 patients based on elevated injury biomarker level in patients without clinical AKI defined by serum creatinine. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size with low number of composite outcome events. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary biomarkers are associated with adverse kidney outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and may provide valuable information to monitor kidney disease progression and recovery.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Creatinine , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(12): 2979-2992, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Loss of kidney function is a common feature of COVID-19 infection, but serum creatinine (SCr) is not a sensitive or specific marker of kidney injury. We tested whether molecular biomarkers of tubular injury measured at hospital admission were associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in those with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort observational study consisting of 444 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 enrolled in the Columbia University emergency department (ED) at the peak of the pandemic in New York (March 2020-April 2020). Urine and blood were collected simultaneously at hospital admission (median time: day 0, interquartile range: 0-2 days), and urine biomarkers were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel dipstick. Kidney biopsies were probed for biomarker RNA and for histopathologic acute tubular injury (ATI) scores. RESULTS: Admission urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) level was associated with AKI diagnosis (267 ± 301 vs. 96 ± 139 ng/ml, P < 0.0001) and staging; uNGAL levels >150 ng/ml had 80% specificity and 75% sensitivity to diagnose AKI stages 2 to 3. Admission uNGAL level quantitatively associated with prolonged AKI, dialysis, shock, prolonged hospitalization, and in-hospital death, even when admission SCr level was not elevated. The risk of dialysis increased almost 4-fold per SD of uNGAL independently of baseline SCr, comorbidities, and proteinuria (odds ratio [OR] [95% CI]: 3.59 [1.83-7.45], P < 0.001). In the kidneys of those with COVID-19, NGAL mRNA expression broadened in parallel with severe histopathologic injury (ATI). Conversely, low uNGAL levels at admission ruled out stages 2 to 3 AKI (negative predictive value: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97) and the need for dialysis (negative predictive value: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-0.99). Although proteinuria and urinary (u)KIM-1 were implicated in tubular injury, neither was diagnostic of AKI stages. CONCLUSION: In the patients with COVID-19, uNGAL level was quantitatively associated with histopathologic injury (ATI), loss of kidney function (AKI), and severity of patient outcomes.

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