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1.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2069095

ABSTRACT

With the publication of the Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (H-EDRM) Frame-work in 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) emphasized the need for disaster prepared-ness in all sectors of the health system, including primary health care (PHC). PHC disaster pre-paredness plays a crucial role in guaranteeing continuity of care and responding to the health needs of vulnerable populations during disasters. While this is universally acknowledged as an important component of disaster management (DM), there is still a severe paucity of scholarship addressing how to practically ensure that a PHC system is prepared for disasters. The objective of this study is to propose a new framework that describes key characteristics for PHC disaster pre-paredness and lays the groundwork to deliver operational recommendations to assess and im-prove PHC disaster preparedness. A systematic literature review was performed and a total of 145 records were analyzed. Twenty-five characteristics that contribute to a well-prepared PHC system were identified and categorized according to the WHO Health System Building Blocks to form a new PHC disaster preparedness framework. The findings will contribute to the elaboration of a set of guidelines for PHC systems to follow in order to assess and then boost their disaster pre-paredness. This manuscript will hopefully help to raise awareness among international policy -makers and health practitioners on the importance to design interventions that integrate the PHC system into overall DM strategies, as well as to assess the preparedness of PHC systems in differ-ent political, developmental, and cultural contexts.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12864, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066471

ABSTRACT

The agricultural futures market plays an extremely important role in price discovery, hedging risks, integrating agricultural markets and promoting agricultural economic growth. China is the largest apple producer and consumer in the world. In 2017, Chinese apple futures were listed on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (CZCE) as the first fruit futures contract globally. This paper aims to study the efficiency of the apple futures market by using the Wild Bootstrapping Variance Ratio model to estimate the price discovery function, the ARIMA-GARCH model to estimate the risk-hedging function, and the ARDL-ECM model to estimate the cointegration relationship of the futures and spot market. Experimental results firstly demonstrate that the apple futures market conforms to the weak-form efficiency, which indicates that it is efficient in price discovery. Secondly, the apple futures market is not of semi-strong efficiency because it generated abnormal profit margins amid China–US trade friction, climate disaster, and COVID-19;in terms of the degree of impact, the COVID-19 pandemic had the greatest impact, followed by the rainstorm disaster and trade friction. Thirdly, the results of this study indicate that the cointegration relationships exist between the futures market and the spot markets of the main producing areas. This paper is not only conducive to sustainable development of the global fresh or fruit futures market, but also has potential and practical importance for China in developing the agricultural futures market, strengthening market risk management and promoting market circulation.

3.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1082(1):012021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2037344

ABSTRACT

Flood is acknowledged as the most common natural disaster in several parts of the globe. For Malaysia, flood is considered as the most frequent natural disaster, with the frequency of at least once a year. The risks of flood can be seen through property loss and damages, infrastructure casualties, and disruption to socio-economic activities. Adding to that, Malaysia also faced the flood during the pandemic when it hit several states, namely Pahang, Johor, and Kelantan, during the monsoon season in 2020 and 2021, amid the rising cases of Covid-19. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant challenges for disaster response, calling for the “new norms” to be quickly established for better disaster risk reduction. Several mitigation strategies have been taken by the government to reduce the risks of floods in Malaysia. As office buildings possess important roles in delivering effective services to the public while maintaining their critical documents, this paper focuses on providing related literature on building resilience. Having an early understanding of the core elements of office building resilience in dual disaster challenges will provide the basis for further investigation in the later stage of data collection.

4.
RESEARCH IN TIMES OF CRISIS: Research Methods in the Time of COVID-19 ; 13:75-97, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2030856

ABSTRACT

Natural disasters and other crises present methodological challenges to organizational researchers. While these challenges are well canvassed in the literature, less attention has been paid to understanding how distinct crisis events may present, not only unique challenges, but also important opportunities for research. In this chapter, we draw on our collective experience of conducting post-earthquake research and compare this with the COVID-19 pandemic context in order to identify and discuss the inherent vulnerabilities associated with disaster studies and the subsequent methodological challenges and opportunities that researchers might encounter. Adopting a critical perspective, the chapter grapples with some of the more contentious issues associated with research in a disaster and crisis context including aspects of stakeholder engagement, ethics, reciprocity, inequality, and vulnerability.

5.
British Journal of Child Health ; 3(4):199-203, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2025625

ABSTRACT

The last years have been characterised by disasters and tragic events, leading to an extremely negative news cycle. Stephanie Thornton discusses the impact this can have on children and young people's mental health and wellbeing.

6.
PLoS Climate ; 1(3), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021470

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade many large world cities have scaled up efforts at climate adaptation, a primary focus of which is protecting population health. With extreme weather disasters increasing worldwide, public health agencies are among local institutions under greatest stress;the Covid-19 pandemic has only heightened pressure on these agencies. Yet the limited literature examining adaptation actions across world cities suggest few, mainly high-income cities report health-related adaptation, while city public health agency engagement in adaptation has received little research attention. In this comparative review, we aimed to characterize the public health role in the adaptation plans of 22 large cities pre-identified as highly health-adaptive, by examining five health-associated adaptation activities chosen as "promising practice" based on evidence synthesized from evaluation research and practical experience: (i) hazard and vulnerability mapping;(ii) extreme weather preparedness and response;(iii) extreme heat plans (including heat early warning);(iv) non-heat early warning (e.g., flooding, vector-borne disease);and (v) climate-health monitoring and outcome surveillance. We found most (90%) city adaptation plans reported actions in at least three of these five activity areas. However, only 73% of these health-focused plans reported involvement of a public health agency (though the share was higher for cities in low- and middle-income countries). We detected differences across the five activities, including an ascending pattern of public health engagement starting with heat plans and including activities such as preparedness and mapping as health agency involvement increased. We also identified substantial presence of other city agencies-notably urban planning, emergency management and public utilities-in implementing these health-associated activities. With every world region likely to experience more widespread and intensifying climate impacts, and growing pressure on local public health agencies in conjunction with the Covid-19 pandemic, we identify opportunities for enhancing public health engagement in climate adaptation in large cities with a view to scaling up their ability to contribute to climate adaptation goals.

7.
5th International Conference on Big Data and Education, ICBDE 2022 ; : 353-360, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020387

ABSTRACT

The number of fake news created and shared has rapidly increased during the COVID-19 [9]. This paper analyzes the articles from the Irish Times using IBM Cognos Analytics. Its main goal is to find the trends of headline news through the years by different topics and relevant keywords. Almost 1.5 million headlines of the Irish Times from January 1st, 1996 to December 31st, 2019 were collected and analyzed. The contents of each headline were cleaned and matched with three different topics (War, Natural Disasters, and Irish Politics) based on keywords representative from each of these topics. We identified trends for each of the topics analyzed for the number of articles published throughout 1996 to 2019, and correlations with particular historical events. The results showed that the news section has been the most abundant in the Irish Times. In addition, results also have revealed the frequency of Politics keywords increase whenever election seasons approach, and the frequency of natural disasters keywords increase when natural disasters occur. This research can be implemented to see war, natural disasters, and the political side of Ireland and infer from its frequencies. There has been much research on the headlines of newspapers in general by country, and by specific topics like traffic accidents [7], or areas of sentiment analysis. This research is a part of sentiment analysis, more focused on The Irish Times' news headline opinion mining. © 2022 ACM.

8.
Issues & Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020359

ABSTRACT

How do state leaders use crisis management to strengthen state infrastructural power? What explains the strategic choices of a state's selective institutionalization of crisis measures? Crises offer unique opportunities for state-building, yet the role of crisis management in consolidating state power is underexamined. This paper explores these important issues by examining how the Chinese government has deployed wartime-like measures in battling the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. While authorities in China have adopted unconventional measures in managing the crises, they have selectively normalized ad hoc practices and institutionalized certain measures to strengthen state infrastructural power once they have ended or been temporarily contained. Drawing on the frameworks of rational choice and historical institutionalism, our analysis suggests that the central government normalizes or institutionalizes measures that help to consolidate its control of the bureaucracy and enhance regime legitimacy.

9.
IMF Economic Review ; 70(3):590-623, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2016993

ABSTRACT

To understand the longer-term consequences of natural disasters for global value chains, this paper examines trade in the automobile and electronic sectors after the 2011 earthquake in Japan. Contrary to widespread expectations, we find that the shock did not lead to reshoring, nearshoring, or diversification across non-Japanese suppliers;and trade in intermediate products was disrupted less than trade in final goods. Imports did shift to new suppliers, especially where dependence on Japan was greater. But production relocated to developing countries rather than to other top exporters, and to larger countries. The results, showing relative inertia in intermediate goods and the dominance of economic fundamentals (cost and scale) in determining sourcing decisions, may help us understand supply chain adjustment after other natural disasters, like the COVID-19 pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of IMF Economic Review is the property of Macmillan Publishers Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010669

ABSTRACT

These proceedings contain 59 articles focusing the discussion on the roles of the COVID-19 vaccine against climate change, as well as formulating comprehensive and efficient strategies on how to increase the effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine against climate change. Topics also revolve around areas such as: impact of depletion or enhancement of air, water, soil, and vegetation resource capabilities;strategy for environmental disaster reduction research;pollution and contamination of land surface and atmosphere;climate model and uneven precipitation distribution;the implication of climate adaptation and mitigation research;carbon footprint, greenhouse gas emission, recycle and reuse energy research;policy and legal aspect of climate change;infrastructures risks and planning on climate adaptation;marine ecosystem affected by climate change;and direct and indirect risks to wellbeing.

11.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(6):517-520, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1391481

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in June 2021. Methods: An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results: Generally speaking, it is predicted that the incidence of public health emergencies would be similar in June with May. The risk of imported cases and secondary infections of COVID-19 would continue to exist, but would be controllable. It is the high incidence season of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and most cases would be sporadic, however, the risk of cluster exits especially in previous epidemic areas. The incidences of food poisoning caused by toxic animal or plant or poisonous mushroom would increase significantly, and the incidences of food poisoning caused by microbe would be high. The earthquake-stricken areas such as Yunnan and Qinghai should further strengthen post-disaster public health responses. The potential flood-stricken areas predicted by the meteorological department need to pay attention to the risks of water-borne, food-borne and vector-borne diseases that may increase after the disaster. Conclusion: Special attention should be paid to COVID-19, and general attention should be paid to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, food poisoning and natural disaster.

12.
Webb.
Mining Weekly ; 28(9), 2022.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1970997
13.
2022 International Power Electronics Conference, IPEC-Himeji 2022-ECCE Asia ; : 288-294, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964966

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, large-scale natural disasters have frequently occurred at many places. To deal with the interruption of electricity supply due to natural disasters, many companies require to enhance resilience of office buildings. Introducing remote work is one of the ways to control their power demand. However, the existing disaster energy simulation models have not considered in detail how building users use electricity in the case of a grid outage, so the introduction of remote work could not be considered. This study proposes a model in which business damage costs are incurred according to the reduction in the number of employees in the office. In the proposed model, the power demand is broken down by the priority of working in the office. Using the cost model, we construct the simulation method that minimizes the cost of business damage in the case of a disaster by moving to remote work. We apply operational data to our simulation model assuming offices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and conduct simulations of business continuity for 72 hours in the case of a sudden grid outage. From the results, it was found that the cost of business damage can be suppressed when remote work is regularly introduced during COVID-19. © 2022 IEEJ-IAS.

14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808523, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963572

ABSTRACT

India suffered from a devastating 2021 spring outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), surpassing any other outbreaks before. However, the reason for the acceleration of the outbreak in India is still unknown. We describe the statistical characteristics of infected patients from the first case in India to June 2021, and trace the causes of the two outbreaks in a complete way, combined with data on natural disasters, environmental pollution and population movements etc. We found that water-to-human transmission accelerates COVID-19 spreading. The transmission rate is 382% higher than the human-to-human transmission rate during the 2020 summer outbreak in India. When syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the human body directly through the water-oral transmission pathway, virus particles and nitrogen salt in the water accelerate viral infection and mutation rates in the gastrointestinal tract. Based on the results of the attribution analysis, without the current effective interventions, India could have experienced a third outbreak during the monsoon season this year, which would have increased the severity of the disaster and led to a South Asian economic crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water
15.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1962475

ABSTRACT

Due to events such as natural disasters and navigation equipment failures, enormous calamity may be caused by the interruption of the navigation network which is a guarantee for the flight safety of civil aviation aircraft. The navigation network consists of the navigation stations as nodes and the routes between them as edges. Different nodes have different effects on the vulnerability of the network due to their different abilities to maintain the stability of the network topology and the normal function of the network. To quantify this difference and identify key nodes that have a greater impact on the vulnerability of the navigation network, an indicator to assess the importance of a navigation station is proposed which combines the structural importance reflected by node topology centrality and functional importance reflected by node weight. The structural importance of a node corresponds to its topology features including local dominance of the node and its global influence, and the important contribution to both adjacent and nonadjacent nodes from this node, while the functional importance is indicated by the flight flow serviced by the node during a fixed period of time. Vulnerability evaluation shows that the navigation network is more vulnerable when subject to the intentional attack of nodes with higher comprehensive node importance than an intentional attack of nodes with a larger value of indicators used in previous literature. Finally, the vulnerability of the navigation network is improved through changing the topology of the most critical node and balancing the node importance of the whole network.

16.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

17.
Nat Hazards (Dordr) ; 113(3): 1875-1901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942457

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has once again made the impacts of natural disasters a hot topic in academia. The environmental impacts of natural disasters, however, remain unsettled in the existing literature. This study aims to investigate the impact of natural disasters on CO2 emissions. For this purpose, we employ a panel dataset covering 138 countries over the period 1990-2018 and two dynamic panel estimation methods. Then, considering the differences in CO2 emissions across various countries, we run a panel quantile regression to examine the asymmetry in the nexus between natural disasters and CO2 emissions. We also discuss the mediating effects of energy consumption between natural disasters and CO2 emissions. After conducting a series of robustness checks, we confirm that our results are stable and convincing. The empirical results indicate that natural disasters significantly reduce CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, the impact of natural disasters on CO2 emissions is asymmetric across different quantiles of CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the technology level serves as an important moderating factor between natural disasters and CO2 emissions. The mediating effect results reveal that natural disasters not only directly reduce CO2 emissions but also indirectly promote carbon reduction by restraining energy consumption. Finally, several policy implications are provided to reduce CO2 emissions and the damage caused by natural disasters.

18.
PRACE KOMISJI GEOGRAFII PRZEMYSLU POLSKIEGO TOWARZYSTWA GEOGRAFICZNEGO-STUDIES OF THE INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY COMMISSION OF THE POLISH GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY ; 36(2):126-136, 2022.
Article in Polish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939645

ABSTRACT

Epidemics of infectious diseases are not new in the history of mankind, but the state of the global COVID-19 pandemic announced in 2020 by the World Health Organization caused unprecedented limitations in the functioning of society and the economy. Under the influence of these restrictions, the services sector has also changed. However, the pandemic affected individual types of services to a different extent and scope, which means that the sensitivity of services to such a strong influence of an external factor varies. The aim of the article is to determine the changes in the services sector during the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular changes in the dynamics of the creation of new service enterprises, the impact of the pandemic on the economic condition of the services sector enterprises, and their sensitivity to such a strong external stimulus. The study analyses the changes taking place in various types of service activities (according to the Polish Classification of Activities). The analysis of changes taking place in the services sector in Poland is carried out with the use of data published by the Central Statistical Office and Eurostat.

19.
Gosudarstvo i Pravo ; 2022(5):132-141, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934986

ABSTRACT

The article deals with the problem of interaction of public authorities of different levels in federal states within the framework of the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The experience of such countries as Aus-tralia, Brazil, India, USA, Switzerland and Germany is analyzed. As the development of events in the countries under consideration showed, a proper response to the threat of a pandemic in federal states can be somewhat difficult taking into account their characteristic system of multilevel governance and complex mechanisms of delineation of powers between the federation and its subjects. At the same time, the federal form of the state structure has also certain advantages including the possibility of applying a more flexible and differentiated approach towards individual territories and the availability of the established mechanisms of interaction between public authorities of different levels. © 2022.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(13):8214, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934265

ABSTRACT

Owing to the frequent accidents in primary and secondary schools (PSS) in China in the past decades, a systematic analysis of indicators influencing safety risks in PSS is critical to identifying preventive measures. A two-hierarchy structure of indicators was identified by analyzing various cases, intensive interviews, and related previous literature. A combination of the analytic hierarchy process and the entropy weight method was developed to synthetically assess the primary and secondary risk indicators through a case study of Ma Shan School in China. The results are as follows: (1) the primary risk indicators, namely, natural disasters, public health, facility safety, accidental injury, public security, school bullying, and individual health constitute the evaluation framework of the safety risks in PSS. (2) Public health risks and accidental injury risks are the most critical factors that should be prioritized. In addition to providing academic implications, several managerial implications are proposed for these stakeholders to reduce the safety risks in PSS.

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