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1.
Behav Anal Pract ; : 1-16, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312328

ABSTRACT

The field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) has utilized telehealth for clinical supervision and caregiver guidance with research supporting the use of both modalities. Research demonstrating effectiveness is crucial, as behavior analysts must ensure the services they provide are effective in order to be ethical. With the increased need for patients to access more services via telehealth, due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the current study evaluated the efficacy of telehealth direct therapy to teach new skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the utility of natural environment teaching and discrete trial training strategies provided over a videoconferencing platform to teach new skills directly to seven individuals with varying ASD severity levels. The targeted skills were taught solely through telehealth direct therapy with varying levels of caregiver support across participants and included skills in the language, adaptive, and social domains. In a multiple baseline design, all seven participants demonstrated mastery and maintenance for all targets; in addition, generalization to family members was assessed for some targets. The evidence suggests that telehealth is a modality that is effective and can be considered for all patients when assessing the appropriate location of treatment.

2.
Behav Anal Pract ; : 1-16, 2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943640

ABSTRACT

The field of applied behavior analysis (ABA) has utilized telehealth for clinical supervision and caregiver guidance with research supporting the use of both modalities. Research demonstrating effectiveness is crucial, as behavior analysts must ensure the services they provide are effective in order to be ethical. With the increased need for patients to access more services via telehealth, due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the current study evaluated the efficacy of telehealth direct therapy to teach new skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the utility of natural environment teaching and discrete trial training strategies provided over a videoconferencing platform to teach new skills directly to seven individuals with varying ASD severity levels. The targeted skills were taught solely through telehealth direct therapy with varying levels of caregiver support across participants and included skills in the language, adaptive, and social domains. In a multiple baseline design, all seven participants demonstrated mastery and maintenance for all targets; in addition, generalization to family members was assessed for some targets. The evidence suggests that telehealth is a modality that is effective and can be considered for all patients when assessing the appropriate location of treatment.

3.
Hearing Journal ; 75(4):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1806586
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776185

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term exercise, within the natural environment or by applying similar visual stimulation, on concentration and positive psychological capital among Korean college students. Participants were 175 male college students-selected by non-probabilistic sampling-from the Korean National Police University in Asan-si, Republic of Korea, in March 2021. Participants were divided into three condition groups: the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise (n = 57), visual stimulation with indoor exercise (n = 58), and indoor exercise (control group; n = 60). The variables measured were concentration and positive psychological capital. Pre- and post-exercise data differences were analyzed using two-way (3 × 2) analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation analysis, and statistical significance was set at 0.05. The results revealed a significant main effect on concentration, with lower scores post-intervention indicating positive changes in all three groups. In addition, the scores for positive psychological capital sub-factors (self-efficacy, optimism, and hope), in the groups with the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise and visual stimulation with indoor exercise conditions, reflected higher positive change than the indoor exercise group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the Bonferroni post hoc test on this interaction effect revealed that the participant scores for the natural environmental exposure with outdoor exercise and visual stimulation with indoor exercise groups were positive after the exercise (p < 0.05). However, there was no interaction effect for the ego-resilience subscale (p > 0.05). Therefore, participating in short-term exercise while being exposed to a natural environment with healing characteristics or providing visual stimulation of a similar natural environment was found to positively impact the Korean college students' concentration and positive psychological capital's self-efficacy, optimism, and hope. Moreover, this particular intervention only affects subjective measures of well-being while not particularly influencing objective measures, such as cognitive functioning. We recommend implementing similar visual stimulation with indoor exercise for the current generation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Energies ; 15(5):1825, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1736865

ABSTRACT

This article highlights the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by reducing energy consumption. Of course, this can be achieved in various ways, but inter alia, through the practical implementation of the assumptions contained in the CSR programs of individual companies, which include a component on environmental protection and counteracting global warming. The authors also describe a proposal to reduce CO2 emissions by using coke oven gas (if necessary) in exchange for natural gas. Currently, the largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the combustion of fossil fuels in power plants, transport—cars and planes, processes related to the production of industrial goods, and deforestation. In the preparation of the article, the analysis of the literature on the subject, analysis of documents, desk research, and two case studies were used. The main goal of the article is to present the possibilities of reducing CO2 emissions by implementing the assumptions of the CSR policy on the example of a selected company (models of such activities are also given). Therefore, the aim of the article is to present selected activities that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in enterprises;of course, this is specific each time and should be individually selected for each enterprise depending on financial, environmental, and any other conditions. This means that almost all enterprises, organizations, and all other institutions should be obliged to implement an individual environmental policy related to the possibility of reducing carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, and the effects of implementing the assumptions of this policy should be regularly, at least once a year, presented in the CSR reports of a given organization. However, each organization should provide its own examples of how it reduces carbon dioxide emissions. For this reason, this article presents an example of the Marcel CHP plant, which, due to its capabilities, also uses coke oven gas, the use of which results in lower emissions of carbon dioxide than natural gas. Additionally, the article presents a comparative analysis of the use of coke oven gas instead of natural gas. The obtained results show the significant and real possibilities of reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

6.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1705979

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. Many previous research studies have found and investigated its links with one or some natural or human environmental factors. However, a review on the relationship between COVID-19 incidence and both the natural and human environment is still lacking. This review summarizes the inter-correlation between COVID-19 incidence and environmental factors. Based on keyword searching, we reviewed 99 relevant peer-reviewed articles and other research literature published since January 2020. This review is focused on three main findings. One, we found that individual environmental factors have impacts on COVID-19 incidence, but with spatial heterogeneity and uncertainty. Two, environmental factors exert interactive effects on COVID-19 incidence. In particular, the interactions of natural factors can affect COVID-19 transmission in micro- and macro- ways by impacting SARS-CoV-2 survival, as well as human mobility and behaviors. Three, the impact of COVID-19 incidence on the environment lies in the fact that COVID-19-induced lockdowns caused air quality improvement, wildlife shifts and socio-economic depression. The additional value of this review is that we recommend future research perspectives and adaptation strategies regarding the interactions of the environment and COVID-19. Future research should be extended to cover both the effects of the environment on the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19-induced impacts on the environment. Future adaptation strategies should focus on sustainable environmental and public policy responses.

7.
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities ; 3:15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1702952

ABSTRACT

To fight the COVID-19 epidemic, many countries implemented containment measures that made physical distancing the norm and imposed restrictions on the use of public space. In countries where access to public green spaces (PGSs) was safeguarded, they were expected to partially counterbalance the negative health outcomes of these containment measures, as they offered a unique opportunity to meet others, to avoid isolation, and to move, play and relax at a safe distance. Research on PGS use and its objective association with health during the COVID-19 epidemic is rather limited and is based on quantitative research methodologies. Such methodologies are useful to detect objective associations between PGS use and health or between COVID-19 and PGS use, but fall short in explaining the observed associations. This qualitative research filled this gap by examining how PGS users perceived the health advantages of PGSs and how the use of PGSs changed during the epidemic in the Brussels-Capital Region, Belgium. In total, 23 individual face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted in various PGSs. We found that while PGSs were initially perceived as a possible threat to health in the first period of the epidemic, they gradually became associated in users' minds with both improved physical and mental health. Although the mechanisms behind this association were also present prior to the epidemic, they became more tangible and more universal. We also found that the use of PGSs changed during the epidemic due to measures and restrictions and due to health risk perceptions. We distinguished five different health risk perception profiles in relation to COVID-19: the denier, the fatalist, the negotiator, the conformer and the worrier. These different health risk perceptions impacted on the use of and behaviour within PGSs. This research confirms the importance of PGSs during an epidemic and may inspire further research, offer pointers to policymakers for developing and implementing strategies related to the use of PGSs during epidemics, and assist them in providing available and accessible PGSs and in designing attractive, more epidemic-proof PGSs.

8.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-18, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532299

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted issues due to mental health disorders, in particular the serious consequences derived from lockdown measures. This paper aims to analyse the literature on the potential direct impact of the natural environment on mental health disorders. We have systematically reviewed the studies analysing green spaces and mental health included in this review using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library. A retrospective time-frame is considered, covering the COVID-19 pandemic. We have found that exposure to, use and proximity to green spaces have a beneficial impact on mental health among elderly, students and patients with underlying pathologies. However, it has negative effects on the mental health of women and young adults. Exposure to and interaction with the natural environment can improve certain mental health disorders and should be taken into account for strategies and policies related to future threats to public health.

9.
Urban For Urban Green ; 64: 127260, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433864

ABSTRACT

Although different studies have evaluated the positive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on reducing noise pollution and traffic levels and improving air quality, how populations have perceived such changes in the natural environment has not been adequately evaluated. The present study provides a more in-depth exploration of human population perception of enhanced natural exposure (to animal life and nature sounds) and reduced harmful exposure (by improved air quality and reduced traffic volume) as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. The data is drawn from 3,109 unselected adults who participated in the GreenCOVID survey from April to July 2020 in England, Ireland, and Spain. The findings suggest that the positive impacts to the natural environment as a result of the lockdown have been better received by the population in Spain and Ireland, in comparison to England. Participants who resided in urban areas had better perceived improvements in nature sounds, air quality, and traffic volume compared to those in rural areas. Older populations and those with lower smoking and alcohol consumption were found to perceive this improvement the most. Furthermore, the greater perception of improvements in environmental elements was also associated with better self-perceived health and improved wellbeing. In the binary logistic regression, living in Ireland or Spain, urban areas, female gender, older age, and good overall wellbeing were associated with a greater perception of improvements in the natural environment, while the factors most associated with a greater perception of reduced harmful exposure were living in Spain, had a good self-perceived health status and older age.

10.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 73: 103089, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267922

ABSTRACT

Compact walkable environments with greenspace support physical activity and reduce the risk for depression and several obesity-related chronic diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. Recent evidence confirms that these chronic diseases increase the severity of COVID-19 infection and mortality risk. Conversely, denser transit supportive environments may increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 suggesting the potential for contrasting chronic versus infectious disease impacts of community design. A handful of recent studies have examined links between density and COVID-19 mortality rates reporting conflicting results. Population density has been used as a surrogate of urban form to capture the degree of walkability and public transit versus private vehicle travel demand. The current study employs a broader range of built environment features (density, design, and destination accessibility) and assesses how chronic disease mediates the relationship between built and natural environment and COVID-19 mortality. Negative and significant relationships are observed between built and natural environment features and COVID-19 mortality when accounting for the mediating effect of chronic disease. Findings underscore the importance of chronic disease when assessing relationships between COVID-19 mortality and community design. Based on a rigorous simulation-assisted random parameter path analysis framework, we further find that the relationships between COVID-19 mortality, obesity, and key correlates exhibit significant heterogeneity. Ignoring this heterogeneity in highly aggregate spatial data can lead to incorrect conclusions with regards to the relationship between built environment and COVID-19 transmission. Results presented here suggest that creating walkable environments with greenspace is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease and/or COVID-19 infection and mortality.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141757, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718994

ABSTRACT

The world today is dealing with a havoc crisis due to the pervasive outbreak of COVID-19. As a preventive measure against the pandemic, government authorities worldwide have implemented and adopted strict policy interventions such as lockdown, social distancing, and quarantine to curtail the disease transmission. Consequently, humans have been experiencing several ill impacts, while the natural environment has been reaping the benefits of the interventions. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the interlinked relationship between human society and the natural environment amid the current crisis. Herein, we performed a meta-analysis of existing literature reporting the various impacts of COVID-19 on human society and the natural environment. A conceptual model was developed to portray and address how the interaction of the existing elements of both sub-components of the coupled human-environment system (CHES) - human society and natural environment - are impacted by the government interventions. Results revealed a suite of positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on both the sub-components. Our model provides an explicit impression of the complex nexus of CHES amid the current crisis. The proposed conceptual model could help in understanding the complex nexus by identifying the route of short-term impacts of COVID-19 measures and thus may aid in identifying priority areas for discussion and planning in similar crises as well.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Environment , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
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