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1.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S83-S84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006371

ABSTRACT

Aim and objective: To present a rare case of abdominal wall fungal coinfection with Mucormycosis in a patient of COVID-19. Materials and methods: A 33-year-old female operated case of laparoscopic ectopic pregnancy removal with salpingectomy and tubectomy, at postoperative day 5 had redness and pus discharge from the operative site and was diagnosed with abdominal wall cellulitis. She underwent local exploration and wound wash. On postoperative day 21, the patient came to the emergency room with cellulitis, and pain at the port insertion site. On examination, we highlight BP 90/50 mm Hg and blood test analysis with HB-8.3, leucocyte count 29.91 × 109/L, CRP 333 mg/L. Results: CT scan revealed necrotizing fasciitis. She underwent wide local excision and debridement. Post debridement the next day during dressing, the wound showed a cotton fluffy appearance at the edges and part of the base with black necrotic areas. A wound swab was sent for fungal culture, KOH mount, pus culture, and tissue for histopathology. In the meantime, she was started on empirical antifungal amphotericin B, meropenem, and minocycline antibiotics. On history, the patient remarked that she did have fever, sore throat, and cough for 5 days, 4 weeks before laparoscopic ectopic pregnancy removal. Also one of her family members had tested positive for COVID-19. COVID antibodies test was done which were reactive: 1.96. Tissue histopathology revealed mucormycosis. MRI abdomen findings showed a 15 cm large defect involving the entire thickness of subcutaneous fat. A high degree of suspicion and promptness in starting antifungal treatment prevented the fatal outcome. Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with immune dysregulation and consequently life-threatening infections. The prolonged and indiscriminate use of steroids for the treatment of COVID-19 could contribute to this problem of fungal superinfection of mucormycosis. It seems prudent to have a very high suspicion supplemented with thorough clinical examination and low threshold for imaging in order to diagnose secondary fungal infections, such as mucormycosis. Early so that the treatment can be instituted as soon as possible.

2.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S456, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995724

ABSTRACT

CASE: 45-year-old woman with PMHx systemic sclerosis presents with fever, weight loss, chest tightness, weakness and altered mental status for 2 weeks. Home meds are prednisone, mycophenolic acid, lasix. On presentation she is febrile to 38.9C, HR 110, BP 97/64, SpO2 96% on RA. Exam shows telangiectasis, normal cardiopulmonary exam, mild sclerodactyly. Oriented only to self, has bilateral LE 3/5 weakness. Labs with WBC 2.6K, Hgb 7.1, plts 126K. Cr normal. Liver enzymes mildly elevated. BNP 3900. Trop 251. Lactate 4.9 Blood cultures negative, CMV/EBV negative, COVID-19 negative, Ferritin > 15,000, Triglycerides 274 LDH 495, Fibrinogen 274, D-Dimer 755, ANA 1:1280, + dsDNA, low titer Smith, + RNP, + SSA, + RNA Pol III. TTE with EF 27% and diffuse hypokinesis. Cardiac MRI with myocardial fibrosis no active myocarditis, suggestive of scleroderma. Lumbar puncture with high protein, borderline increased oligoclonal bands, elevated IgG index but elevated synthesis rate, suggestive of CNS inflammation. Patient is in cardiogenic shock secondary to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activating syndrome (HLH/MAS) related to systemic sclerosis/scleroderma with SLE overlap requiring inotropes and aggressive diuresis. She develops severe pain and bright red purpura on bilateral legs. Hypercoagulable w/u showed low protein C/S, low complement, negative cryoglobulin. Skin biopsy showed vaso-occlusive process c/w HLH/MAS. Receives IV methylprednisolone for empiric treatment of HLH/MAS and IV cyclophosphamide for possible lupus cerebritis. Patient improves and is discharged on long-term milrinone, Plaquenil, and steroids. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Secondary HLH or MAS is a life-threatening condition of extreme inflammation that can occur in autoimmune conditions, infection, or malignancy Diagnosing HLH requires high clinical suspicion - >10K ferritin level is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of HLH This patient has multisystem involvement of autoimmune disease given history of scleroderma The LP studies raise concern for lupus cerebritis, specifically the IgG index and IgG synthesis rate are helpful for this diagnosis Underline subtype of systemic sclerosis-overlap syndromes and here particularly scleroderma lupus overlap Highlight the utility of cardiac MRI in characterizing myocarditis / fibrosis Discuss need for high alert for necrotizing fasciitis with painful palpable purpura Overview treatment of HLH/MAS with high dose steroids Reflection on high mortality of HLH/MAS and question of recovered heart function CONCLUSION: Teaching Point 1: Secondary HLH is a syndrome of extreme inflammation caused by underlying malignancy, autoimmune condition, or infection. Teaching Point 2: HLH and MAS have a great deal of symptom/clinical presentation overlap. Ferritin level > 10,000 is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of HLH Teaching Point 3: Systemic sclerosis can present in a variety of ways including cardiac, lung, skin involvement.

3.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S519-S520, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995690

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 59 years old male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes presented in August of 2020 after 2 weeks of leg cramps, nausea, and dark urine that followed several weeks of poor fluid intake during his job as a construction worker. Patient reported that he had a similar episode in 2011, and was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis with a CK value of 3442. Physical examination revealed a blood pressure of 138/79 mmHg, a pulse of 99 beats/min, respiratory rate of 16 breaths/min, temperature of 36.9 °C, and oxygen saturation of 96% on room air. He was alert and oriented, able to ambulate with pain, and no other significant cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurologic, and gastrointestinal findings. Notable elevation of plasma creatinine of 10.23 mg/dL, BUN of 90mg/dL, sodium of 123 mmol/L, potassium of 5.4 mmol/L, bicarbonate of 15 mmol/L, CRP of 115.4, D-dimer of 4305, Ferritin of 7927, Serum myoglobin of 5320 mcg/L, and total CK of 365148 U/L were noted. Nasopharyngeal swab at presentation was positive for Sars-CoV-2. Patient's urine drug/toxicology screen were negative. The patient was placed on intermittent hemodialysis, and IV fluids were administered. Given his unusually high CK level and COVID-19 positive status, viral myositis associated with COVID-19 was initially suspected. Muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myositis, and ANA titer and myositis specific antibodies were negative. Patient's sole complaint continued to be bilateral lower extremity spasm that gradually improved. The patient was discharged 13 days later with improving kidney functions and total CK of 1683. Patient did not follow up until January of 2021 when he presented to our emergency department for a gunshot wound. His kidney function was back to his baseline at the time. IMPACT/DISCUSSION: Multiple reports in the past 2 years have noted some relationship between rhabdomyolysis and SARS-CoV2 infection, including cases of rhabdomyolysis as a presenting and late complication of severe and mild COVID-19 pneumonia (Valente-Acosta et al, Min et al, and Suwanwongse et a). This case shows both an non- respiratory COVID-19 patient presenting with rhabdomyolysis as well as extremely high presenting CK of 365148 in a non-exercise associated adult rhabdomyolysis. While there are studies that suggests SARS-CoV2 can cause a direct viral injury on muscles, patient's muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myositis rather than direct viral injury suggests that this is not the likely mechanism that aggravated the disease. Rather, given that patient had significantly elevated d-dimer, ferritin, and CRP at presentation, the mechanism may be due to the significant inflammatory responses seen in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection, regardless of severity, can significantly exacerbate rhabdomyolysis. Proper inpatient management in such cases can lead to no lasting musculoskeletal or renal complications despite severity. The relationship between COVID-19 infection and severe rhabdomyolysis may be based on the inflammatory responses.

4.
Basic Clin Androl ; 32(1): 12, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a necrotizing fasciitis caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection that involves genitalia and perineum. Males, in their 60 s, are more affected with 1.6 new cases/100.000/year. Main risk factors are diabetes, malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease. FG is a potentially lethal disease with a rapid and progressive involvement of subcutaneous and fascial plane. A multimodal approach with surgical debridement, antibiotic therapy, intensive support care, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is often needed. We present the inpatient management of an FG case during the Covid-19 pandemic period. A narrative review of the Literature searching "Fournier's gangrene", "necrotizing fasciitis" on PubMed and Scopus was performed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 60 years old man affected by diabetes mellitus, with ileostomy after colectomy for ulcerative colitis, was admitted to our Emergency Department with fever and acute pain, edema, dyschromia of right hemiscrotum, penis, and perineal region. Computed tomography revealed air-gas content and fluid-edematous thickening of these regions. Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index was 9. A prompt broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Imipenem and Daptomycin, surgical debridement of genitalia and perineal region with vital tissue exposure, were performed. Bedside daily surgical wound medications with fibrine debridement, normal saline and povidone-iodine solutions irrigation, iodoform and fatty gauze application, were performed until discharge on the 40th postoperative day. Every 3 days office-based medication with silver dressing, after normal saline and povidone-iodine irrigation and fibrinous tissue debridement, was performed until complete re-epithelialization of the scrotum on the 60th postoperative day. CONCLUSIONS: FG is burdened by a high mortality rate, up to 30%. In the literature, HBOT could improve wound restoration and disease-specific survival. Unfortunately, in our center, we do not have HBOT. Moreover, one of the pandemic period problems was the patient's displacement and outpatient hospital management. For all these reasons we decided for a conservative inpatient management. Daily cleaning of the surgical wound allowed to obtain its complete restoration avoiding surgical graft and hyperbaric oxygen chamber therapy, without foregoing optimal outcomes.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: La gangrène de Fournier (GF) est une fasciite nécrosante causée par une infection bactérienne aérobie et anaérobie qui implique les organes génitaux et le périnée. Les hommes, dans la soixantaine, sont plus touchés avec 1,6 nouveau cas/100 000/an. Les principaux facteurs de risque sont le diabète, les tumeurs malignes, et les maladies inflammatoires de l'intestin. La GF est une maladie potentiellement mortelle avec une atteinte rapide et progressive du plan sous-cutané et fascial. Une approche multimodale, avec débridement chirurgical, antibiothérapie, soins de soutien intensif et oxygénothérapie hyperbare (OHB), est souvent nécessaire. Nous présentons la prise en charge en milieu hospitalier d'un cas de GF pendant la période de pandémie de Covid-19. Une revue narrative de la littérature, recherchant «gangrène de Fournier¼, «fasciite nécrosante¼ sur PubMed et Scopus, a été réalisée. CAS CLINQUE: Un homme de 60 ans, atteint d'un diabète sucré et porteur d'une iléostomie après colectomie pour colite ulcéreuse, a été admis dans notre service d'urgences, avec fièvre et des douleurs aiguës, œdème et dyschromie de l'hémiscrotum droit, du pénis et de la région périnéale. La tomodensitométrie a révélé une teneur en air-gaz et un épaississement fluide-œdémateux de ces régions. L'indice de gravité de la gangrène de Fournier était de 9. Une antibiothérapie rapide à large spectre avec Pipéracilline/tazobactam, imipénème et daptomycine, et un débridement chirurgical des organes génitaux et de la région périnéale avec exposition des tissus vitaux, ont été effectués. Ont été réalisés au chevet du patient, un traitement quotidien des plaies chirurgicales, avec débridement de la fibrine, irrigation par solution saline normale et solution de povidone-iode, et application de gaze iodoforme et grasse, jusqu'à la décharge au 40èmejour postopératoire. Tous les 3 jours, un traitement à base de médicaments d'officine avec pansement à l'argent a été réalisé après irrigation par solution saline normale et solution de povidone-iode, et débridement de la fibrine des tissus, jusqu'à la ré-épithélialisation complète du scrotum au 60ème jour postopératoire. CONCLUSIONS: La GF est grevée d'un taux de mortalité élevé, jusqu'à 30%. Dans la littérature, l'OHB pourrait améliorer la restauration des plaies et la survie spécifique de la maladie. Malheureusement, dans notre centre, nous n'avons pas d'OHB. En outre, l'un des problèmes de la période pandémique était le déplacement du patient et la prise en charge ambulatoire des hôpitaux. Pour toutes ces raisons, nous avons opté pour une prise en charge conservatrice en milieu hospitalier. Le nettoyage quotidien de la plaie chirurgicale a permis d'obtenir sa restauration complète en évitant la greffe chirurgicale et la thérapie en chambre à oxygène hyperbare, sans renoncer à des résultats optimaux. MOTS-CLéS: Gangrène de Fournier, fasciite nécrosante, urgence urologique, débridement chirurgical.

5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927835

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis is a rapidly progressive, fatal infection that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. The spectrum of clinical presentation ranges from non-invasive, invasive, destructive and allergic aspergillosis. It is rare to see overwhelming aspergillosis in an immunocompetent host. Nevertheless, certain risk factors such as underlying fibrotic lung disease, suppurative infection, long-term corticosteroid use and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) have been described. We hereby present a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with uncontrolled DM. A 60-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking (50- pack-year), poorly controlled DM presented to the hospital with a large area of erythema with eschar over his left posterior thigh. Clinical examination and CT abdomen pelvis confirmed necrotizing fasciitis involving his perineum and left thigh. Admission CT abdomen showed a small left lower lobe infiltrate (Day 1, Panel A). He underwent urgent debridement and intraoperative tissue cultures grew coagulase-negative staphylococcus, Proteus Vulgaris and anaerobic gram-positive rods. He received piperacillintazobactam, vancomycin, and clindamycin for 16 days which was subsequently narrowed to ceftriaxone and metronidazole. He had worsening leukocytosis but all his blood cultures have been negative. Tracheal aspirate gram stain on day 5 showed moderate yeast, and cultures grew Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. CT scan of his chest showed bilateral reticulonodular opacities with a new loculated right pleural effusion (Day 16, Panel B). Trans-esophageal echocardiogram did not show any right-sided heart valve vegetation. He received intravenous voriconazole for disseminated aspergillosis. Despite of new prophylactic antifungal strategies, more sensitive and rapid diagnostic tests, as well as various efficacious treatments, survival of invasive disseminated aspergillosis remains poor. High clinical suspicion with a proactive investigation approach is the key to minimizing mortality. Various risk factors such as hematopoietic-cell transplantation, neutropenia, solid-organ transplantation, chemotherapy, prolonged ICU stay, structural lung disease, impaired mucociliary clearance after a recent pulmonary infection (including SARS-CoV-2) have been well described. Our case highlights the importance of recognizing uncontrolled DM as a crucial risk factor for disseminated aspergillosis. (Figure Presented).

6.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(5):1150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918576

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To study the application effect of negative pressure sealing drainage technology combined with silver ion sterilization nursing solution in the nursing of necrotizing fasciitis. Methods: Medical records of patients with necrotizing fasciitis, treated in our hospital from June 2019 to June 2021, were selected. Patients were retrospectively assigned into two groups based on the debridement method used: debridement with silver ion sterilization nursing solution Group-I, or debridement with negative pressure sealing drainage technology combined with silver ion sterilization nursing solution. Group-II. Wound healing, dressing change times, healing time, treatment cost and patient satisfaction in both groups were statistically compared. Results: The wound healing rate of patients in Group-II group was higher than that of Group-I on the 5th, 10th and 15th day after operation (P < 0.05). Dressing change times, healing time and treatment cost of patients in the Group-II were lower than those of Group-I (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction in the Group-II was 91.4% (54 / 59), which was higher than that of Group-I (75.4% (40 / 53) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Negative pressure sealing drainage technology combined with silver ion sterilization nursing solution in the nursing of necrotizing fasciitis is effective. It can promote wound healing, shorten the healing time, reduce the times of wound dressing change and treatment cost. It also improves the overall patient satisfaction, making it an efficient method in clinical application.

7.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):1626, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770264

ABSTRACT

Introduction: B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a novel target for T cell immunotherapy in MM including bispecific antibody (bsAb) and chimeric antigen receptor therapy (CAR-T). BCMA is critical for survival of the long-lived plasma cell, responsible for generation of protective antibodies. Impaired immune reconstitution, cytopenias, B cell aplasia and hypogammaglobinemia can compound preexisting MM-induced immunosuppression. In the case of bsAb, potential redirection/activation of T regulatory cells can create an immunosuppressive milieu. Herein, we describe the clinically relevant infectious complications observed across different BCMA-directed therapies used across multiple clinical trials at our center. Methods: Infections confirmed by microbiologic or histopathologic evidence were captured from the D1 C1 of bsAb and D 1 of lymphodepleting chemotherapy of autologous BCMA CAR-T therapies. The NCI CTCAE v5 was used to describe the site and grade of infections. Hypogammaglobinemia and severe hypogammaglobinemia were defined as ≤700 mg/dl and ≤400 mg /dl, respectively. Standard antimicrobial prophylaxis included herpes zoster prophylaxis for all MM patients with antibacterial (levofloxacin) / antifungal (fluconazole) during periods of neutropenia and IVIG supplementation as per the treating physician's discretion. PCP prophylaxis was prescribed to CAR T recipient per institutional guidelines. Descriptive statistics and comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test for continuous variables and chi-square goodness of fit test for categorical variables. Results: We identified 62 patients who received BCMA-directed bsAb (n=36) or CAR-T (n=26) between 2019-2021(table 1). The median age was 66 (range 48-84) years with % females and 14.8% of patients belonging to Black race. The median time to bsAb and CAR-T use from diagnosis were 6.6 (range 0.83-15.5) and 2.6 (range 0.35-14.4) years, respectively. The median lines of prior therapy were 6 (range 1-11) with BCMA CAR-T recipients receiving fewer prior lines of therapy (4 vs 6, p=<0.001). The baseline lymphocyte count was higher in the CAR-T (14.71 vs 0.84;p=<0.001). Baseline severe hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphopenia were present in 30% and 26.7% of all patients, respectively. Tocilizumab was used in 40.9% (bsAb -30.8% versus CAR-T 55.6%) patients for CRS. IVIG was used in 25% of patients. The median study duration for bsAb was 4 (range 0.03- 24) months across multiple dose levels. Median follow up among CAR-T recipients was 3.9 (range 0.3 - 22.3) months. Among recipients of bsAb, 41.2% of patients experienced at least one episode of infection vs. 23.1% with CAR-T (p=0.141). The cumulative incidence of infection with bsAb and CAR-T were 22 and 8, respectively. The spectrum of infections with bsAb was predominantly bacterial (64.3% While gram negative infection (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia, Proteus mirabilus and Psuedomonas aeroginosa urinary tract infections) were seen in 6 patients, skin infection including cellulitis occurred in 4 patients, with 1 case of necrotizing cellulitis. Bacteremia with rare opportunistic pathogens - Rhizobium radiobacter and recurrent Ochrobacterium anthropi were also observed . Viral infections included rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus B19 reactivation, and COVID-19. About 50% of infections were ≥ grade 3 with 2 grade 5 events (Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia and COVID-19). In the CAR-T group, we observed more viral infections (66.7% vs 35.7%;p=0.028) and fewer bacterial infections (33.3% vs 64.3%;p=0.028) . Common viral infections included rhinovirus, RSV, and herpes simplex virus reactivation. In this group 25% of infections were ≥grade 3. Conclusion: BCMA-targeted therapies seem to be associated with clinically significant bacterial and viral infections. Repetitive dosing with bsAb therapies could be the reason for the propensity to serious bacterial infections compared to CAR-T recipients and may need novel prophylaxis strategies. (Figure Presented).

8.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 386(5):414, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1671718

ABSTRACT

The clinician must pay close attention to the patient history, aided by the development of molecular diagnostic tests, to distinguish infections from other causes. see Review Article, N Engl J Med 2022;386:463-477 Lisch Nodules A 40-year-old man with a history of neurofibromatosis type 1 presented for a routine eye examination. Six weeks before jaundice developed, he had been hospitalized with Covid-19. see Clinical Problem-Solving, N Engl J Med 2022;386:479-485 Using Economics to Inform Public Health Policy Although public health practitioners and researchers focus primarily on improving health, economists view health as but one important component of what people may value. [...]substantial neutralization of the omicron variant was detected in samples from participants who had received three doses. see Correspondence, N Engl J Med 2022;386:492-494 Preliminary Data on Vaccine Protection against Omicron Using a test-negative study design focused on the period of dominance of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant in South Africa, investigators found that two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine had an efficacy of 50 to 70% against hospitalization caused by omicron in Gauteng province. see Correspondence, N Engl J Med 2022;386:494-496

9.
Case Reports Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 9(1): 46-51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651017

ABSTRACT

The novel COVID-19 virus has resulted in an immense burden in healthcare throughout the world. In addition to respiratory complications, COVID-19 has been associated with hypercoagulability and ischemic changes. We report a case of a patient with COVID-19 who presented with a rapidly progressing necrotizing fasciitis treated in our institution.

10.
Turkish Journal of Plastic Surgery ; 30(1):17-20, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1608971

ABSTRACT

Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rare form of necrotizing fasciitis affecting the perineal, perianal, or genital areas. The infection is usually seen in diabetic, alcoholic, or immunosuppressed patients. Urgent debridement and broad‑spectrum antibiotics are the first‑line therapy, where in some cases soft tissue reconstruction is required. We report two patients who developed FG during COVID‑19 infection. None of the patients had a history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, or immune deficiency. The only reported health condition was COVID‑19 infection. Emergent debridement and elective reconstruction were performed for both of the patients. High index of suspicion is required during the examination of the perineum and the genitalia of suspected patients with COVID‑19 infection for early diagnosis and prevention of further complications. Larger studies are required to indicate the exact incidence of FG in patients with COVID 19 infection. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Turkish Journal of Plastic Surgery is the property of Turkish Society of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
British Journal of Surgery ; 108(SUPPL 6):vi83, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1569598

ABSTRACT

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LV) is an inflammation of the small vessels in the dermis characterised by the deposition of immunocomplexes in the involved vessel walls. It commonly manifests as palpable purpura, limited to the skin and predominantly of the lower limb. We report a rare case of necrotising LV (NLV) affecting bilateral breast, manifesting clinical features of necrotising fasciitis (NF), and emphasizes the potential diagnostic challenges that markedly influence the treatment and survival of patients. A 48-year-old female presented with an acute onset left breast skin necrosis and discolouration that rapidly progressed to the contralateral breast with surrounding erythema and oedema of the chest wall yet spared the intermammary cleft. Some non-blanching purpuric rash were also noted on upper abdomen and left lower limb. COVID-19 test was negative. CT scan showed extensive bilateral breast fat stranding and oedema. Patient became clinically septic with a moderately raised CRP and mild acute kidney injury. Radical mastectomies and chest wall excision were performed with intra-operative findings of cloudy fluid and easily peeled away subcutaneous tissue from fascia. Urgent gram stain and culture showed no organisms. Tissue biopsies subsequently showed the diagnosis of NLV. Chest wall defect was then reconstructed with split skin grafts, NLV treated with corticosteroids and patient made an uneventful recovery. This case highlights the incidence of a rare and aggressive manifestation of NLV on the breast that mimics NF, emphasizing the clinical differentiation that may lead to catastrophic results and significant cosmetic defect, if a differential diagnosis cannot be determined at the time.

12.
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 12(4):2548-2556, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554033

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the SARS CoV2 ’Coronavirus pandemic’ is believed to have originated in Wuhan in 2019 as a zoonotic spread from bats to humans. It is a highly communicable infection-causing rapid human to human transmission of the virus by virtue of its infectious and pleomorphic nature. The virus has affected millions of people worldwide, with numbers still rising with each passing day. Depleting oxygen saturation levels is amongst the prime concerns in the majority of infected patients. Nasal prongs, face masks, mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane (ECMO) are the commonly used modes of oxygen delivery in such patients. These methods though mostly successful, at times fail to restore the depleting oxygen levels to normal. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves the administration of 100% O2 in a special chamber whose pressure is maintained at a level greater than 1 ATP. The main purpose for raising the pressure within the chamber is that as the atmospheric pressure increases, the saturation levels of oxygen in the blood also increase, which eventually result in increased overall tissue oxygenation. This article provides a systematic and wholesome review on the basic principle of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, its effects on the body at a microscopic and macroscopic level, its various uses and its suitability as an adjuvant for the treatment of select COVID-19 infected patients.

13.
Burns ; 47(7): 1608-1620, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Necrotising soft tissue infections (NSTI) are destructive and often life-threatening infections of the skin and soft tissue, necessitating prompt recognition and aggressive medical and surgical treatment. After debridement, the aim of surgical closure and reconstruction is to minimize disability and optimize appearance. Although skin grafting may fulfil this role, techniques higher on the reconstructive ladder, including local, regional and free flaps, are sometimes undertaken. This systematic review sought to determine the circumstances when this is true, which flaps were most commonly employed, and for which anatomical areas. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted utilising electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library). Full text studies of flaps used for the management of NSTI's (including Necrotising Fasciitis and Fournier Gangrene) were included. The web-based program 'Covidence' facilitated storage of references and data management. Data obtained in the search included reference details (journal, date and title), the study design, the purpose of the study, the study findings, number of patients with NSTI included, the anatomical areas of NSTI involved, the types of flaps used, and the complication rate. RESULTS: After screening 4555 references, 501 full text manuscripts were assessed for eligibility after duplicates and irrelevant studies were excluded. 230 full text manuscripts discussed the use of 888 flap closures in the context of NSTI in 733 patients; the majority of these were case series published in the last 20 years in a large variety of journals. Reconstruction of the perineum following Fournier's gangrene accounted for the majority of the reported flaps (58.6%). Free flaps were used infrequently (8%), whereas loco-regional muscle flaps (18%) and loco-regional fasciocutaneous flaps (71%) were employed more often. The reported rate of partial or complete flap loss was 3.3%. CONCLUSION: Complex skin and soft tissue defects from NSTIs, not amenable to skin grafting, can be more effectively and durably covered using a spectrum of flaps. This systematic review highlights the important contribution that the plastic surgeon makes as an integral member of multidisciplinary teams managing these patients.


Subject(s)
Burns , Fournier Gangrene , Free Tissue Flaps , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Soft Tissue Infections , Debridement , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/surgery , Fournier Gangrene/surgery , Free Tissue Flaps/transplantation , Humans , Necrosis , Soft Tissue Infections/surgery
14.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17891, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438885

ABSTRACT

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare life-threatening bacterial infection, which can be monomicrobial or polymicrobial, involving the fascia and eventually leading to necrosis. The course of the disease is rapidly progressive and can be misdiagnosed as an abscess or cellulitis. The disease requires more attention with respect to early diagnosis and treatment as it has a high mortality rate. In this report, we present the case of a 60-year-old female, who was a known case of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patient presented to the emergency department on the 21st of October 2020, complaining of left breast pain for 10 days, which was associated with fever and nausea. On physical examination, the left breast was swollen and tender to palpation. There was a single patch of inflamed skin measuring 1 x 1 cm with greenish discoloration in the inframammary fold. Ultrasound of the breast showed a patch of focal mastitis with edema seen at 4-8 o'clock with no underlying fluid collection. She was admitted as a case of left breast abscess and was started on antibiotics. Despite the antibiotic therapy, the patient was still febrile and developed two more inflammatory and necrotic patches with no discharge. The patient underwent urgent surgical debridement of the necrotic tissues, leaving the wound packed for postoperative dressing. The patient stayed in isolation for a total of 25 days as she was found to be positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The surgical wound was closed, and the patient was discharged. Early diagnosis and management of NF is the key to saving the patient's life and improving outcomes.

15.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(10): 2949-2952, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300979

ABSTRACT

Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection that originates in the subcutaneous tissues. We present a case of 52 years old male patient who developed preperitoneal and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis 2 weeks after the start of Coronavirus-19 infection. Preoperative abdominal computed tomography with intravenous and oral contrast revealed pre and retroperitoneal spread of air loculi with turbid fluid patches within necrotic tissues. After surgical excision of the lesion, histopathological and microbiological examinations of the samples revealed necrotizing fasciitis. This is the first report of preperitoneal and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis after Coronavirus-19 infection in 52 years old male with no history of trauma or immunocompromised condition. Coronavirus-19 infection may increase the liability of patients to develop overwhelming infection and it may also delay the patient presentation causing serious health-related emergencies. The findings of necrotizing fasciitis on clinical grounds or imaging studies can help in diagnosis as well as the surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotics can highly impact the prognosis and survival of the patient.

16.
Int J Low Extrem Wounds ; : 15347346211023030, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247549

ABSTRACT

Lymphedema is a chronic edema that sometimes occurs after treatment of gynecologic cancer, and cellulitis often occurs concomitantly with lymphedema. On the other hand, necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a relatively rare, but life-threatening disease. The symptoms in cellulitis and NF are very similar. In this case report, we describe a case in which the diagnosis of NF in a lymphedematous limb was difficult. A 70-year-old woman had secondary lymphedema in bilateral legs and consulted our department. On the first day of lymphedema therapy, the patient complained of vomiting, diarrhea, and fever (37.7 °C) without local fever in the legs. She was diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis. On the next day, swelling and pain in her left leg occurred and her blood pressure was 59/44 mmHg. She was diagnosed with cellulitis accompanied by lower limb lymphedema and septic shock. On the second day, blisters appeared on the left leg, and computed tomography showed NF. We performed debridement under general anesthesia and her vital signs improved postoperatively. Streptococcus agalactiae (B) was detected in blood culture, and we administered bixillin and clindamycin. Postoperatively, necrosis in the skin and fat around the left ankle gradually spread, and it took 5 months to complete epithelialization. The diagnosis was more difficult than usual NF because patients with lymphedema often experience cellulitis. Clinicians should always think of NF to avoid mortality due to delayed treatment. This case report was approved by the institutional ethics committee.

17.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(3): 1583-1586, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052839

ABSTRACT

Although Necrotizing fasciitis can evolve from a trivial lesion, whenever it develops it requires a prompt surgical intervention and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.

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