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1.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):475-481, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The second wave of COVID-19 pandemic hit all age groups with different presentations and outcomes. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, investigational findings, hospital outcomes along with a ninety days telephonic follow-up of COVID-19 infection in children.

2.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):561, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206056

ABSTRACT

N/a.

3.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):460-463, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak caused by the SARS Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019 evolved into a pandemic and caused a devastating effect in all aspect of life. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of Covid-19 on the management of spine patients requiring surgery and to observe the functioning of a trauma center in a pandemic situation.

4.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):431-435, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus has caused significant global impacts and is still continuing. Social distancing, the use of face mask and sanitizer (SMS) measures have become the prominent security measures to diminish the COVID-19 transmission. Hence, this study aims to assess the general public's compliance towards SMS measures set by the Government of Nepal against COVID-19 in Kathmandu Valley.

5.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):405-411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreak has changed the traditional teaching method of using blackboards to digital devices assisted online classes. Spending long hours in front of digital devices might lead to different ocular problems in children.

6.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):372-376, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most reliable method used worldwide. Although the incidence of the disease has increased globally, the limited availability of PCR kits has become the major bottleneck for the diagnosis of COVID positive patients.

7.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):347-353, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health seeking behaviour can influence outcomes in chronic diseases such as diabetes. As diabetes burden is higher in urban areas and under half receive adequate diabetes care and support in Nepal, this study aimed to assess factors influencing health behaviour among persons with diabetes attending urban health care settings.

8.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council ; 20(2):555-557, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206050

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has raised challenges and dilemmas to perform cardiac surgery in the patients following COVID-19 infection due to lasting adverse impacts of the disease on the lungs. A 74-years-old patient, recently infected by COVID-19, with previous myocardial infarction and multiple percutaneous coronary interventions, in-stent thrombosis to the left anterior descending artery, and low resting saturation, presented with chest pain and underwent urgent coronary artery bypass grafting. His postoperative period remained challenging due to high oxygen requirements. He had otherwise an uneventful recovery and was discharged on domiciliary oxygen, which was weaned off over three months and he continues to do well at six months of follow-up. Keywords: Cardiac surgery;COVID-19;coronary artery bypass surgery;pandemic.

9.
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association ; 61(257):39-42, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205809

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease can affect the renal system in various forms ranging from mild proteinuria to acute kidney injury, some even needing renal replacement therapy. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of acute kidney injury in patients admitted with COVID-19 at a tertiary care centre. Method(s): This descriptive cross-sectional study was done in patients admitted in COVID-19 ward in our hospital from July 2021 to June 2022. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 066-077/078). The serum creatinine level was used for the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. Convenience sampling method was used. Point estimate and 95% Confidence Interval were calculated. Result(s): Out of 80 patients with COVID-19, the prevalence of acute kidney injury was 25 (31.25%) (21.09-41.41, 95% Confidence Interval). Conclusion(s): The prevalence of acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients was similar to other studies done in similar settings. Copyright © 2023, Nepal Medical Association. All rights reserved.

10.
Space and Culture, India ; 10(3):87-109, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204793

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the coronavirus pandemic response from a South Asian perspective. When their case numbers were still relatively low, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries adopted lockdowns at the same time or before India did. On 24 March 2020, when there were just two confirmed cases, Nepal went into lockdown, and Sri Lanka locked down on 22 March, when there were 78 cases. India locked down the day after Nepal, with all countries imposing some form of restrictions on people's movement. This paper draws its data from the first year of the pandemic that loomed in the SAARC nations. The regional cooperation provided by SAARC has allowed the sharing of resources and a strengthening of the region's self-reliance. Notably, the commitment made by India to ensure its neighbours are supplied with vaccines, many of these donated. The eight-member SAARC states are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This paper draws on the knowledge and perceptions of academics and social workers in the SAARC countries. It provides insight into the responses, impacts, vulnerabilities, and challenges faced by the region and in each specific country since the beginning of COVID-19. This paper also offers a discussion on vaccines, PPE, as well as the role of cooperation across the region. The relationship between India and the SAARC countries and its ‘neighbourhood first' policy are also discussed. © 2022 Pulla et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

11.
Space and Culture, India ; 10(3):110-124, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2204790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating economic impact globally and Nepal is no exception. Tourism and migration abroad to work— two of the important sectors that have significantly contributed to the Nepali economy — have suffered tremendously in the face of lockdown and other restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this context, this paper aims to understand how COVID-19 impacted Nepalis while focusing on Nepal's tourism and migration sector. The paper is based on the review of secondary resources, including newspaper articles available in the public sphere. Data in this paper comes from the period prior to February 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation of Nepalis who were recovering from social and economic destruction caused by the global earthquake of 2015. The resulting lockdowns, the closing of land ports and airports, and the limitation of people's mobility have significantly affected Nepal's tourism sector. In addition, thousands of Nepali migrants lost their jobs and incomes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) nations, Malaysia, India, and other destination countries as the pandemic struck the global economy. However, Nepali people appear to remain resilient in the face of yet another disaster. © 2022 Pulla et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

12.
Nepalese Heart Journal ; 19(2):5-7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198414

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: The COVID 19 pandemic have affected the patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction as the number of patients presenting with STEMI declined substantially and those who underwent primary PCI had poor outcome. Our aim was to analyze the in-hospital and 30-days mortality in STEMI undergoing Primary PCI during second wave of COVID 19. Method(s): A prospective cohort study was conducted at Shahid Gangalal National Heart Centre, Bansbari, Kathmandu. Convenience sampling of patients who underwent primary PCI were enrolled in this study and were followed up for 30 days. Numerical variables were described as Mean +/- Standard Deviation (SD) and categorical variables were described as frequency and percentage. p values were calculated and considered significant if < 0.05. Result(s): During this study period of 2 months from 1st May 2021 to 30th June 2021, 97 patients with STEMI underwent primary PCI, including 12 (12.47%) COVID 19 positive cases. 30 days mortality was 15.4% including in-hospital mortality of 11.34%. Among COVID 19 positive cases, in-hospital mortality was 33.33% and 30-days mortality was 55.55% which was significantly higher than non COVID 19 patient who underwent primary PCI (P=0.003). Conclusion(s): Overall, mortality rate of primary PCI during COVID 19 second wave has been increased and mortality of COVID 19 positive patients who underwent primary PCI was significantly higher than non-COVID 19 patients who underwent primary PCI. Copyright © 2022 Cardiac Society of Nepal. All rights reserved.

13.
Journal of the Nepal Medical Association ; 60(256):1070-1072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156138

ABSTRACT

Nepal stands in a vulnerable position when it comes to counterfeit medicines as two of its major trade partners countries are leading producers of falsified healthcare products. The impacts that it can lead to are a lower standard of healthcare delivery to the public, increased cost of treatment, antibiotic resistance, and even fatality. The time of crisis as the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is often seen as an opportunity to endorse substandard products in greater amounts. The people's doubt over the medicine is another issue generated by this malpractice that can lead to problems like vaccine hesitancy which can have scary outcomes so forth in a pandemic situation like this. Stronger national policies and vigilant authorities are prime to overcoming flourishing counterfeit culture as it is a peak time when we can not put public health at stake. Copyright © The Author(s) 2022.

14.
Journal of Asian & African Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2153295

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic impacted Asian migrant workers disproportionately. During the first COVID-19 nationwide lockdown, Nepali migrant workers faced many challenges due to widespread misconceptions of them being vectors of COVID-19. This research examines COVID-19 impacts on international and internal Nepali migrant workers. A national survey on the social, economic, and psychological challenges of returning Nepali migrant workers was administered online from 10 May to 20 July 2020. A total of 672 responses were received. Using a binary logistic regression model, the research finds that the domestic migrant workers were less likely to get economic support, expect to borrow money during COVID-19, experience negative changes in their personal lives, and expect the COVID-19 contraction. In contrast, international migrant workers were less likely to return to their pre-pandemic employment. The research exposed long-standing vulnerabilities of migrant workers and identified immediate actions from Nepalese Central, Provincial, and Local governments to address their needs. [ FROM AUTHOR]

15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e196, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133098

ABSTRACT

Following the report of the first COVID-19 case in Nepal on 23 January 2020, three major waves were documented between 2020 and 2021. By the end of July 2022, 986 596 cases of confirmed COVID-19 and 11 967 deaths had been reported and 70.5% of the population had received at least two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine. Prior to the pandemic, a large dengue virus (DENV) epidemic affected 68 out of 77 districts, with 17 932 cases and six deaths recorded in 2019. In contrast, the country's Epidemiology and Disease Control Division reported 530 and 540 dengue cases in the pandemic period (2020 and 2021), respectively. Furthermore, Kathmandu reported just 63 dengue cases during 2020 and 2021, significantly lower than the 1463 cases reported in 2019. Serological assay showed 3.2% positivity rates for anti-dengue immunoglobulin M antibodies during the pandemic period, contrasting with 26.9-40% prior to it. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for DENV showed a 0.5% positive rate during the COVID-19 pandemic which is far lower than the 57.0% recorded in 2019. Continuing analyses of dengue incidence and further strengthening of surveillance and collaboration at the regional and international levels are required to fully understand whether the reduction in dengue incidence/transmission were caused by movement restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Nepal/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral
16.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 84: 104936, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119820

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 was a major pandemic of the 21st century that flinched away every individual worldwide. The extensive impact of this rapidly spreading deadly virus doomed the health care systems with the unexpected wave wreaked havoc leading to a global health crisis. It has been a high burden on the functioning existing medical system, overloads health professionals, disruption of the medical supply chain. The economy of the nations has been at losses with a significant slowing down in revenue growth over the past 2 years. After taking its toll, drawing away other diseases including cholera. The three developing nations; India, Bangladesh and Nepal, are now at the verge of facing an outbreak of Cholera. It is not surprising to hear cholera in this nation but the fact that its negligence due to Covid-19 pandemic and monkeypox along with a crumbled health system due to the pandemic has made these nations vulnerable for health crisis. Along with this three nations, cholera has made its way to different parts of this globe and it is high time that attention must be drawn towards it as mismanagement could even cause life.

17.
Child Care Health Dev ; 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children, especially disadvantaged children in poor countries, were expected to be among the "biggest victims" of the Covid pandemic. Economic burdens, decreased nutritious foods, reduced medical care, school closures, and ill-health or death of family members were predicted to increase child undernutrition and developmental delays, and diminish home child-rearing quality. METHODS: A planned nutrition intervention could not be implemented due to Covid restrictions. However, three surveys (pre-Covid [December 2019], July 2021, and September 2021) in 280 Nepali households (309 parent-dyads, 368 children, 6-66 months old) collected demographics, child anthropometry and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 [ASQ-3]), and home child-rearing quality (caregiver engagement, learning resources, adult supervision [UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey]). Mixed-effect regression models adjusted for household (wealth, maternal education) and child factors (age, gender) and survey round. RESULTS: Height, mid-upper-arm circumference, and head circumference measurements improved over time. The total ASQ-3 score did not change: Communication scores increased while fine motor and personal-social scores declined. Girls' growth and development worsened more than boys. Caregiver engagement (especially mothers') generally declined, but learning resource availability increased. More children were left unsupervised at Round 2 than Round 1 or 3. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, some aspects of child growth, development, and home child-rearing quality improved while others declined. Better understanding of these changes in child well-being and the family environment during the pandemic could provide insight on how to protect children during future crises.

18.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116135

ABSTRACT

Like the world over, Nepal was also hard hit by the second wave of COVID-19. We audited the clinical care provided to COVID-19 patients admitted from April to June 2021 in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal. This was a cohort study using routinely collected hospital data. There were 620 patients, and most (458, 74%) had severe illness. The majority (600, 97%) of the patients were eligible for admission as per national guidelines. Laboratory tests helping to predict the outcome of COVID-19, such as D-dimer and C-reactive protein, were missing in about 25% of patients. Nearly all (>95%) patients with severe disease received corticosteroids, anticoagulants and oxygen. The use of remdesivir was low (22%). About 70% of the patients received antibiotics. Hospital exit outcomes of most (>95%) patients with mild and moderate illness were favorable (alive and discharged). Among patients with severe illness, about 25% died and 4% were critically ill, needing further referral. This is the first study from Nepal to audit and document COVID-19 clinical care provision in a tertiary care hospital, thus filling the evidence gap in this area from resource-limited settings. Adherence to admission guidelines was excellent. Laboratory testing, access to essential drugs and data management needs to be improved.

19.
Evaluation ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2113035

ABSTRACT

Global South non-government organizations rely on international funding and aid for continued service delivery. Service evaluation plays a significant role in ensuring compliance and ongoing service funding. Traditional service evaluation approaches could not take place during 2021 due to COVID-19, alternate mechanisms needed to be embraced. This article reports on the benefits and challenges of undertaking service evaluations online during the pandemic and the learnings and possibilities for a post-pandemic world. It emphasizes the importance of translating a relational approach to service evaluation to the online environment. Key learnings include that while some of the benefits of context and in-person connection are lost, taking a relational approach involving careful planning and reflexivity means the online evaluation process can be successful. Undertaking service evaluations online offers possibilities in a post-pandemic world as cost-effective alternatives to the expensive and time-consuming reality of in-person service evaluation across international borders and within development contexts. [ FROM AUTHOR]

20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2035, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic drew hygiene to the center of disease prevention. The provision of adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services is crucial to protect public health during a pandemic. Yet, access to levels of water supply that support adequate hygiene measures are deficient in many areas in Nepal. We examined WASH practices and their impact on child health and nutritional status in two districts before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A longitudinal and mixed method study was conducted in March-May 2018 and November-December 2021. In total, 715 children aged 0-10 years were surveyed at baseline. Of these, 490 children were assessed at endline. Data collection methods included observations, a questionnaire, stool analysis, anthropometric measurements, water quality analysis, and an assessment of clinical signs of nutritional deficiencies. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews to understand major problems related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Most respondents (94.2%) had heard about COVID-19; however, they did not wear face masks or comply with any social distancing protocols. Almost 94.2% of the households self-reported handwashing with soap 5-10 times per day at endline, especially after defecation, compared to 19.6% at baseline. Water quality was better at endline than at baseline with median 12 to 29 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (interquartile range at baseline [IQR] = 4-101) at the point of collection and 34 to 51.5 CFU Escherichia coli/100 mL (IQR = 8-194) at the point of consumption. Fever (41.1-16.8%; p = 0.01), respiratory illness (14.3-4.3%; p = 0.002), diarrhea (19.6-9.5%; p = 0.01), and Giardia lamblia infections (34.2-6.5%, p = 0.01) decreased at endline. In contrast, nutritional deficiencies such as bitot's spots (26.7-40.2%; p = 0.01), pale conjunctiva (47.0-63.3%; p = 0.01), and dermatitis (64.8-81.4%; p = 0.01) increased at endline. The inadequacy of the harvest and the lack of household income to meet households' nutritional needs increased drastically (35.0-94.2%; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: We found that improved water quality and handwashing practices were associated with a decrease in infectious diseases. However, food security also decreased resulting in a high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies. Our findings underline that disaster preparedness should consider access to adequate WASH, nutrition, and health supplies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malnutrition , Child , Humans , Sanitation , Nutritional Status , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Nepal/epidemiology , Hygiene , Water Supply , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Escherichia coli
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