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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957463

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants prompted countries to call for accelerated booster vaccinations to limit disease and transmission. Here, we characterized correlates of protection over time after the second booster or after Omicron BA.1 infection comparing variants of concern (VOCs). Sera from subjects before and two and seven weeks after the second booster or after Omicron infection were examined for the level of Spike receptor-binding-domain (RBD)-specific antibodies. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies (nABs) were characterized in in vitro neutralization assays comparing the variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 against the ancestral strain B.1. Here, the second booster resulted in an increase in anti-RBD-IgG-antibodies, remaining nearly constant over time, accompanied by an increase in nABs against B.1 and the VOCs Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. However, compared to B.1, the neutralizing capacity against the Omicron subvariants remained low and was limited after the second booster vaccination. This indicates that antibody-mediated protection against infection with this VOC is unlikely, as evidenced by the fact that three individuals of our study cohort became infected with Omicron BA.1 after the second booster. T cell activation was measured by interferon-gamma release assays in a subgroup of subjects and was increased in all subjects tested after the second booster vaccination, correlating with the amount of Spike-specific antibodies. In subjects with Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection, a significant increase in nABs to all VOCs studied was observed independently of booster vaccinations. Taken together, our data indicate that a second booster or Omicron BA.1 infection mediate a substantial increase in anti-Spike IgG antibodies; however, infection with Omicron BA.1 induced a stronger increase in neutralizing antibodies against the different VOCs.

2.
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research ; 13(3):187-190, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954328

ABSTRACT

The ongoing, highly infectious COVID-19 pandemic has prompted various drugs, vaccines, and phytochemical research to control the disease. The accelerated development of vaccines showed the importance of immune boosters against the virus. This study aims to elucidate the role of curcumin, a phytochemical with an immunoediting profile potentially able to boost immunity after vaccination. Eighty participants were enrolled to receive curcumin supplementation (n = 40) and without (n = 40) after the first vaccination until 4 weeks after the second vaccination. Total antibody formation for SARS-CoV-2 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 4 weeks after the second vaccination. The average antibody formed in groups treated with curcumin supplementation showed a statistically significant increase compared to the control group (262.6 ± 324.2 vs. 42.8 ± 53.5, P < 0.01). Age, sex, and comorbidities did not affect the production of antibodies within groups. Curcumin showed potential as a complementary supplementation during the period of vaccination as it can increase antibodies produced post vaccinations. Further investigation should be conducted on more subjects and a longer period in concordance to vaccine boosters and emerging new variants. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4781-4791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954684

ABSTRACT

Rapid development and successful use of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 might hold the key to curb the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19. Emergence of vaccine-evasive SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) has posed a new challenge to vaccine design and development. One urgent need is to determine what types of variant-specific and bivalent vaccines should be developed. Here, we compared homotypic and heterotypic protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection of hamsters with monovalent and bivalent whole-virion inactivated vaccines derived from representative VOCs. In addition to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain, Delta (B.1.617.2; δ) and Theta (P.3; θ) variants were used in vaccine preparation. Additional VOCs including Omicron (B.1.1.529) and Alpha (B.1.1.7) variants were employed in the challenge experiment. Consistent with previous findings, Omicron variant exhibited the highest degree of immune evasion, rendering all different forms of inactivated vaccines substantially less efficacious. Notably, monovalent and bivalent Delta variant-specific inactivated vaccines provided optimal protection against challenge with Delta variant. Yet, some cross-variant protection against Omicron and Alpha variants was seen with all monovalent and bivalent inactivated vaccines tested. Taken together, our findings support the notion that an optimal next-generation inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 should contain the predominant VOC in circulation. Further investigations are underway to test whether a bivalent vaccine for Delta and Omicron variants can serve this purpose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , Vaccines, Inactivated
4.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953859

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is undoubtedly the most challenging pandemic in the current century and remains a global health emergency. As the number of COVID-19 cases in the world is on the rise and variants continue to emerge, there is an urgent need for vaccines. Among all immunization approaches, mRNA vaccines have demonstrated more promising results in response to this challenge. Herein, we designed an mRNA-based vaccine encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Intramuscular (i.m.) administration of the mRNA-RBD vaccine elicited broad-spectrum neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses against not only the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus but also Delta and Omicron variants. These results indicated that two doses of mRNA-RBD immunization conferred a strong immune response in mice against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, while the booster dose provided a sufficient immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Taken together, the three-dose regimen strategy of the mRNA-RBD vaccine proposed in the present study appears to be a promising reference for the development of mRNA vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 875558, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952819

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Attenuated humoral response to mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been reported in some patients with autoimmune disease, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, data of immune responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the RA population are still unknown. Herein, the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in RA patients were analyzed. Methods: Seventy five RA patients and 26 healthy controls (HC) were respectively recruited from Yunnan Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the community in Kunming city. Neutralizing Antibody (NAb) Test ELISA kit was used to measure the percentage of inhibition. AKA (anti-keratin antibody) positivity was detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Rheumatoid factor (RF)-IgA was detected by ELISA. RF-IgG, RF-IgM, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies were measured by chemiluminescence. ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate) was detected by ESR analyzer. C-RP (c-reactive protein) was detected by immunoturbidimetry. NEUT% (percentage of neutrophils) and LYMPH% (percentage of percentage) were calculated by a calculation method. Results: Compared with the HC group, the percentage of inhibition was significantly lower in RA patients receiving two doses of vaccines. Vaccines-induced percentage of inhibition was the lowest in RA patients who had not been vaccinated. In total 80.77% of the HC group had a percentage of inhibition ≧20%, compared with 45.24% of vaccinated RA patients and 6.06% of unvaccinated RA patients. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 did not differ between RA patients according to their age and disease duration. Furthermore, the results showed that no correlation was found between the percentage of inhibition and indices for RA, including RF-IgA, IgG, IgM; anti-CCP antibody; ESR; C-RP; NEUT% and LYMPH%. Conclusion: Our study showed inactivated vaccine-induced SARS-COV-2 antibody responses differ in RA patients and healthy subjects, emphasizing the importance of a third or fourth vaccination in RA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Rheumatoid Factor , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952321

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic year 2021, several countries have implemented a vaccine certificate policy, the "Green Pass Policy" (GPP), to reduce virus spread and to allow safe relaxation of COVID-19 restrictions and reopening of social and economic activities. The rationale for the GPP is based on the assumption that vaccinated people should maintain a certain degree of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe and compare, for the first time, the humoral immune response to mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines in terms of antibody titer elicited, neutralizing activity, and epitope reactogenicity among 369 individuals aged 19 to 94 years. In parallel, we also considered the use of a rapid test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies as a tool to guide policymakers in defining booster vaccination strategies and eligibility for Green Pass. Our analysis demonstrates that the titer of antibodies directed towards the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike is significantly associated with age and vaccine type. Moreover, natural COVID-19 infection combined with vaccination results, on average, in higher antibody titer and higher neutralizing activity as compared to fully vaccinated individuals without prior COVID-19. We also found that levels of anti-Spike RBD antibodies are not always strictly associated with the extent of inhibition of RBD-ACE2 binding, as we could observe different neutralizing activities in sera with similar anti-RBD concentrations. Finally, we evaluated the reactivity to four synthetic peptides derived from Spike protein on a randomly selected serum sample and observed that similar to SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination elicits a heterogeneous antibody response with qualitative individual features. On the basis of our results, the use of rapid devices to detect the presence of neutralizing antibodies, even on a large scale and repeatedly over time, appears helpful in determining the duration of the humoral protection elicited by vaccination. These aspects and their implications for the GPP are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Can J Microbiol ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950269

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to analyze severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody level kinetics after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and determine the efficiency of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels. The study included 50 SARS-CoV-2 infected and 70 uninfected cases. Levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG nucleocapsid protein (IgG-NP), IgG spike protein (IgG-SP), IgM nucleocapsid protein (IgM-NP), and IgA spike protein (IgA-SP) antibodies were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera obtained at baseline, 1st, 3rd, and 6th month follow-up visits for infected cases and at postvaccination visits for all cases. In symptomatic cases (n = 50), IgG-SP levels were decreased in 6 months compared with baseline, while IgA-SP levels were significantly increased. IgG-NP levels were significantly decreased in symptomatic cases at the 6-month visit. After vaccination, IgG-SP levels were increased in symptomatic cases compared with prevaccination levels. Among subjects vaccinated with CoronaVac (the Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine), infected cases had approximately double the IgG-SP level of uninfected cases. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels were higher at the baseline in symptomatic cases. Nevertheless, all infected cases showed significantly reduced IgG-SP levels at the 6th month. Vaccination effectively increased IgG-SP levels.

8.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0124722, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950018

ABSTRACT

Previous COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection; how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during 27 July 2020 to 27 August 2020 from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were severalfold lower in the unvaccinated study population compared to published concentrations at 28 days postvaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63 to 86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection; ~30% of neutralizing and 1 to 14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. Our study not only supports observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination postinfection to maximize protection against COVID-19, but also provides a large data set of pre-COVID-19 vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations that will serve as an important comparator in the current setting of vaccine-induced and hybrid immunity. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and displace circulating virus strains, we recommend that standardized binding antibody assays that include spike protein-based antigens be utilized to estimate antibody concentrations correlated with protection from COVID-19. These estimates will be helpful in informing public health guidance, such as the need for additional COVID-19 vaccine booster doses to prevent symptomatic infection. IMPORTANCE Although COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from COVID-19, how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. We assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized assays on serum specimens collected from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable antibodies. We found that most unvaccinated persons with qualitative antibody evidence of prior infection had quantitative antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% VE against COVID-19. However, only a small proportion had antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% VE, suggesting that persons with prior COVID-19 would benefit from vaccination to maximize protective antibody concentrations against COVID-19.

9.
Vox Sang ; 117(7): 971-975, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant displays increased infectiveness as well as mutations resulting in reduced neutralizing activity of antibodies acquired after vaccination or infection involving earlier strains. To assess the ability of vaccinated COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP-V) collected before November 2021 to seroneutralize Omicron, we compared neutralizing antibody (nAb) titres of 63 samples against Omicron and earlier B.1 (D614G) strains. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relationship between anti-Omicron titres and IgG anti-S1 levels (binding arbitrary unit: BAU/ml) was studied. Although correlated, anti-Omicron titres were significantly lower than anti-B.1 titres (median = 80 [10-1280] vs. 1280 [160-10,240], p < 0.0001). Omicron nAb titres and IgG anti-S1 levels were correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.67). Anti-S1 IgG threshold at 7000 BAU/ml may allow to discard CCP-V without anti-Omicron activity (nAb titre <40). Conversely, only those with highest titres (≥160) had systematically anti-S1 IgG levels >7000 BAU/ml. CONCLUSION: A fraction of CCP-V collected before November 2021 retains anti-Omicron seroneutralizing activity that may be selected by quantitative anti-IgG assays, but such assays do not easily allow the identification of 'high-titre' CCP-V. However, collecting plasma from vaccinated donors recently infected with Omicron may be the best option to provide optimal CCP-V for immunocompromised patients infected with this variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive
10.
J Indian Inst Sci ; : 1-17, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943765

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is an alternative route of viral entry in the susceptible host cell. In this process, antiviral antibodies enhance the entry access of virus in the cells via interaction with the complement or Fc receptors leading to the worsening of infection. SARS-CoV-2 variants pose a general concern for the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that may fail to neutralize infection, raising the possibility of a more severe form of COVID-19. Data from various studies on respiratory viruses raise the speculation that antibodies elicited against SARS-CoV-2 and during COVID-19 recovery could potentially exacerbate the infection through ADE at sub-neutralizing concentrations; this may contribute to disease pathogenesis. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to study the effectiveness of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19-infected subjects. Theoretically, ADE remains a general concern for the efficacy of antibodies elicited during infection, most notably in convalescent plasma therapy and in response to vaccines where it could be counterproductive.

11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942411
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939058

ABSTRACT

Background. The recent spread of the highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has raised concerns about protection against COVID-19 in congregate settings such as prisons, characterized by a high risk of transmission and possible difficulties in obtaining adequate vaccination coverage. The present study aims to investigate the spread of an outbreak of COVID-19 in an Italian correctional facility during the dominant circulation of the Omicron BA.1 variant, and also considers BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination coverage among inmates. A COVID-19 screening campaign by RT-PCR was performed on 515 detainees from 4-30 January 2022, in response to an outbreak that began in the correctional facility. Furthermore, 101 serum samples collected from healthy inmates 21 days after having received the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were tested for neutralizing antibodies against both the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 strain and the Omicron BA.1 variant. The global attack rate during the study period was 43.6% (RR 0.8), progressively reducing from unvaccinated inmates (62.7%, RR 1.8) to those who had one dose (52.3%, RR 1.5), two doses (full cycle) (45.0%, RR 1.3), and the third dose (booster) vaccinated group (31.4%, RR 0.7). The percentage of SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects among unvaccinated inmates was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.001), while no significant difference was observed between inmates with one or two vaccine doses. Only two of the positive inmates were hospitalized for COVID-19. The geometric mean titer of neutralizing antibodies in the tested sub-group after two doses of vaccine was lower than in previous studies against the wild-type virus, and showed a complete lack of neutralization against the Omicron variant in 92.1% of individuals. The findings support the need to prioritize vaccination in correctional facilities, as a public health measure to increase the protection of inmates and consequently of prison workers and the community against COVID-19, in coordination with the other prevention strategies.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0270621, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938019

ABSTRACT

The neutralizing antibody response is a key component of adaptive immunity and a primary protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The increased transmissibility of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and its capacity to cause more severe disease could be linked to a significant reduction in neutralizing antibodies generated during a previous infection or vaccination. We analyzed blood samples from 162 unvaccinated health care workers (HCWs) collected 1 to 3 months postinfection and from 263 vaccinated health care workers 1 month after the last injection. We have compared the neutralizing antibody titers obtained using two virus strains, B.1.160 and B.1.617.2 (Delta variant). Binding antibody concentrations were measured by an immunoassay. The median neutralizing antibody titer against the B.1.160 strain was 128 (interquartile range [IQR], 16 to 256) and 32 (IQR, 8 to 128) against the Delta variant. To obtain a neutralizing antibody titer of 32 or 64, a binding antibody concentration of 182 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (IQR, 81 to 974) was required with the strain B.1.160, while a concentration of 2,595 BAU/mL (IQR, 1,176 to 5,353) was required with the Delta variant. Our data indicate that antibodies neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant 4 times less efficiently than they neutralize an earlier strain. Half of the HCWs had decreased protection from 94% to 76.8% or less for the same total antibody concentration. But neutralization might be correlated with other immune responses. The contributions of other responses, such as those of the T cell and B cell systems, to protection require further investigation. IMPORTANCE Recent studies showed that the neutralizing antibody titer is an important contributor to protection against SARS-CoV-2. With the emergence of new variants, the question arises of maintaining the neutralizing capacities of vaccines and/or of a past infection. We had protective data associated with total antibody concentrations and neutralizing antibody titers for a B.1.160 strain. We showed that to maintain the same levels of protection and, therefore, the same levels of neutralizing antibodies, a total antibody concentration 8.5 times greater is required with the Delta strain. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT04385108.).

14.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100685, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937310

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In follow up to a phase 1 trial, we perform a longitudinal analysis of immune responses following immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine MVA-MERS-S encoding the MERS-CoV-spike protein. Three homologous immunizations were administered on days 0 and 28 with a late booster vaccination at 12 ± 4 months. Antibody isotypes, subclasses, and neutralization capacity as well as T and B cell responses were monitored over a period of 3 years using standard and bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 50% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT50), enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot), and flow cytometry. The late booster immunization significantly increases the frequency and persistence of spike-specific B cells, binding immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and neutralizing antibodies but not T cell responses. Our data highlight the potential of a late boost to enhance long-term antibody and B cell immunity against MERS-CoV. Our findings on the MVA-MERS-S vaccine may be of relevance for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccinia virus
15.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103513, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937260

ABSTRACT

Even after two years of the pandemic, a completely effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been established. Considering this fact and the emergence of successive new viral variants, the development of therapies based on natural polyclonal antibodies recovered from convalescent plasma remains relevant. This study presents a comparison between different methods of screening antibodies in samples of 41 individuals previously diagnosed with COVID-19. We found a significant correlation between Abbot Architect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and Abbott Allinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quantitative assay intensity of reactivity and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers. Thus, we propose an initial antibody screening with IgG anti-N Abbott Architect test, with an index of, for example, > 3.25 or SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quantitative Abbott Allinity assay > 137.65 AU/mL as good predictors of Nab ≥ 1:80. For the quantitative method, this threshold demonstrated a 100 % sensitivity and 80 % specificity, with 97.3 % accuracy. An interesting observation was the increase in the neutralizing activity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with the longest interval between the end of the symptoms and the collection, demonstrating that the delay in plasma collection does not affect the achievement of adequate nAbs levels. These results demonstrate the possibility of using faster and more widely available commercial serological tests with a good correlation with viral neutralization tests in culture, allowing for optimized large-scale donor selection, which will be of utmost importance for the development of therapies such as hyperimmune immunoglobulin.

16.
Mol Cell ; 82(11): 2050-2068.e6, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937002

ABSTRACT

Aided by extensive spike protein mutation, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant overtook the previously dominant Delta variant. Spike conformation plays an essential role in SARS-CoV-2 evolution via changes in receptor-binding domain (RBD) and neutralizing antibody epitope presentation, affecting virus transmissibility and immune evasion. Here, we determine cryo-EM structures of the Omicron and Delta spikes to understand the conformational impacts of mutations in each. The Omicron spike structure revealed an unusually tightly packed RBD organization with long range impacts that were not observed in the Delta spike. Binding and crystallography revealed increased flexibility at the functionally critical fusion peptide site in the Omicron spike. These results reveal a highly evolved Omicron spike architecture with possible impacts on its high levels of immune evasion and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 868361, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933649

ABSTRACT

Background: Residents of nursing homes are one of the most vulnerable groups during the severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The aim of this study was to characterize cellular and humoral immune responses in >70-year-old participants before vaccination, after first and second vaccination with BNT162b2, in contrast to second-dose-vaccinated participants younger than 60 years. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 45 elderly and 40 younger vaccinees were analyzed by IFNγ ELISpot, specific immunoglobulin G antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and neutralization abilities against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (WT) and Delta variant (B.1.617.2). Results: Our results clearly demonstrate a significantly increased T cell response, IgG titers, and neutralization activities against SARS-CoV-2 WT and Delta between first and second vaccination with BNT162b2 in elderly vaccinees, thereby highlighting the importance of the second booster. Interestingly, similar cellular and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 WT and Delta were found after the second vaccine dose in the young and elderly groups. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a full picture of cellular and humoral immune responses of BNT162b2-vaccinees in two age cohorts. In all vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 WT-specific antibodies with similar neutralizing activity were detected in all vaccinees. After the second vaccination, neutralization titers against SARS-CoV-2 Delta were impaired in both age groups compared with SARS-CoV-2 WT, thereby emphasizing the need for an additional booster to overcome rising variants of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
J Mol Biol ; 434(13): 167622, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930974

ABSTRACT

Among the five known SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Delta is the most virulent leading to severe symptoms and increased mortality among infected people. Our study seeks to examine how the biophysical parameters of the Delta variant correlate to the clinical observations. Receptor binding domain (RBD) is the first point of contact with the human host cells and is the immunodominant form of the spike protein. Delta variant RBD contains two novel mutations L452R and T478K. We examined the effect of single as well as the double mutations on RBD expression in human Expi293 cells, RBD stability using urea and thermal denaturation, and RBD binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and to neutralizing antibodies using isothermal titration calorimetry. Delta variant RBD showed significantly higher expression compared to the wild-type RBD, and the increased expression is due to L452R mutation. Despite their non-conservative nature, none of the mutations significantly affected RBD structure and stability. All mutants showed similar binding affinity to ACE2 and to Class 1 antibodies (CC12.1 and LY-CoV016) as that of the wild-type. Delta double mutant L452R/T478K showed no binding to Class 2 antibodies (P2B-2F6 and LY-CoV555) and a hundred-fold weaker binding to a Class 3 antibody (REGN10987), and the decreased antibody binding is determined by the L452R mutation. These results indicate that the immune escape from neutralizing antibodies, rather than increased receptor binding, is the main biophysical parameter that determined the fitness landscape of the Delta variant RBD.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Arch Toxicol ; 96(8): 2329-2339, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930384

ABSTRACT

BriLife®, a vector-based vaccine that utilizes the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) platform to express and present the spike antigen of SARS-CoV-2, is undergoing testing in a phase 2 clinical trial in Israel. A nonclinical repeated-dose (GLP) toxicity study in New Zealand white rabbits was performed to evaluate the potential toxicity, local tolerance, immunogenicity and biodistribution of the vaccine. rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S (or vehicle) was administered intramuscularly to two groups of animals (106, 107 PFU/animal, n = 10/sex/group) on three occasions, at 2-week intervals, followed by a 3-week recovery period. Systemic clinical signs, local reactions, body weight, body temperature, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, clinical pathology, C-reactive protein, viremia and antibody levels were monitored. Gross pathology was performed, followed by organs/tissues collection for biodistribution and histopathological evaluation. Treatment-related changes were restricted to multifocal minimal myofiber necrosis at the injection sites, and increased lymphocytic cellularity in the iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen. These changes were considered related to the inflammatory reaction elicited, and correlated with a trend for recovery. Detection of rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine RNA was noted in the regional iliac lymph node in animals assigned to the high-dose group, at both termination time points. A significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibody titers was observed following vaccination at both vaccine doses. In view of the findings, it was concluded that the rVSV-ΔG-SARS-CoV-2-S vaccine is safe. These results supported the initiation of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Distribution
20.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(7): 1120-1128, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929799

ABSTRACT

A significant number of COVID-19 patients were shown to have neutralizing antibodies (NAB) against IFN; however, NAB specificity, fluctuation over time, associations with biochemical and hematological parameters, and IFN gene expression are not well characterized. Binding antibodies (BAB) to IFN-α/-ß were screened in COVID-19 patients' serum. All BAB positive sera, and a subset of respiratory samples, were tested for NAB against IFN-α/-ß/-ω, using an antiviral bioassay. Transcript levels of IFN-α/-ß/-ω and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were quantified. Anti-IFN-I BAB were found in 61 out of 360 (17%) of patients. Among BAB positive sera, 21.3% had a high NAB titer against IFN-α. A total of 69.2% of anti-IFN-α NAB sera displayed cross-reactivity to IFN-ω. Anti-IFN-I NAB persisted in all patients. NAB to IFN-α were also detected in 3 out of 17 (17.6%) of respiratory samples. Anti-IFN-I NAB were higher in males (p = 0.0017), patients admitted to the ICU (p < 0.0001), and patients with a fatal outcome (p < 0.0001). NAB were associated with higher levels of CRP, LDH, d-Dimer, and higher counts of hematological parameters. ISG-mRNAs were reduced in patients with persistently NAB titer. NAB are detected in a significant proportion of severe COVID-19. NAB positive patients presented a defective IFN response and increased levels of laboratory biomarkers of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Down-Regulation , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Interferon-beta , Male , Severity of Illness Index
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