Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 709
Filter
1.
Med Hypotheses ; 166: 110926, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966946

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV are more exposed to the adverse health effects of the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic's health and social repercussions may promote drug abuse and inadequate HIV management among this demographic. The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) has caused unprecedented disruption worldwide in people's lives and health care. When the COVID-19 epidemic was identified, people with HIV faced significant obstacles and hurdles to achieving optimal care results. The viral spike protein (S-Protein) and the cognate host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are both realistic and appropriate intervention targets. Calanolides A, Holy Basil, Kuwanon-L, and Patentiflorin have anti-HIV effects. Our computational biology study investigated that these compounds all had interaction binding scores related to S protein of coronavirus of -9.0 kcal /mol, -7.1 kcal /mol, -9.1 kcal /mol, and -10.3 kcal/mol/mol, respectively. A combination of plant-derived anti-HIV compounds like protease inhibitors and nucleoside analogs, which are commonly used to treat HIV infection, might be explored in clinical trials for the treatment of COVID-19.

2.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 170:S1235-S1236, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967481

ABSTRACT

Purpose or Objective A growing number of elderly patients every year is treated with radiation therapy (RT), but little is known about side effects and outcome of irradiation in this potentially frail population. The identification of predictive factors of toxicity and frailty could offer a personalized treatment approach, thanks also to a multidisciplinary management of patients with increased risk of adverse outcomes. In this study we investigated the correlation of patient parameters with acute toxicities in elderly aged > 75 years treated with curative RT. Materials and Methods A prospective observational study was designed in our Center for patients with > 75years, candidate for curative RT. To these patients the radiation oncologist submitted the Geriatric 8 questionnaire (G8q) before and at the end of RT. Patients with G8 score < 14 were then evaluated by a multidimensional geriatric assessment, investigating cognitive (MMSE, GDS), functional (ADL, IADL, Tinetti) and nutritional (MNA short) domains, to define the frailty phenotype. In this setting, we retrospectively analyzed parameters like body mass index (BMI), number of comorbidities, total blood count, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and basal G8 score, and correlated these parameters to acute toxicity. Results G8q was administered to 150 patients from December 2019 to April 2021. In this study we included 98 patients who started and completed RT in our Unit in this period. Of them, 38 (38.8%) had a baseline G8 score < 14 (range 4-14) and 23 agreed to underwent a multidimensional assessment, while 15 could not be evaluated due to COVID-19 dispositions or their refusal. Eleven patients resulted fit, while 12 patients were classified as vulnerable. Acute toxicity grade was < grade 2 in 67 patients (68.4%) (Table 1). We evaluated associations between BMI, number of comorbidities, total blood count, NLR, PLR, G8 score and acute toxicity (Table 2). Total blood count, NLR, PLR and G8 score resulted not significantly correlated to toxicity. Instead, a higher BMI was associated with worse acute toxicity (p=0.031): considering the 31 patients reporting toxicity > grade 2, 17 patients were over-weighted (54.8%), 1 patient was under-weighted (3.2%). Overall, the 63.3% of population (62 patients) was over-weighted, with a median BMI of 26.3. (Table Presented) (Table Presented) Conclusion Although G8q considers under-weight as a possible responsible of frailty, our study suggested that attention should be paid to over-weight too, due to its prevalence in elderly patients. Furthermore our results suggested that in elderly patients > 75years the BMI correlates with worse acute toxicity, according to literature data. The 38.8% of patients needed a multidimensional evaluation;this approach resulted useful in order to obtain compliance to the treatment without increased toxicity. The study is still ongoing and further analysis will be done.

3.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction ; 16(2):204-212, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957619

ABSTRACT

The main role of platelets is traditionally assigned to participation in hemostasis reactions. In recent years, the data have appeared on the non-hemostatic platelet-related role and their active participation in inflammatory reactions. These platelet functions are predetermined by their ability to activate and secrete various immunomodulatory cytokines and chemokines. In addition, activated platelets can directly interact with viral receptors. Recently, there has been growing the knowledge regarding platelet-related regulation of diverse cell types. The result of this interaction is, among others, the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates, the focusing of neutrophils at the sites of injury, and generation of a scaffold for developing extracellular traps. Thus, platelets are not only participants in coagulation processes, but also important players in the inflammatory process. This lecture details the issues of platelets controlling and modulating host response to viral infection, as well as potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

4.
Pharmacognosy Journal ; 14(3):591-597, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957551

ABSTRACT

Currently, Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enteric pathogen of the Alphacoronavirus-1 species that causes mild to severe diarrhea in puppies. The pathogenesis of this infection will cause severe lymphopenia and lead to death in puppies. This study aimed to determine the administration of probiotics on TNF-α expression, histological findings of the liver and lung in mice infected with CCoV. A total of 28 mice were randomly assigned into seven treatment groups, i.e. (C-) placebo;(C+) active CCoV vaccine induction;(T1) CCov + Isopronosin;(T2) CCoV + Lactobacillus acidophilus probiotic;(T3) CCoV + Lactobacillus Acidophylus and Bifidobacterium probiotics;(T4) CCoV + colustrum fermentation probiotic;(T5) CCoV + ginger, turmeric and ginger probiotics. Thereafter, the expression of TNF-α in the duodenum was stained using immunohistochemistry, liver and lung were stained using hematoxylin eosin. The data were analyzed using the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test with a significance level (p<0.05). TNF-α expression on T4 and T5 decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to C+, T1, T2 and T3. Histologic findings of the liver in the C- and T4 groups showed normal features in the central vein. On the other hand, glycogen accumulation was found in hepatocyte cells, hemorrhage with sinusoid dilation, lymphocyte infiltration in centro lobular area in group C+. Lung histology showed normal features of sinusoids and alveolar septa in groups C- and T4. Meanwhile, intra-alveolar hemorrhage was found with neutrophil cell infiltration and fibrin plasma accumulation in group C+. In conclusion, colostrum fermentation probiotics can reduce TNF-α expression in the duodenum and improve the liver and lung physiology in mice infected with CCoV.

5.
British Journal of Dermatology ; 186(6):e254, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1956702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a rapid requirement for a safe and effective vaccination programme. Currently, three types of vaccines exist: mRNA (Pfizer), adenoviral vector (AstraZeneca) and inactivated whole-virus vaccines (Sinofarm). These all have reported cutaneous side-effects, including papulovesicular, pityriasis rosea-like and papulosquamous eruptions (McMahon DE, Kovarik CL, Damsky W et al. Clinical and pathologic correlation of cutaneous COVID-19 vaccine reactions including V-REPP: a registry-based study. J Am Acad Dermatol 2021;86: 113-21). We present a case of delayed type III hypersensitivity reaction clinically resembling urticarial vasculitis (UV) in a 66-year-old woman following AstraZeneca vaccine. She initially reported urticarial lesions on the hands after the first vaccination;these settled spontaneously. On subsequent vaccination she developed a florid rash 4 days later, presenting to Accident & Emergency with angio-oedema, malaise and urticaria. The eruption was presumed viral given the mildly elevated C-reactive protein, and negative lateral flow test for COVID-19. She was given fexofenadine 180 mg QDS for 6 weeks;however, the rash persisted and became more widespread over the following 4 weeks. The initial urticated wheals persisted >24 h, becoming bruise-like and painful. Skin biopsy confirmed UV. ANA, complement, ANCA and COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction were nonsignificant. We believe this is the first documented case of UV triggered by the AstraZeneca vaccine and the third case of UV following a Sars-CoV-2 vaccine reported in English literature. The two other cases were secondary to Pfizer and whole-virus vaccine, respectively. From the literature it is believed UV is potentially caused by the coronavirus particles rather than vaccine additives, as the Sars-CoV-2 nucleocapsid has been demonstrated in skin lesions of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients with UV (Criado PR, Criado RFJ, Gianotti R et al. Urticarial vasculitis revealing immunolabelled nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 in two Brazilian asymptomatic patients: the tip of the COVID-19 hidden iceberg? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021;35: e563-6). Thus, although rare, clinicians should be aware of this entity.

6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 872695, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952330

ABSTRACT

The frequent severe COVID-19 course in patients with periodontitis suggests a link of the aetiopathogenesis of both diseases. The formation of intravascular neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is crucial to the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19. Periodontitis is characterised by an increased level of circulating NETs, a propensity for increased NET formation, delayed NET clearance and low-grade endotoxemia (LGE). The latter has an enormous impact on innate immunity and susceptibility to infection with SARS-CoV-2. LPS binds the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and this complex, which is more active than unbound LPS, precipitates massive NET formation. Thus, circulating NET formation is the common denominator in both COVID-19 and periodontitis and other diseases with low-grade endotoxemia like diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) also increase the risk to develop severe COVID-19. Here we discuss the role of propensity for increased NET formation, DNase I deficiency and low-grade endotoxaemia in periodontitis as aggravating factors for the severe course of COVID-19 and possible strategies for the diminution of increased levels of circulating periodontitis-derived NETs in COVID-19 with periodontitis comorbidity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endotoxemia , Extracellular Traps , Periodontitis , Endotoxemia/metabolism , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Neutrophils , Periodontitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 155, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A dysregulated immune response is emerging as a key feature of critical illness in COVID-19. Neutrophils are key components of early innate immunity that, if not tightly regulated, contribute to uncontrolled systemic inflammation. We sought to decipher the role of neutrophil phenotypes, functions, and homeostasis in COVID-19 disease severity and outcome. METHODS: By using flow cytometry, this longitudinal study compares peripheral whole-blood neutrophils from 90 COVID-19 ICU patients with those of 22 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients hospitalized for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 38 healthy controls. We also assessed correlations between these phenotypic and functional indicators and markers of endothelial damage as well as disease severity. RESULTS: At ICU admission, the circulating neutrophils of the COVID-19 patients showed continuous basal hyperactivation not seen in CAP patients, associated with higher circulating levels of soluble E- and P-selectin, which reflect platelet and endothelial activation. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients had expanded aged-angiogenic and reverse transmigrated neutrophil subsets-both involved in endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Simultaneously, COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of neutrophil oxidative burst in response to bacterial formyl peptide. Moreover patients dying of COVID-19 had significantly higher expansion of aged-angiogenic neutrophil subset and greater impairment of oxidative burst response than survivors. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that neutrophil exhaustion may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and identify angiogenic neutrophils as a potentially harmful subset involved in fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Aged , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Longitudinal Studies , Neutrophils/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Int Med Res ; 50(7): 3000605221109381, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The clinical manifestations and the evolution of patients with COVID-19 are variable. In addition to respiratory involvement, COVID-19 leads to systemic involvement and can affect the hematopoietic system. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of hematological and hemocytometric parameters in predicting the severity of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study at Mohammed VI university Hospital from 1 March to 11 November 2020. We collected demographic characteristics and hematological findings of incident COVID-19 cases. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients were included in our study. We found that the rate of lymphopenia was significantly reduced in patients who were severely affected by COVID-19. Additionally, the rate of neutrophilia, the neutrophil side fluorescence light signal, monocyte fluorescent intensity, monocyte size, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio were significantly elevated in patients who were severely affected by COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the literature regarding the predictive value of these markers. A prospective validation in a large population with a longer follow-up is required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphopenia , Humans , Morocco/epidemiology , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:17933-17940, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950336

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus is the novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). It's a nonsegmented enveloped positive sense RNA virus with 82 percent genetic similarity to the SARS coronavirus (SARSCoV), which sparked an outbreak in early 2003. Respiratory droplets are assumed to be the primary mechanism of transmission because the virus is found in respiratory secretions. Conjunctival transmission and aerosol transmission have also been proposed, however they are also problematic. Fever, tiredness, and dry mouth are the three most prevalent COVID19 clinical symptoms. In several patients, however, conjunctivitis was the initial symptom. The disease's respiratory complications have been the focus of diagnostic and therapeutic efforts, However, a number of ocular concerns have surfaced. Infected patients' tears have been confirmed to contain SARSCov2 RNA, and studies indicate that the virus is spreading. For viral transmission, the ocular surface could serve as both an entry point and a reservoir. COVID19 has been linked to mild conjunctivitis, which can be the disease's first and only symptom. Ocular symptoms can be treated with observation without therapy, antibacterial eye drops, antiviral eye drops, and antiallergic eye drops, according to clinical trials..As a result, the only recommended treatment for COVID19related ocular manifestations is close observation cough. The motivation behind this examination was to investigate the event of visual appearances in patients who had been determined to have Covid illness 2019 (Coronavirus) because of serious intense respiratory condition. 2(SARS-CoV-2). © The Electrochemical Society

10.
Chest ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inflammation is pathogenic in the pneumonitis associated with severe COVID-19. Neutrophils are among the most abundantly present leukocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates and may form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) under the local influence of cytokines. NETs constitute a defense mechanism against bacteria, but also have been shown to mediate tissue damage in a number of diseases. RESEARCH QUESTION: Could NETs and their tissue-damaging properties inherent to neutrophil-associated functions play a role in the respiratory failure seen in patients with severe COVID-19, and how does this relate to the SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, IL-8 (CXCL8) chemokine expression, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte infiltrates? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen lung biopsy samples obtained immediately after death were analyzed methodically as exploratory and validation cohorts. NETs were analyzed quantitatively by multiplexed immunofluorescence and were correlated with local levels of IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the density of CD8+ T-cell infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 presence in tissue was quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analysis. RESULTS: NETs were found in the lung interstitium and surrounding the bronchiolar epithelium with interindividual and spatial heterogeneity. NET density did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 tissue viral load. NETs were associated with local IL-8 mRNA levels. NETs also were detected in pulmonary thrombi and in only one of eight liver tissues. NET focal presence correlated negatively with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the lungs. INTERPRETATION: Abundant neutrophils undergoing NETosis are found in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19, but no correlation was found with viral loads. The strong association between NETs and IL-8 points to this chemokine as a potentially causative factor. The function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 may be interfered with by the presence of NETs.

11.
12.
Supportive Care in Cancer ; 30:S77, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1935803

ABSTRACT

Introduction Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a crucial supportive care medication, used for the prevention of febrile neutropenia in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, experts began discussing whether increased use of G-CSF in cancer patients and the minimization of the neutropenic period could provide benefit in that patient population. Concerns were soon raised, however, regarding the potential synergy between the pro-inflammatory COVID-19 disease process and immune stimulation from G-CSF administration. It was noted that COVID-19 patients exposed to G-CSF were developing markedly elevated Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios (NLR), indicating an excessive inflammatory response and an increased risk of ARDS and inhospital mortality. The purpose of this study is to better understand the potential harm caused by this synergy. Methods We used TriNetX, a global health research network providing access to electronic medical records from approximately 85 million patients in 64 large healthcare organizations. The platform only contains de-identified data as per the de-identification standard defined in Section 164.514(a) of the HIPAA Privacy Rule. SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by laboratory codes 9088, 94309-2, and 94500-6, indicating the presence of COVID-19 RNA. Use of G-CSF was determined by J-code J1442, indicating its administration through having been billed to the patient. Two neutropenic (ANC <1,000/microliter) cohorts were then generated, one having COVID-19 infection and G-CSF administration within the subsequent 2 weeks, and the other with COVID-19 infection and no G-CSF administration. Both cohorts were balanced for age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Most importantly, the cohorts were balanced for average initial neutrophil count to rule out the potential sampling error of more severely neutropenic patients having worse outcomes. These criteria resulted in cohorts of 715 patients each. The cohorts were then evaluated for the outcome of “ventilation assist and management, initiation of pressure or volume preset ventilators for assisted or controlled breathing” via procedure code 1014859. Results Patients who received G-CSF within 2 weeks following COVID-19 infection were 3.7 times more likely to end up on a ventilator (p<0.0001), and had 3.5 times greater 60-day mortality (6.557% vs 1.878%, p<0.0001). Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a significant inflammatory response, and the use of G-CSF in neutropenic patients within 2 weeks of infection is associated with a significant increased risk of need for mechanical ventilation and increased risk of 60-day mortality. Use of G-CSF in this patient population should be discouraged in favor of broadspectrum antibiotic coverage.

13.
Adv Med Sci ; 67(2): 291-297, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935941

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the coagulation and inflammatory markers connected with severe course of COVID-19 and no clinical improvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included 2590 adult patients, diagnosed with COVID-19, selected from the SARSTer national database - an ongoing project led by the Polish Association of Epidemiologists and Infectiologists and supported by the Medical Research Agency. Clinical and laboratory parameters, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophil and lymphocyte count, procalcitonin, ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), D-dimer concentration and platelet (PLT) count were analyzed before and after treatment (remdesivir, tocilizumab, dexamethasone, anticoagulants). RESULTS: Significant differences between patients with mild and severe course of the disease were observed in all examined parameters before treatment (p â€‹< â€‹0.05). After treatment only ferritin concentration did not differ significantly. In patients with pulmonary embolism, CRP concentration, neutrophil count, D-dimer and IL-6 concentration were significantly higher than in patients without embolism (p â€‹< â€‹0.05). The significant differences between the groups with and without fatal outcome were observed within all analyzed parameters. Significant differences in all examined parameters before treatment were observed between patients with and without clinical improvement (p â€‹< â€‹0.05). Multivariate logistic regression showed that no clinical improvement was associated with: IL-6>100 â€‹pg/ml (OR-2.14), D-dimer concentration over 1000 â€‹ng/ml (OR-1.62) and PLT count below 150,000/µl (OR-1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Severe course of the disease is associated with lower PLT and lymphocyte count, higher D-dimer, CRP, neutrophil count and IL-6 concentration. The best predictors of no clinical improvement in COVID-19 are: IL-6>100 â€‹pg/ml, D-dimer>1000 â€‹ng/ml and PLT<150,000/µl.

14.
Biomedicine (India) ; 42(3):561-566, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939776

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID–19) can cause damage to a wide variety of organs throughout the body, with the lung being its primary focus of attack. The identification of prognostic indicators in COVID-19 can be of assistance in the management of the disease, in instances that are critical or severe. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hematological and inflammatory indicators in COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized and determine how closely those markers are associated with the severity of the condition. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective analysis, there were a total of 200 patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The demographic information and comorbidities of the patients were gathered through direct questioning. The indicators of the complete blood count were recorded for every patient. In addition, tests were performed on D-dimer, ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C reactive protein (CRP). Systemic immune inflammation index (SII) was calculated. The association of demographic and laboratory parameters with patient’s outcome evaluated. Results: After a 30-day follow-up, 32 patients (16%) out of 200 required ICU hospitalization, with eight of them (4%) dying. Each of the following od diabetes (OR=4.2;95 % CI= 1.8-2291, p=0.021), hypertension (OR=3.1, 95 % CI=1.21-19.11, p=0.033), D-dimmer (OR=3.22, 95 % CI=1.43-9.12, p=0.037), ferritin (OR=2.18, 95 % CI=1.4-7.22, p=0.027), NLR (OR=3.26, 95% CI=1.5-7.18, p= 0.023), LDH (OR= 6.23, 95% CI=1.77-22.9, p=0.034), and CRP (OR=4.56, 95% CI=1.32-28.85, p=0.007), were independent risk factors for severity of COVID-19. Conclusion: The comorbidities diabetes and hypertension, as well as the levels of D-dimer, serum ferritin, NLR, LDH, and CRP, could be utilized to predict COVID-19 severity and its outcome.

15.
Biomedicine (India) ; 42(3):539-542, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939774

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which rapidly evolved into a pandemic infecting humans all over the world. Whether hematologic and immunologic responses play a crucial role in progression of COVID-19 is still not clear. Increasing scientific evidence has shown that abnormalities in routine hematological tests, have the potential to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection in an economical way. Major laboratory changes indicating systemic inflammation and multi-organ impairment including hematopoietic system leading to lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, eosinopenia, mild thrombocytopenia and ratios derived from these hematological parameters indicated severe disease and/or fatal outcomes. The aim was to study the hematological profile of Covid-19 patients admitted at a tertiary care hospital at Ramanagar district. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 260 confirmed cases of Covid-19 diagnosed at a tertiary health care centre. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, treatment, and outcome data were extracted from the institutional electronic medical records after obtaining permission from the concerned authorities. From CBC test results obtained neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was derived. Results: The present study revealed that majority of Covid positive patients presented with lymphopenia. While a significant association was observed between N/L ratio and disease severity, no significant association was seen between platelet count and severity of the disease. Conclusion: Since the results of the present study features lymphopenia among large proportion of patients and elevated N/L ratio among critically ill patients these markers could be utilized as useful prognostic indicators during the initial assessment of disease severity and thus appropriate management can be planned for such patients before the condition of the patient deteriorates.

16.
Clinical and Experimental Surgery ; 10(2):19-25, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939718

ABSTRACT

The course of the reparative process in surgical pathology directly depends on hemomicrocirculation, nutrition and oxygen supply in tissues, as well as the activity of lipid peroxidation processes. A novel coronavirus infection can slow down the reparative process and potentiate the development of wound complications. Aim - to study the features of the tissue healing process in patients with deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities against the background of a new coronavirus infection. Material and methods. 130 patients were monitored: group 1 - 48 patients with acute thrombosis of the veins of the lower extremities, group 2 - 82 patients with acute deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities, combined with coronavirus infection. Patients underwent thrombectomy followed by plication. On the 2nd, 4th and 7th days, a comprehensive study of the state of the tissues of the area of surgical intervention was carried out to determine the nature and rate of healing, the development of wound complications. Results. In a quantitative analysis of the developed complications on the side of the wound after surgery, it turned out that their number in patients with coronavirus infection was more than 7 times higher (p<0.001). A feature of the wound process as a whole was prolonged lymphorrhea. Cytological signs of impaired tissue healing in the wound area were established. So, in group 2 two days after the operation the number of neutrophilic leukocytes in the wound exudate was 48.2% more than in the group 1, by day 7th - 69.5% more. Weak dynamics of the regenerative-degenerative index was noted. The number of tissue polyblasts in patients of group 2, was 4.2-100.2% lower than those of group 1 at all stages of observation, and lymphoid polyblasts - 47.0-159.1% higher. Patients with coronavirus infection have more significant microcirculatory disorders. According to thromboelastography data, in patients of group 2, an imbalance in the blood coagulation system was registered with a predominance of thrombosis. Conclusion. In patients with acute deep vein thrombosis of the lower limb against the background of coronavirus infection, the wound healing process, which underlies the development of wound complications, slows down. One of the factors that reduce the rate of tissue healing are microcirculation disorders against the background of pronounced disorders in the hemostasis system. The most significant changes in the microenvironment of regenerating structures occur in the first 2-4 days after surgery.

17.
Medical Journal of Bakirkoy ; 18(2):247-251, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939263

ABSTRACT

Objective: Smoking, and also water pipe smoking (hookah), is a common method of tobacco use in Southwest Asia and Middle East countries. Although the relationship between coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection and smoking has been evaluated in many studies, no study has been conducted to evaluate the relationship between COVID-19 infection and water pipe smoking. Methods: We enrolled 150 in-hospital patients. The severity of disease classified as mild, moderate, severe, and critically ill. The relationship between waterpipe smoker, smoker and non-smoker patients and severity of disease statistically evaluated. Results: Patients with minimal involvement (1-25%) on thorax computed tomography were found to be higher in the smoker and cigarette-hookah smoking group compared to the non-smoking group, and the patients with moderate involvement (51-75%) were found to be less in the smoking-hookah group. in terms of disease degree;It was found that there were more mild and moderate smokers in the smoking and smoking-hookah group than the non-smoking group. The C-reactive protein and sedimentation values of cigarette-waterpipe tabocco smokers were found to be lower than non-smokers. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoking does not aggravate the course of the disease in the young population, but new studies are needed for its effects on the elderly population.

18.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10:911-915, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 has been spread quickly and caused 5 million deaths until February 2022. Severe symptoms of the infection may lead to death that prompts appropriate clinical diagnosis and adequate treatment going to be necessary. COVID-19 shows a severe inflammatory response which causes an imbalance in the immune response. Therefore, circulating biomarkers that can represent inflammation and immune status are potential predictors for the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. AIM: The purpose of this study was to discover the role of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil-monocyte ratio (NMR), and lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) as inflammatory biomarkers for the severity of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: This study is a single-center retrospective cohort study. The sample of this study was taken by consecutive sampling with complete clinical data from 1035 patients from Andalas University Teaching Hospital from April 2020 to September 2021. This study used SPSS Version 25.0 for data management and analysis. RESULTS: There was a relationship between the degree of COVID-19 infection and the NLR value (p = 0.001), as well as the LMR (p = 0.001), NMR (p = 0.001), and ANC (p = 0.001). There was no relationship between the degree of infection in the negative PCR patient group and the NLR value (p = 0.144), as well as the LMR (p = 0.700), NMR (p = 0.120), and ANC (p = 0.90). CONCLUSION: The severity of COVID-19 symptoms could be predicted through inflammatory biomarkers such as NLR, LMR, and NMR.

19.
Anti-Infective Agents ; 20(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1938561

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has gained much popularity not only in the Wuhan city of China but internationally also;in January 2020, the corona rapidly spread to many countries like the USA, Italy, Russia, India, Singapore, Pakistan, Thailand, Canada, Australia, England, and so on through passengers traveling to other countries. Corona patients can be cured with synthetic drugs, traditional herbal medicines (THM), use of Vitamin D and the quarantine approach. Different allopathic medicines, herbal extracts, and vitamin D have been observed to be useful in the treatment of novel coronavirus, like Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, Teicoplanin, Lopinavir+ Ritonavir, Ribavirin + corticosteroids, Glycyrrhizin, Sanguisorbae radix, Acanthopanacis cortex, Sophorae radix, etc. Various antiviral drugs are used to treat COVID-19, alone or in combination with other medications like Interferon-α, Lopinavir + Ritonavir, Arbidol, corticosteroids, etc., and some herbal extracts;also quarantine approach and Vitamin D are used that not only cure the infection but also boost up our immunity. For this review article, different papers were searched on Google Scholar, Scopus, WHO’s website, PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and other relevant scientific research websites. In this review article, we have discussed the current strategies that are being used to treat COVID-19. Along with allopathic drugs, some herbal extracts can also be used to treat this novel coronavirus, like Glycyrrhizin, Sanguisorbae radix, Acanthopanacis cortex, Sophorae radix, etc. and even vitamin D.

20.
Journal of Hypertension ; 40:e180, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937744

ABSTRACT

Objective: Red blood cell (RBC) role is both passive action, oxygen delivery to the tissues as well as carbon dioxide to the lungs and active action involvement in the regulation of vascular tone. The aim was to investigate pathophysiological and ultrastructural changes of RBC in heart failure (HF) patients with hypertension (HT) and long Covid. Design and method: In total 12 patients with HF of Coronary Artery Disease origin, HT, and long Covid were examined. Mean age of patients was 62 ± 5.8 years. The control group consisted of 10 apparently healthy people. The functional state and ultrastructure of RBC were studied using electron microscopy. Results: During ultrastructure examination, structural pathologies of RBC in HF patients with HT and long Covid were revealed. RBC anisocytosis and poikilocytosis as structural damage variations in size and shape were found respectively. Reticulocytes were found much more often in HF patients with HT and long Covid than in the control group. In healthy control group, RBC had a typical discoid shape. In the presence of long Covid, both calcification as a marker of RBC apoptosis and destruction was also detected (Fig.1). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were found in RBC surrounding (Fig.1). Conclusions: Altered RBC function has important implications for HF patients with HT and long Covid. RBC has been shown to induce endothelial cell dysfunction and to increase cardiac injury as well as increased inflammatory processes in long Covid. The presence of HF, HT and long Covid leads to RBC calcification and activation of blood cell apoptosis. Prognostic role of RBC calcium distribution in combination with other important prognostic measures, such as biomarkers like Thrombospondin - 1, NT-proBNP and ST2 is subject of interest and requires further research.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL