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1.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):71-77, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011268

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important, highly contagious, acute disease of Chickens caused by a single-stranded positive RNA Virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. The Virus can replicate in the oviduct and cause permanent damage in young hens resulting in the false layer occurrence. In laying hens, infectious bronchitis Virus (IBV) infections can cause a severe decline in egg production and a number of effects on egg quality and reduced hatchability. The most effective means of controlling IB in poultry is vaccination. In the areas with increased pressure of circulating field challenge Virus, live attenuated vaccines are also used during the laying period with the intention of keeping local protection of the respiratory tract at a high level. The vaccine strain IB V-173/11 contained in Avishield IB GI-13 vaccine is a strain that genetically (S1 gene) belongs to GI-13 lineage and antigenically to 793B IBV serotype. Viral infections of this serotype occur frequently in Europe and therefore most vaccination programs in broilers, layers and breeders along a live IBV vaccine of the Massachusetts serotype also include a live vaccine of the 793B serotype, GI-I3 lineage. In this paper, results of a safety evaluation of live attenuated IB vaccine strain V-173/11, when administered by spray method in a ten-fold maximum dose repeated by one maximum dose in 28-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) layer Chickens are presented. As a control, non-vaccinated SPF layer chickens were included in the study. The vaccine is considered to be safe when used in laying period because no vaccinated chicken showed abnormal local or systemic reactions or signs of IB related disease, no chicken died from the causes attributable to the vaccine, egg quality was not altered, and there was no statistically significant difference in. egg production between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated group.

2.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) disease, avian Infectious Bronchitis disease in one of the major cause of respiratory problems and economic loss in poultry industry, even in developed countries with good biosecurity practice. Since the first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotypes and genotypes of the virus have been reported around the world. The GI-1 lineage, including Massachusetts (Mass) serotype viruses, is one of the most widely spread types worldwide. Moreover, the GI-23 lineage with a growing incidence rate was reported approximately 20 years ago in the Middle East, with no or little homologues vaccine use. The genotype was previously restricted to the Middle East;now, there is evidence that it has spread to European countries, raising concerns regarding potential outbreaks. In the present study, our attempt was to phylogenetically analyze the S1 gene of six isolates from Massachusetts and variant 2 genotypes, which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. The variant 2 viruses were compared to other reported variant 2 viruses from neighboring countries and they had more than 98% identity with the latest reported Iranian variant 2. In addition, Three Mass type viruses were similar to vaccine strains which may be shows continuous circulation of vaccine viruses in the field. This event can cause increasing the risk of their mutation or even reversion to virulence after several passages in natural host, furthermore circulating viruses may recombinant with virulent field viruses and cause emergence of new variants. Considering the variable nature of IB viruses in which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillance along with clinical studies of new isolates, are crucial to a better understanding of their pathogenicity and subsequent disease control.

3.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice ; 28(Suppl. 1):S1-S110, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1957724

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 15 articles focusing on how public health professionals at local, state, and federal agencies and at academic institutions can address the pervasive structural racism against Asians by making them visible. Topics discussed are: anti-Latino racism, the racial state, and revising approaches to racial disparities;conquering the health disparities of structural racism;embedding equity in a local government's Response to COVID-19;the Massachusetts racial equity data road map;the power of community in addressing infant mortality inequities;disparities across income and health insurance in a national sample of US adults;community-informed mobile COVID-19 testing model to addressing health inequities.

4.
Hereditas ; 42:12, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1651909

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, new coronavirus pneumonia caused by infection with a new type of coronavirus has become widespread in the world, posing a serious threat to life and health. However, after individuals are infected with SARS-CoV-2, significantly different outcomes occur, which can manifest as simple, mild, common, severe, and dangerous pneumonia. Previous research published in the New England Journal of Medicine suggested that severe infections in individuals may be related to genetic variation, but the genetic contribution and associated mechanisms of severe COVID-19 is still not well understood. Recently, JeanLaurent Casanova's team at Rockefeller University performed genomic testing on 1,193 patients with new coronary pneumonia and found that the critically ill patients carried rare harmful mutations. These mutations originate from 13 loci and related genes that are enriched in the TLR3/IRF7-dependent type I interferon pathway. Further studies of the function of all 118 non-synonymous mutations at these 13 loci revealed that cells harboring these mutations were more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. This study suggests that TLR3/IRF7-dependent interferon immunity associated with dsRNA sensing may play an important role in the control of SARS-CoV-2, and that genetic defects in these genes are implicated in immunity may be responsible for the development of severe COVID-19 in some individuals.

5.
Florida Public Health Review ; 17:67-70, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1558151

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effectiveness of enforced travel restrictions on COVID-19 case burden and deaths, epidemiologic data from Barnstable and Monroe County. As of 25 May, 2020, Barnstable County, MA had 1277 reported cases of COVID-19 and 110 related deaths. Barnstable County had a case rate of 600 infections per 100,000 population. For the same period, Monroe County, FL had 107 cases and four deaths. Monroe County had a case rate of 144 infections per 100,00 population. In Florida, the Monroe County Emergency Manager established a travel ban to the Florida Keys on 20 March, 2020. Phase 1 of Florida re-opening, the "Safe, Smart, Step-by-Step Plan for Recovery" was implemented 4 May, 2020;travel restrictions within the Florida Keys were lifted but travel to the Florida Keys remains restricted at time of this report. While local citizen organizations pushed for the closure of bridges to Cape Cod in Barnstable County, no transportation-limiting quarantine measures were put into effect. Although no policy statement for why travel restrictions were not in place in Barnstable but were for Monroe, it was suspected that the differences in policy stem from the feasibility of implementation and existing infrastructure. While a travel ban has been disruptive to the Keys economy, heavily reliant on tourism, the normalization of emergency measures likely lowered barriers to the implementation of travel restrictions. In Cape Cod, such restrictions may have been seen as a much more extreme measure due to the infrequency of severe natural disasters. In the beginning of the pandemic, Barnstable COVID-19 cases were not at elevated as those in nearby Massachusetts counties, likely limiting the perceived need for restricted access. Additionally, the perceived risk of population influx following COVID-19's pandemic designation may have been different in the two locations. In Monroe County, this timing corresponded with the beginning of Spring Break tourist season and implementing a peninsular lockdown may have seemed more critical. However, in Barnstable County, March and April are typically low tourism months and the risk of peninsular traffic may have seemed lower as a result.

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