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1.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum): Chemistry, Functionality and Applications ; : 675-682, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149089

ABSTRACT

Viruses are the leading causes of various viral infections in animals, including humans, ranging from mild to potentially fatal illnesses. Antiviral drugs or vaccines usually control these viral infections, but some viruses become resistant to antiviral drugs, demanding new antiviral remedies or cell-based antiviral therapies. Herbal medicines are usually targeting viral and cellular targets during viral replication. Interestingly, folk medicine has used clove as an essential herbal medication with promising antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Traditionally, clove extract, oil, or individual active ingredients (e.g., eugenol) have antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects, which may be additionally beneficial during severe viral infections. To these points, we aim in this chapter to discuss the potential broad-spectrum antiviral role of clove and its active constituents against emerging and re-emerging RNA and DNA viruses. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075083

ABSTRACT

With the continuation of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, the control of the spread of the virus remains urgent. Various animals, including cats, ferrets, hamsters, nonhuman primates, minks, tree shrews, fruit bats, and rabbits, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection naturally or experimentally. Therefore, to avoid animals from becoming mixing vessels of the virus, vaccination of animals should be considered. In the present study, we report the establishment of an efficient and stable system using Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a vector to express SARS-CoV-2 spike protein/subunit for the rapid generation of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in animals. Our data showed that the S and S1 protein was sufficiently expressed in rNDV-S and rNDV-S1-infected cells, respectively. The S protein was incorporated into and displayed on the surface of rNDV-S viral particles. Intramuscular immunization with rNDV-S was found to induce the highest level of binding and neutralizing antibodies, as well as strong S-specific T-cell response in mice. Intranasal immunization with rNDV-S1 provoked a robust T-cell response but barely any detectable antibodies. Overall, the NDV-vectored vaccine candidates were able to induce profound humoral and cellular immunity, which will provide a good system for developing vaccines targeting both T-cell and antibody responses.

3.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(4):120-126, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066823

ABSTRACT

Unbalanced magnesium levels in the body, like other minerals, are a factor that is important in the severity and mortality of COVID-19. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between serum magnesium levels and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. In this systematic review, a comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until September 2021 by using the keywords COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, coronavirus disease, SARS- COV-infection 2, SARS-COV-2, COVID 19, and magnesium. End-Note X7 software was used to manage the studies. Articles that evaluated effect of magnesium on COVID-19 were included in the analysis. After reviewing several articles,12 studies were finally included in the ultimate analysis. The studies show that hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia are both factors that increase mortality in patients with COVID-19, even in one study, hypomagnesemia is the cause of doubling thedeaths in COVID-19 patients. Some studies have also found a negative correlation between magnesium deficiency and infectionseverity, while some others have reported no correlation between magnesium level and disease severity. According to the important role of magnesium in the body and its involvement in many physiological reactions, as well as differences in physical and physiological conditions of COVID-19 patients, in addition to the need for studies with larger sample sizes, monitoring and maintaining normal serum magnesium levels during the disease seems necessary as a therapeutic target, especially in patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

4.
Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences ; 10(9):2013-2023, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056614

ABSTRACT

Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccines are being used for more than 7 decades, the disease is still a major challenge for poultry industry both locally and internationally. ND frequently emerges in highly vaccinated flocks causing high economic losses without specific treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a group of pluripotent cells with multiple biotechnology applications, including but not limited to tissue genesis, tissue repair, hematopoiesis, and immune modulation. Therapeutic strategies based on the usage of stem cells includes the cells either themselves or their secretions (secretome), which has recently shown ability to inhibit SARS-CoV2 replication in-vitro. In this study, MSCs were prepared from the bone marrow of native Egyptian Fayoumi chicken. The MSC with the surface marker CD105 (CD105+) were magnetically separated and infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV). The virusinduced multiple changes at the cellular and ultrastructural level in the infected cells, and it was able to maximize the production of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 2 (IL2), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 12 (IL12). In conclusion, our data represent a preliminary step in vNDV immunotherapy where MSCs media could be used for the treatment of vNDV in infected flocks © 2022 by the authors. Licensee ResearchersLinks Ltd, England, UK

5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2111-e2121, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053006

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory diseases, such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious laryngotracheitis, have considerable negative economic implications for poultry. Ensuring the virus-free status of premises by environmental sampling after cleaning and disinfection is essential for lifting a quarantine and/or safely restocking the premises following an outbreak. The objectives of this study were to identify optimal sample collection devices and to determine the locations in poultry housing which are best for poultry respiratory virus sample collection. Chickens exposed to infectious bronchitis virus, which was used as a representative virus for enveloped poultry respiratory viruses, were housed in floor-pens in either a curtain-sided wood framed house or a cement block house. Foam swabs, cellulose sponges, polyester swabs, dry cotton gauze and pre-moistened cotton gauze were evaluated for comparative efficiency in recovering viral RNA. Cotton gauze pre-moistened with the viral transport media had the highest sensitivity among the devices (wood-framed house: 78% positive, geometric mean titre [GMT] of 2.6 log10 50% egg infectious doses [EID50 ] equivalents/ml; cement block houses: 55% positive, GMT of 1.7 log10 EID50 equivalents/ml). Targeting virus deposition sites is also crucial for efficient virus elimination procedures and subsequent testing; therefore, 10 locations within the houses were compared for virus detection. In both housing types, the highest viral RNA loads were recovered from the tops of drinker lines within the pen. Places the chickens could contact directly (e.g., feeder rim) or were contacted by caretaker feet (hallway floor) also yielded higher levels of viral RNA more consistently. These results will facilitate the establishment of efficient environmental sampling procedures for respiratory viruses of poultry.


Subject(s)
Influenza in Birds , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Cellulose , Chickens , Housing , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Poultry , RNA, Viral
7.
J Herb Med ; 36: 100601, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049253

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Different classes of disease-causing viruses are widely distributed universally. Plant-based medicines are anticipated to be effective cures for viral diseases including the COVID-19, instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study displays the phylogenetic perspective of Artemisia and proposes some candidate taxa against different viral diseases, including SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Data of Artemisia with antiviral activity were obtained from different published sources and electronic searches. A phylogenetic analysis of the nrDNA ITS sequences of reported antiviral Artemisia species, along with the reference species retrieved from the NCBI GenBank database, was performed using the maximum likelihood (ML) approach. Results: In total, 23 Artemisia species have been documented so far with antiviral activity for 17 different types of viral diseases. 17 out of 23 antiviral Artemisia species were included in the ITS phylogeny, which presented the distribution of these antiviral Artemisia species in clades corresponding to different subgenera of the genus Artemisia. In the resultant ML tree, 10 antiviral Artemisia species appeared within the subgenus Artemisia clade, 2 species appeared within the subgenus Absinthium clade, 3 species appeared within the subgenus Dracunculus clade, and 2 species appeared within the subgenus Seriphidium clade. Discussion: Artemisia species from different subgenera with antiviral activity are prevalent in the genus, with most antiviral species belonging to the subgenus Artemisia. A detailed analysis of taxa from all subgenera, particularly the subgenus Artemisia, is therefore proposed in order to discover compounds with potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity.

8.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(12):1880-1884, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034518

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore a new method for detecting respiratory viruses by extracting residual virus on mask, and verify its reliability and sensitivity. METHODS: The novel coronavirus analogs-s La Sota strains of chicken Newcastle disease virus and H120 strains of infectious bronchitis virus with different diluted concentrations were sprayed onto surgical masks and N95 masks through a respiratory simulator, and they were left standing at room temperature for 2 hours and 12 hours, respectively. The cDNA and its amplification cycle(CT) values of the nucleoocapsid protein(N) of chicken Newcastle disease virus and the nucleoprotein(NP) genes of infectious bronchitis virus were detected by ordinary polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). The minimum detectable virus concentration and viral content in masks under different retention times were compared. RESULTS: The gene bands of the Newcastle disease virus La Sota strains and the infectious bronchitis virus H120 strains were detected on the masks stored for different times, and the total RNA of the virus had good amplification curves in the range of 10 pg-10 ng. The mean CT values of N gene and NP gene of the residual virus on the general medical surgical mask and N95 masks placed for 2 h were 22.547+or-0.342,23.698+or-0.501 and 22.855+or-0.308,24.036+or-0.338, respectively. However, only part of them could be detected after 12 h. respectively, and there was no significant difference in CT values between the two masks during the same period of time(P2 h=0.452, P12 h=0.355). The minimum detectable concentration of virus in the masks was 1:800, and the number of residual viruses on the mask that can be detected was 6.75x10~3. CONCLUSION: The method of screening coronavirus by detecting virus residues on masks within 2 hours was feasible and suitable for medical surgical masks and N95 masks, which can be used for preliminary screening of respiratory viruses.

9.
Life (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648008

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases cause serious illness with billions of cases, and millions of deaths. The most effective way to restrict the spread of zoonotic viruses among humans and animals and prevent disease is vaccination. Recombinant proteins produced in plants offer an alternative approach for the development of safe, effective, inexpensive candidate vaccines. Current strategies are focused on the production of highly immunogenic structural proteins, which mimic the organizations of the native virion but lack the viral genetic material. These include chimeric viral peptides, subunit virus proteins, and virus-like particles (VLPs). The latter, with their ability to self-assemble and thus resemble the form of virus particles, are gaining traction among plant-based candidate vaccines against many infectious diseases. In this review, we summarized the main zoonotic diseases and followed the progress in using plant expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins and VLPs used in the development of plant-based vaccines against zoonotic viruses.

10.
Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 20(1):17-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026591

ABSTRACT

Background: Poultry and livestock are a leading sub-sector of agriculture, playing an important role to fulfill the protein requirements of the human diet and contributing to the national economy in Bangladesh. This sub-sector is often vulnerable due to frequent outbreaks of diseases in animals and unrest situations worldwide that hamper earning a profit up to the expected mark. Due to pandemic COVID-19, the Bangladesh government was bound to announce a countrywide lockdown and periodical restriction of movement in March 2020 to minimize the spread of the infection. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on poultry and livestock health.

11.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 92, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2017614

ABSTRACT

Air pollution in the environment in which poultry is raised is one of the most serious problems facing the poultry sector across various aspects of production. Perhaps the most dangerous gas emitted from poultry houses is ammonia. The high concentrations of this gas in the air above the permissible limits (15 ppm) will have disastrous consequences. Ammonia directly affects the health and safety of birds, as it is a cause of ammonia blindness in birds accompanied by many respiratory diseases that destroy production and increase breeding costs. In addition, high concentrations of ammonia (above 20 ppm) contribute to enhancing the infection of birds with Newcastle and the bronchitis virus. In general, the greenhouse gases emitted from poultry houses included four main gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide). Studies regarding their direct effects on the health and productivity of birds have been insufficient. In the direct form, as the concentrations of greenhouse gases rise to very high limits, they cause suffocation and death., the behaviour of the greenhouse gases in the indirect effect is reflected being a source of nutritional stress and a group of diseases and parasites which lead to a decrease in productivity levels. The intensity and concentrations of gas emissions are directly related to many factors such as geographic location, the season of the year, ventilation technologies, humidity, litter quality, nutritional status and stocking density. The advances in ventilation technologies have played a key role in expelling all harmful gases, especially those that depend on negative pressure. However, greenhouse gases remain a real threat to the poultry industry in particular and to the planet's environment in general.

12.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:917-918, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008906

ABSTRACT

Background: Opportunistic and chronic infections can arise in the context of treatment used for Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases (ARDs). Although it is recognized that screening procedures and prophylactic measures must be followed, clinical practice is largely heterogeneous, with relevant recommendations not currently developed or disparately located across the literature. Objectives: To conduct a systematic literature review (SLR) focusing on the screening and prophylaxis of opportunistic and chronic infections in ARDs. This is preparatory work done by members of the respective EULAR task force (TF). Methods: Following the EULAR standardised operating procedures, we conducted an SLR with the following 5 search domains;1) Infection: infectious agents identifed by a scoping review and expert opinion (TF members), 2) Rheumatic Diseases: all ARDs, 3) Immunosuppression: all immunosuppressives/immunomodulators used in rheumatology, 4) Screening: general and specifc (e.g mantoux test) terms, 5) Prophylaxis: general and specifc (e.g trimethop-rim) terms. Articles were retrieved having the terms from domains 1 AND 2 AND 3, plus terms from domains 4 OR 5. Databases searched: Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane. Exclusion criteria: post-operative infections, pediatric ARDs, not ARDs (e.g septic arthritis), not concerning screening or prophylaxis, Covid-19 studies, articles concerning vaccinations and non-Εnglish literature. Quality of studies included was assessed as follows: Newcastle Ottawa scale for non-randomized controlled trials (RCTs), RoB-Cochrane tool for RCTs, AMSTAR2 for SLRs. Results: 5641 studies were initially retrieved (Figure 1). After title and screening and removal of duplicates, 568 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. Finally, 293 articles were included in the SLR. Most studies were of medium quality. Reasons for exclusion are shown in Figure 1. Results categorized as per type of microbe, are as follows: For Tuberculosis;evidence suggests that tuberculin skin test (TST) is affected by treatment with glucocorticoids and conventional synthetic DMARDs (csDMARDs) and its performance is inferior to interferon gamma release assay (IGRA). Agreement between TST and IGRA is moderate to low. Conversion of TST/IGRA occurs in about 10-15% of patients treated with biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs). Various prophylactic schemes have been used for latent TB, including isoniazide for 9 months, rifampicin for 4 months, isoniazide/rifampicin for 3-4 months. For hepatitis B (HBV): there is evidence that risk of reactivation is increased in patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. These patients should be referred for HBV treatment. Patients who are positive for anti-HBcore antibodies, are at low risk for reactivation when treated with glucocorticoids, cDMARDs and bDMARDs but should be monitored periodically with liver function tests and HBV-viral load. Patients treated with rituximab display higher risk for HBV reactivation especially when anti-HBs titers are low. Risk for reactivation in hepatitis C RNA positive patients, treated with bDMARDs is low. However, all patients should be referred for antiviral treatment and monitored periodically. For pneumocystis jirovecii: prophylaxis with trimeth-oprim/sulfamethoxazole (alternatively with atovaquone or pentamidine) should be considered in patients treated with prednisolone: 15-30mg/day for more than 4 weeks. Few data exist for screening and prophylaxis from viruses like E B V, CMV and Varicella Zoster Virus. Expert opinion supports the screening of rare bugs like histoplasma and trypanosoma in patients considered to be at high risk (e.g living in endemic areas). Conclusion: The risk of chronic and opportunistic infections should be considered in all patients prior to treatment with immunosuppressives/immunomod-ulators. Different screening and prophylaxis approaches are described in the literature, partly determined by individual patient and disease characteristics. Collaboration between different disciplines is important.

13.
Sarhad Journal of Agriculture ; 38(2):480-488, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002723

ABSTRACT

Broiler population is one of the most important segments of livestock due to its significant contribution in white meat production. Infectious disease outbreaks adversely influence the production potential and consequently cause economic losses. Epidemiological data regarding magnitude of these disease outbreaks is of fundamental importance for planning of a comprehensive control strategy. With retrospective design, this study was conducted from January 2013 through December 2017 in order to assess the disease burden on broilers reared in different open type poultry houses. Out of total 658 commercial farms with capacity of 4221800 broilers, across Chakwal, a representative sample of 70 farms with capacity of 448000 broilers was randomly selected for collection and analysis of disease data. Five years' data of these randomly selected farms revealed highest (44.64%) crude morbidity during monsoon season followed by 23.92%, 22.12% and 17.49% for winter, spring and post-monsoon seasons respectively. The highest (14.90%) prevalence was recorded for new castle disease followed by infectious bursal disease (11.79%), pullorum disease (11.17%), colibacillosis (8.71%), infectious bronchitis (7.87%), inclusion body hepatitis (7.79%), chronic respiratory disease (7.67%), necrotic enteritis (6.48%), coccidiosis (6.09%), mycotoxicosis (5.43%), fowl cholera (4.74%), infectious coryza (4.41%), fowl typhoid (4.22%), omphalitis (3.71%) and hydropericardium syndrome (0.05%). Maximum share in crude morbidity was contributed by bacterial diseases with highest proportional morbidity of 48.68% followed by viral (40.32%), parasitic (5.80%) and fungal (5.20%) diseases. This epidemiological data represents true picture of study population and is a valuable tool for planning of prevention strategy and research priorities.

14.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 15(1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1375557

ABSTRACT

The currently available antiviral agents are associated with serious adverse effects, coupled with the increasing rate of viral resistance to the existing antiviral drugs. Hence, the search for alternative natural remedies is gaining momentum across the globe. Nigella sativa Linnen, also called black seed, is a medicinal plant that is gaining worldwide recognition and has been extensively investigated. The present work is aimed to review the existing literature on the antiviral efficacy of Nigella sativa extracts (oil and bioactive compounds). The findings reveal that numerous articles have been published on Nigella sativa and its beneficial effects against different kinds of diseases. However, the antiviral efficacy of Nigella sativa is yet to be given the proper research attention it deserves.

15.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 839(37), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1973036

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the hematological profile and specific immunity of laying hens with the addition of oil extracts of lycopene or astaxanthin to the diet. The study used High Line W36 chickens that were vaccinated against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis and egg drop syndrome. It was found that the addition of lycopene (20 mg/kg) and astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) for 30 days did not affect the hematological profile of laying hens. Increasing the content of lycopene to 40 and 60 mg/kg or astaxanthin to 20 or 30 mg/kg of feed for 30 days reduced the number of leukocytes and hemoglobin in the blood compared to the control, which received an equivalent amount of refined sunflower oil in the diet. Lycopene and astaxanthin supplements, regardless of dose and duration of administration, did not affect the titer of antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, avian rhinotracheitis, and egg drop syndrome in serum of vaccinated laying hens. The obtained data can be used to justify the optimal dose and term of feeding of lycopene or astaxanthin supplements in the development of a model of carotenoid enrichment of chicken egg yolks.

16.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

17.
Indian Journal of Poultry Science ; 56(3):287-294, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903809

ABSTRACT

Backyard poultry is evolving as a fast-growing sector in recent times across the world. Apart from providing nutritional security, and livelihood to marginalized sector, also fulfils the demand for organic and welfare meat and eggs. However, the productivity is often challenged by incidences of diseases due to poor biosecurity and lack of vaccination. In this study, systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the global prevalence of infectious diseases in backyard chickens. A total of 22 bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases were reported from 55 publications between 2000 and 2020 worldwide. Viral diseases were the most reported followed by bacterial and parasitic diseases. 61 out of 91 studies from 55 publications investigated seven major diseases: Avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Salmonella infection, and infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). The overall pooled prevalence estimate for all the diseases worldwide was 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28-38). The pooled estimates for most reported viral diseases AI and ND were 12.5% (95% CI: 7-18) and (30% CI: 19-43), respectively. IBD (71% CI: 13-100), MS (76% CI: 67-85) and helminth infestations (72% CI: 44-93) were the highly prevalent diseases among viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, respectively. The continent wise pooled prevalence ranged from 17 to 32%. The present results will help in devising the best possible strategies to minimize the disease risk for commercial poultry and humans as well as for improving the productivity of backyard poultry farming.

18.
Avian Pathol ; 51(3): 236-243, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890506

ABSTRACT

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSIn 2019, there was a resurgence of NDV from sub-genotype VII.2 in Israel, in an already endemic area of sub-genotype VII.1.A mismatch at the 3' end of the reverse primer caused a diagnostic failure of the NDV virulence differentiation rRT-PCR assay.The 2019 NDV sub-genotype VII.2 virus is genetically close to viruses from Jordan (2018) and Pakistan (2015-2016).


Subject(s)
Newcastle Disease , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Genotype , Israel/epidemiology , Newcastle Disease/epidemiology , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Phylogeny , Point Mutation , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

20.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 12:49-52, 2020.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876531

ABSTRACT

The results of the study of the antigenic properties are presented for an experimental sample of emulsified inactivated vaccine against Newcastle disease (ND) and avian infectious bronchitis (IB) supplemented with acrylic acid copolymer (CoAA) as an additional stimulator of the immunogenesis (ND + IB+ CoAA / AB-M4). Experiments with vaccinated chicks evidenced that the experimental inactivated vaccine induces a higher level of immune response compared to the emulsified inactivated vaccine against ND and IB (ND + IB / AB-M4) manufactured according to the standard method.

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