Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 42
Filter
1.
Archives of Medical Research ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1996019

ABSTRACT

Background Omicron was detected in South Africa for the first time at the month of November 2021, from then it expanded swiftly over the world, outcompeting other SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Delta. The toxicity, resistance to antiviral medicines, transmissibility, and vaccine-induced immunity of newly developed SARS-CoV-2 variants are major worldwide health concerns. Aim of study This study investigates the comprehensive explanation of all mutations and their evolutionary linkages between the Omicron variant and recently discovered SARS‐CoV‐2 variants. Method On Illumina MiniSeq Machine, 31 RNA isolates from clinical specimens were sequenced utilizing next-generation sequencing technique. Different bioinformatics tools have been used to analyze the mutations in omicron variant. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to determine Omicron's evolutionary relationships with other variants. Results In our investigation, we discovered 79 distinct types of mutations in 31 fully vaccinated COVID-19 positive samples. Mostly mutations were found in non-spike region. According to the NJ approach of phylogenetic tree revels, the nearest variants were in the order listed, based on sequence identity: Omicron, Gamma, Alpha, Delta, Mu and Beta. On the other hand as per UPGMA approach, the Omicron variation creates a novel monophyletic clade that is distinct from previous SARS-CoV-2 variants. Conclusion Despite the fact that some of the mutations are prevalent in Omicron and other VOCs, there are several unique mutations that have been connected to the virus's transmissibility and immune evasion, indicating a substantial shift in SARS-CoV-2 evolution.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 170: 105699, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991210

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent behind the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This virus is a cumulative outcome of mutations, leading to frequent emergence of new variants and their subvariants. Some of them are a matter of high concern, while others are variants of interest for studying the mutational effect. The major five variants of concern (VOCs) are Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529.*/BA.*). Omicron itself has >100 subvariants at present, among which BA.1 (21K), BA.2 (21L), BA.4 (22A), BA.5 (22B), and BA.2.12.1 (22C) are the dominant ones. Undoubtedly, these variants and sometimes their progeny subvariants have significant differences in their spike region that impart them the unique properties they harbor. But alongside, the mutations in their non-spike regions could also be responsible elements behind their characteristics, such as replication time, virulence, survival, host immune evasion, and such. There exists a probability that these mutations of non-spike proteins may also impart epistatic effects that are yet to be brought to light. The focus of this review encompasses the non-spike mutations of Omicron, especially in its widely circulating subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.4, BA.5, and BA.2.12.1). The mutations such as in NSP3, NSP6, NSP13, M protein, ORF7b, and ORF9b are mentioned few of all, which might have led to the varying properties, including growth advantages, higher transmission rate, lower infectivity, and most importantly better host immune evasion through natural killer cell inactivation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion prevention, host protein synthesis disruption, and so on. This aspect of Omicron subvariants has not yet been explored. Further study of alteration of expression or interaction profile of these non-spike mutations bearing proteins, if present, can add a great deal of knowledge to the current understanding of the viral properties and thus effective prevention strategies.

3.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(2): 100557, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972154

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a global pandemic claiming more than 6 million lives worldwide as of 16 March 2022. Till date, no medicine has been developed which is proved to have 100% efficiency in combating against this deadly disease. We focussed on ayurvedic medicines to identify drug-like candidates for treatment and management of COVID-19. Among all ayurvedic medicines, we were interested in Terminalia chebula (T. chebula), as it is known to have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objectives: In this study, we evaluated potential inhibitory effects of phytochemicals from T. chebula against eight structural and functional proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Material and methods: We performed blind molecular docking studies using fifteen phytochemicals from T. chebula against the proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The three-dimensional proteins structures were analysed and potential drug-binding sites were identified. The drug-likeness properties of the ligands were assessed as well. Results: Analysing the docking results by comparing Atomic Contact Energy (ACE) and intermolecular interactions along with assessment of ADME/T properties identified 1,3,6-Trigalloyl glucose (-332.14 ± 55.74 kcal/mol), Beta-Sitosterol (-324.75 ± 36.98 kcal/mol) and Daucosterol (-335.67 ± 104.79 kcal/mol) as most promising candidates which exhibit significantly high inhibition efficiency against all eight protein targets. Conclusions: We believe that our study has the potential to help the scientific communities to develop multi-target drugs from T. chebula to combat against the deadly pathogen of COVID-19, with the support of extensive wet lab analysis.

4.
Vavilovskii Zhurnal Genet Selektsii ; 26(2): 121-127, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924817

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) belong to the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. CoVs are enveloped (+) RNA viruses with unusually long genomes. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2) have been identif ied as causing global pandemics. Clinically tested vaccines are widely used to control rapidly spreading, acute, and often severe infections; however, effective drugs are still not available. The genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are approximately 80 % identical, while the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV are approximately 50 % identical. This indicates that there may be common mechanisms of coronavirus pathogenesis and, therefore, potential therapeutic targets for each virus may be the same. The enzymes and effector proteins that make up the replication-transcription complex (RTC) of coronaviruses are encoded by a large replicase gene. These enzymes and effector proteins represent promising targets for potential therapeutic drugs. The enzyme targets include papain- and 3C-like cysteine proteinases that process two large viral polyproteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA helicase, viral genome-modifying enzymes, and enzymes with 3'-5' exoribonuclease or uridylate-specif ic endonuclease activity. Currently, there are many studies investigating the complex molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly and function of the RTC. This review will encompass current, modern studies on the properties and complexes of individual non-structural subunits of the RTC, the structures of individual coronavirus RTC subunits, domain organization and functions of subunits, protein-protein interactions, properties and architectures of subunit complexes, the effect of mutations, and the identif ication of mutations affecting the viability of the virus in cell culture. Key words: non-structural proteins CoVs; subunits of replicase CoVs; replication-transcription complex of CoVs; architecture of non-structural protein complexes CoVs.

5.
J Genet Eng Biotechnol ; 20(1): 98, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The baculovirus expression vector system has been developed for expressing a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, glycoproteins, recombinant viruses, and vaccines. The availability of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence has enabled the synthesis of SARS-CoV2 proteins in a baculovirus-insect cell platform for various applications. The most cloned SARS-CoV-2 protein is the spike protein, which plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is available in its whole length or as subunits like S1 or the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Non-structural proteins (Nsps), another recombinant SARS-CoV-2 protein generated by the baculovirus expression vector system (BEV), are used in the identification of new medications or the repurposing of existing therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. Non-SARS-CoV-2 proteins generated by BEV for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis or treatment include moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (MMLVRT), angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), therapeutic proteins, and recombinant antibodies. The recombinant proteins were modified to boost the yield or to stabilize the protein. CONCLUSION: This review covers the wide application of the recombinant protein produced using the baculovirus expression technology for COVID-19 research. A lot of improvements have been made to produce functional proteins with high yields. However, there is still room for improvement and there are parts of this field of research that have not been investigated yet.

6.
Mol Divers ; 2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888948

ABSTRACT

Novel drug compound hunting was carried out for SARS-CoV-2 proteins with low mutation susceptibility. The probability of escape mutation and drug resistance is lower if conserved microbial proteins are targeted by therapeutic drugs. Mutation rate of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins were analyzed via multiple sequence alignment Non-Structural Protein 13 and Non-Structural Protein 16 were selected for the current study due to low mutation rate among viral strains and significant functionality. Cross-species mutation rate analysis for NSP13 and NSP16 showed these are well-conserved proteins among four coronaviral species. Viral helicase inhibitors, identified using literature-mining, were docked against NSP13. Pharmacophore-based screening of 11,375 natural compounds was conducted for NSP16. Stabilities of top compounds inside human body were confirmed via molecular dynamic simulation. ADME properties and LD50 values of the helicase inhibitors and Ambinter natural compounds were analyzed. Compounds against NSP13 showed binding affinities between -10 and -5.9 kcal/mol whereby ivermectin and scutellarein showed highest binding energies of -10 and -9.9 kcal/mol. Docking of 18 hit compounds against NSP16 yielded binding affinities between -8.9 and -4.1 kcal/mol. Hamamelitannin and deacyltunicamycin were the top compounds with binding affinities of -8.9 kcal/mol and -8.4 kcal/mol. The top compounds showed stable ligand-protein interactions in molecular dynamics simulation. The analyses revealed two hit compounds against each targeted protein displaying stable behavior, high binding affinity and molecular interactions. Conversion of these compounds into drugs after in vitro experimentation can become better treatment options to elevate COVID management.

7.
Virus Res ; 315: 198765, 2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of new variant of SARS-CoV-2, namely omicron, has posed a global concern because of its high rate of transmissibility and mutations in its genome. Researchers worldwide are trying to understand the evolution and emergence of such variants to understand the mutational cascade events. METHODS: We have considered all omicron genomes (n = 302 genomes) available till 2nd December 2021 in the public repository of GISAID along with representatives of variants of concern (VOC), i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron; variant of interest (VOI) mu and lambda; and variant under monitoring (VUM). Whole genome-based phylogeny and mutational analysis were performed to understand the evolution of SARS CoV-2 leading to emergence of omicron variant. RESULTS: Whole genome-based phylogeny depicted two phylogroups (PG-I and PG-II) forming variant specific clades except for gamma and VUM GH. Mutational analysis detected 18,261 mutations in the omicron variant, majority of which were non-synonymous mutations in spike (A67, T547K, D614G, H655Y, N679K, P681H, D796Y, N856K, Q954H), followed by RNA dependent RNA polymerase (rdrp) (A1892T, I189V, P314L, K38R, T492I, V57V), ORF6 (M19M) and nucleocapsid protein (RG203KR). CONCLUSION: Delta and omicron have evolutionary diverged into distinct phylogroups and do not share a common ancestry. While, omicron shares common ancestry with VOI lambda and its evolution is mainly derived by the non-synonymous mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Chem Zvesti ; 76(5): 3051-3064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718920

ABSTRACT

The current study reveals the inhibitory potential of novel bioactive compounds of mangrove actinomycetes against nsp10 of SARS-CoV-2. A total of fifty (50) novel bioactive (antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory) compounds of mangrove actinomycetes from different chemical classes such as alkaloids, dilactones, sesquiterpenes, macrolides, and benzene derivatives are used for interaction analysis against nsp10 of SARS-CoV-2. The six antiviral agents sespenine, xiamycin c, xiamycin d, xiamycin e, xiamycin methyl ester, and xiamycin A (obeyed RO5 rule) are selected based on higher binding energy, low inhibition constant values, and better-docked positions. The effective hydrogen and hydrophobic (alkyl, π -sigma, π - π T shaped and π -alkyl) interaction analysis reveals the four antivirals sespenine, xiamycin C, xiamycin methyl ester, and xiamycin A are supposed to be the most auspicious inhibitors against nsp10 of SARS-CoV-2. Quantum chemistry methods such as frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential are used to explain the thermal stability and chemical reactivity of ligands. The toxicity profile shows that selected ligands are safe by absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profiling and also effective for inhibition of nsp10 protein of SARS-CoV-2. The molecular dynamic simulation investigation of apo and halo forms of nsp10 done by RMSD of C α atoms of nsp10, all amino acid residues RMSF, count total number of hydrogen bonds and radius of gyration (R g). MD simulations reveal the complexes are stable and increase the structural compactness of nsp10 in the binding pocket. The lead antiviral compounds sespenine, xiamycin C, xiamycin methyl ester, and xiamycin A are recommended as the most promising inhibitors against nsp10 of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11696-021-01997-x.

9.
Gene Rep ; 26: 101512, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637135

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has cost five million lives to date, and was caused by a positive-sense RNA virus named SARS-CoV2. The lack of drugs specific to SARS-CoV2, leads us to search for an effective and specific therapeutic approach. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is able to activate the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to silence the specific targeted gene and inhibit the viral replication, and it has not yet attracted enough attention as a SARS-CoV2 antiviral agent. It could be a potential weapon to combat this pandemic until the completion of full scale, effective mass vaccination. For this study, specific siRNAs were designed using a web-based bioinformatics tool (siDirect2.0) against 14 target sequences. These might have a high probability of silencing the essential proteins of SARS-CoV2. such as: 3CLpro/Mpro/nsp5, nsp7, Rd-Rp/nsp12, ZD, NTPase/HEL or nsp13, PLpro/nsp3, envelope protein (E), spike glycoprotein (S), nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), membrane glycoprotein (M), ORF8, ORF3a, nsp2, and its respective 5' and 3'-UTR. Among these potential drug targets, the majority of them contain highly conserved sequences; the rest are chosen on the basis of their role in viral replication and survival. The traditional vaccine development technology using SARS-CoV2 protein takes 6-8 months; meanwhile the virus undergoes several mutations in the candidate protein chosen for vaccine development. By the time the protein-based vaccine reaches the market, the virus would have undergone several mutations, such that the antibodies against the viral sequence may not be effective in restricting the newly mutated viruses. However, siRNA technology can make sequences based on real time viral mutation status. This has the potential for suppressing SARS-CoV2 viral replication, through RNAi technology.

10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-19, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624980

ABSTRACT

The nsp3 macrodomain and nsp12 (RdRp) enzymes are strongly implicated in the virulent regulation of the host immune response and viral replication of SARS-CoV-2, making them plausible therapeutic targets for mitigating infectivity. Remdesivir remains the only FDA-approved small-molecule inhibitor of the nsp12 in clinical conditions while none has been approved yet for the nsp3 macrodomain. In this study, 69,067 natural compounds from the IBScreen database were screened for efficacious potentials with mechanistic multitarget-directed inhibitory pharmacology against the dual targets using in silico approaches. Standard and extra precision (SP and XP) Maestro glide docking analyses were employed to evaluate their inhibitory interactions against the enzymes. Four compounds, STOCK1N-45901, 03804, 83408, 08377 consistently showed high XP scores against the respective targets and interacted strongly with pharmacologically essential amino acid and RNA residues, in better terms than the standard, co-crystallized inhibitors, GS-441524 and remdesivir. Further assessments through the predictions of ADMET and mutagenicity distinguished STOCK1N-45901, a natural derivative of o-hydroxybenzoate as the most promising candidate. The ligand maintained a good conformational and thermodynamic stability in complex with the enzymes throughout the trajectories of 100 ns molecular dynamics, indicated by RMSD, RMSF and radius of gyration plots. Its binding free energy, MM-GBSA was recorded as -54.24 and -31.77 kcal/mol against the respective enzyme, while its structure-activity relationships confer high probabilities as active antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiinfection, antitussive and peroxidase inhibitor. The IBScreen database natural product, STOCK1N-45901 (2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexyl o-hydroxybenzoate) is thus recommended as a potent inhibitor of dual nsp3 and nsp12 of SARS-CoV-2 for further study. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 44: 101262, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated self-amplifying RNA (saRNA) is a novel technology formulated as a low dose vaccine against COVID-19. METHODS: A phase I first-in-human dose-ranging trial of a saRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate LNP-nCoVsaRNA, was conducted at Imperial Clinical Research Facility, and participating centres in London, UK, between 19th June to 28th October 2020. Participants received two intramuscular (IM) injections of LNP-nCoVsaRNA at six different dose levels, 0.1-10.0µg, given four weeks apart. An open-label dose escalation was followed by a dose evaluation. Solicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for one week from enrolment, with follow-up at regular intervals (1-8 weeks). The binding and neutralisation capacity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody raised in participant sera was measured by means of an anti-Spike (S) IgG ELISA, immunoblot, SARS-CoV-2 pseudoneutralisation and wild type neutralisation assays. (The trial is registered: ISRCTN17072692, EudraCT 2020-001646-20). FINDINGS: 192 healthy individuals with no history or serological evidence of COVID-19, aged 18-45 years were enrolled. The vaccine was well tolerated with no serious adverse events related to vaccination. Seroconversion at week six whether measured by ELISA or immunoblot was related to dose (both p<0.001), ranging from 8% (3/39; 0.1µg) to 61% (14/23; 10.0µg) in ELISA and 46% (18/39; 0.3µg) to 87% (20/23; 5.0µg and 10.0µg) in a post-hoc immunoblot assay. Geometric mean (GM) anti-S IgG concentrations ranged from 74 (95% CI, 45-119) at 0.1µg to 1023 (468-2236) ng/mL at 5.0µg (p<0.001) and was not higher at 10.0µg. Neutralisation of SARS-CoV-2 by participant sera was measurable in 15% (6/39; 0.1µg) to 48% (11/23; 5.0µg) depending on dose level received. INTERPRETATION: Encapsulated saRNA is safe for clinical development, is immunogenic at low dose levels but failed to induce 100% seroconversion. Modifications to optimise humoral responses are required to realise its potential as an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: This study was co-funded by grants and gifts from the Medical Research Council UKRI (MC_PC_19076), and the National Institute Health Research/Vaccine Task Force, Partners of Citadel and Citadel Securities, Sir Joseph Hotung Charitable Settlement, Jon Moulton Charity Trust, Pierre Andurand, Restore the Earth.

12.
Curr Res Virol Sci ; 2: 100015, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597926

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is responsible for the current pandemic coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). Like other pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 infection can elicit production of the type I and III interferon (IFN) cytokines by the innate immune response. A rapid and robust type I and III IFN response can curb viral replication and improve clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To effectively replicate in the host, SARS-CoV-2 has evolved mechanisms for evasion of this innate immune response, which could also modulate COVID-19 pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss studies that have reported the identification and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 proteins that inhibit type I IFNs. We focus especially on the mechanisms of nsp1 and ORF6, which are the two most potent and best studied SARS-CoV-2 type I IFN inhibitors. We also discuss naturally occurring mutations in these SARS-CoV-2 IFN antagonists and the impact of these mutations in vitro and on clinical presentation. As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and evolve, researchers will have the opportunity to study natural mutations in IFN antagonists and assess their role in disease. Additional studies that look more closely at previously identified antagonists and newly arising mutants may inform future therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.

13.
Saudi Med J ; 42(12): 1366-1368, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547839
14.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2021 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517682

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, for which no confirmed therapeutic agents are available, has claimed over 48,14,000 lives globally. A feasible and quicker method to resolve this problem may be 'drug repositioning'. We investigated selected FDA and WHO-EML approved drugs based on their previously promising potential as antivirals, antibacterials or antifungals. These drugs were docked onto the nsp12 protein, which reigns the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of SARS-CoV-2, a key therapeutic target for coronaviruses. Docked complexes were reevaluated using MM-GBSA analysis and the top three inhibitor-protein complexes were subjected to 100 ns long molecular dynamics simulation followed by another round of MM-GBSA analysis. The RMSF plots, binding energies and the mode of physicochemical interaction of the active site of the protein with the drugs were evaluated. Suramin, Penciclovir, and Anidulafungin were found to bind to nsp12 with similar binding energies as that of Remdesivir, which has been used as a therapy for COVID-19. In addition, recent experimental evidences indicate that these drugs exhibit antiviral efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. Such evidence, along with the significant and varied physical interactions of these drugs with the key viral enzyme outlined in this investigation, indicates that they might have a prospective therapeutic potential in the treatment of COVID-19 as monotherapy or combination therapy with Remdesivir.

15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-16, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510748

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is caused by endemic crown infection (SARS-CoV-2) and is associated with lung damage and severe immune response. Non-Structural Proteins are the central components of coronaviral transcription and replication machinery in SARS-CoV-2 and also stimulate mRNA cap methylation to avoid the immune response. Non-Structural Protein 16 (NSP16) is one of the primary targets for the drug discovery of coronaviruses. Discovering an effective inhibitor against the NSP16 in comparison with Sinefungin was the main purpose of this investigation. Binding free-energy calculations, computational methods of molecular dynamics, docking, and virtual screening were utilized in this study. The ZINC and PubChem databases were applied to screen some chemical compounds regarding Sinefungin as a control inhibitor. Based on structural similarity to Sinefungin, 355 structures were obtained from the mentioned databases. Subsequently, this set of compounds were monitored by AutoDock Vina software, and ultimately the potent inhibitor (PUBCHEM512713) was chosen. At the next stage, molecular dynamics were carried out by GROMACS software to evaluate the potential elected compounds in a simulated environment and in a timescale of 100 nanoseconds. MM-PBSA investigation exhibited that the value of binding free energy for PUBCHEM512713 (-30.829 kJ.mol-1) is more potent than Sinefungin (-11.941 kJ.mol-1). Furthermore, the results of ADME analysis illustrated that the pharmacokinetics, drug-likeness, and lipophilicity parameters of PUBCHEM512713 are admissible for human utilization. Finally, our data suggested that PUBCHEM512713 is an effective drug candidate for inhibiting the NSP16 and is suitable for in vitro and in vivo studies.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

16.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 16(1): 9-16, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482296

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV Macro Domains (MDs) exhibit topological and conformational features that resemble the nsP3b macro (or "X") domain of SARS-CoV-2. Indeed, all the three domains (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV MDs) fold in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich structure, as reported by crystallographic structural investigation of SARS-CoV MD and MERS-CoV MD. These viral MDs are able to bind ADP-ribose as many other MDs from different kingdoms. They have been characterized also as de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes. For this reason, these viral macrodomains recently emerged as important drug targets since they can counteract antiviral ADP-ribosylation mediated by poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARPs). Even in presence of the 3D structures of SARS-CoV MD and of MERS-CoV MD, we report herein the almost complete NMR backbone (1H, 13C, 15N) of SARS-CoV MD and MERS-CoV proteins in the free and ADPr bound forms, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of their secondary structure elements. These NMR data will help to further understanding of the atomic-level conformational dynamics of these proteins and will allow an extensive screening of small molecules as potential antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose/metabolism , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 4868-4883, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1459507

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to develop effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic that has not only affected the daily lives of individuals but also had a significant impact on the global economy and public health. Although extensive research has been conducted to identify inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2, there are still no effective treatment strategies to combat COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 comprises two important proteolytic enzymes, namely, the papain-like proteinase, located within non-structural protein 3 (nsp3), and nsp5, both of which cleave large replicase polypeptides into multiple fragments that are required for viral replication. Moreover, a domain within nsp3, known as the macrodomain (Mac1), also plays an important role in viral replication. Inhibition of their functions should be able to significantly interfere with the replication cycle of the virus, and therefore these key proteins may serve as potential therapeutic targets. The functions of the above viral targets and their corresponding inhibitors have been summarized in the current review. This review provides comprehensive updates of nsp3 and nsp5 inhibitor development and would help advance the discovery of novel anti-viral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 672026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400678

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can cause rampant disease in human beings, ranging from mild to acute, that can often be fatal unless resolved. An acute viral infection is characterized by sudden or rapid onset of disease, which can be resolved quickly by robust innate immune responses exerted by the host or, instead, may kill the host. Immediately after viral infection, elements of innate immunity, such as physical barriers, various phagocytic cells, group of cytokines, interferons (IFNs), and IFN-stimulated genes, provide the first line of defense for viral clearance. Innate immunity not only plays a critical role in rapid viral clearance but can also lead to disease progression through immune-mediated host tissue injury. Although elements of antiviral innate immunity are armed to counter the viral invasion, viruses have evolved various strategies to escape host immune surveillance to establish successful infections. Understanding complex mechanisms underlying the interaction between viruses and host's innate immune system would help develop rational treatment strategies for acute viral infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of acute infections caused by viral pathogens and highlight broad immune escape strategies exhibited by viruses.

19.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 165-171, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384622

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3c (non-structural Protein3c) spans the sequence of the so-called SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), first observed in SARS-CoV. Although the function of this viral protein is not fully elucidated, it is believed that it is crucial for the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell; thus, it is essential for the entire viral life cycle. The first two SUDs, the so-called SUD-N (the N-terminal domain) and SUD-M (domain following SUD-N) domains, exhibit topological and conformational features that resemble the nsP3b macro (or "X") domain. Indeed, they are all folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich structure, as revealed through crystallographic structural investigation of SARS-CoV SUDs, and they have been attributed to different substrate selectivity as they selectively bind to oligonucleotides. On the other hand, the C-terminal SUD (SUD-C) exhibit much lower sequence similarities compared to the SUD-N & SUD-M, as reported in previous crystallographic and NMR studies of SARS-CoV. In the absence of the 3D structures of SARS-CoV-2, we report herein the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-M and SUD-C proteins, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of their secondary structure elements. These NMR data will set the base for further understanding at the atomic-level conformational dynamics of these proteins and will allow the effective screening of a large number of small molecules as binders with potential biological impact on their function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary
20.
Biomol NMR Assign ; 15(1): 85-89, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384621

ABSTRACT

Among the proteins encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nsP3 (non-structural Protein3) is the largest multi-domain protein. Its role is multifaceted and important for the viral life cycle. Nonetheless, regarding the specific role of each domain there are many aspects of their function that have to be investigated. SARS Unique Domains (SUDs), constitute the nsP3c region of the nsP3, and were observed for the first time in SARS-CoV. Two of them, namely SUD-N (the first SUD) and the SUD-M (sequential to SUD-N), exhibit structural homology with nsP3b ("X" or macro domain); indeed all of them are folded in a three-layer α/ß/α sandwich. On the contrary, they do not exhibit functional similarities, like ADP-ribose binding properties and ADP-ribose hydrolase activity. There are reports that suggest that these two SUDs may exhibit a binding selectivity towards G-oligonucleotides, a feature which may contribute to the characterization of their role in the formation of the replication/transcription viral complex (RTC) and of the interaction of various viral "components" with the host cell. While the structures of these domains of SARS-CoV-2 have not been determined yet, SUDs interaction with oligonucleotides and/or RNA molecules may provide a platform for drug discovery. Here, we report the almost complete NMR backbone and side-chain resonance assignment (1H,13C,15N) of SARS-CoV-2 SUD-N protein, and the NMR chemical shift-based prediction of the secondary structure elements. These data may be exploited for its 3D structure determination and the screening of chemical compounds libraries, which may alter SUD-N function.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Carbon Isotopes , Drug Design , Hydrogen , Nitrogen Isotopes , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Structure, Secondary , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL