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1.
Journal of virology ; : e0102422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008764

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronaviruses represent an ongoing threat to public health. The classical porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the early 1970s. Since 2010, outbreaks of highly virulent PEDV variants have caused great economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. However, the strategies by which PEDV variants escape host immune responses are not fully understood. Complement component 3 (C3) is considered a central component of the three complement activation pathways and plays a crucial role in preventing viral infection. In this study, we found that C3 significantly inhibited PEDV replication in vitro, and both variant and classical PEDV strains induced high levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in Huh7 cells. However, the PEDV variant strain reduces C3 transcript and protein levels induced by IL-1β compared with the PEDV classical strain. Examination of key molecules of the C3 transcriptional signaling pathway revealed that variant PEDV reduced C3 by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP-β) phosphorylation. Mechanistically, PEDV nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) inhibited C/EBP-β phosphorylation via amino acid residue 50. Finally, we constructed recombinant PEDVs to verify the critical role of amino acid 50 of NSP1 in the regulation of C3 expression. In summary, we identified a novel antiviral role of C3 in inhibiting PEDV replication and the viral immune evasion strategies of PEDV variants. Our study reveals new information on PEDV-host interactions and furthers our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of this virus. IMPORTANCE The complement system acts as a vital link between the innate and the adaptive immunity and has the ability to recognize and neutralize various pathogens. Activation of the complement system acts as a double-edged sword, as appropriate levels of activation protect against pathogenic infections, but excessive responses can provoke a dramatic inflammatory response and cause tissue damage, leading to pathological processes, which often appear in COVID-19 patients. However, how PEDV, as the most severe coronavirus causing diarrhea in piglets, regulates the complement system has not been previously reported. In this study, for the first time, we identified a novel mechanism of a PEDV variant in the suppression of C3 expression, showing that different coronaviruses and even different subtype strains differ in regulation of C3 expression. In addition, this study provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of the PEDV variant in immune escape and enhanced virulence.

2.
Reviews in Medical Microbiology ; 33(1):E180-E188, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1853286

ABSTRACT

The recently identified 2019 novel coronaviruses (2019-nCoV) has caused extra-human infections. 2019-nCoV identified a global threat that is causing an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Considering the relatively high identity of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in 2019-nCoV and SARS-CoV, it is urgent to assess the cross-reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV antibodies with 2019-nCoV spike protein, which could have important implications for rapid development of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies against 2019-nCoV. The zinc metallopeptidase angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the only known human homolog of the key regulator of blood pressure ACE. ACE2 also serves as the cellular entry point for the SARS virus, therefore, a prime target for pharmacological intervention. SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor for entry and the serine protease transmembrane protease serine 2 for spike (S) protein priming. That it is still necessary to develop novel mAbs that could bind specifically to 2019-nCoV RBD. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on the binding of the viral S proteins to cellular receptors and S protein priming by host cell proteases. A transmembrane protease serine 2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention. This review will help understand the biology and potential risk of CoVs that exist in richness in wildlife such as bats. We provide a brief introduction to the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV and interaction between the RBD of coronavirus spike protein and ACE2.

3.
Matrix Biol Plus ; 14: 100106, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768400

ABSTRACT

The vascular endothelium is the interface between circulating blood and end organs and thus has a critical role in preserving organ function. The endothelium is lined by a glycan-rich glycocalyx that uniquely contributes to endothelial function through its regulation of leukocyte and platelet interactions with the vessel wall, vascular permeability, coagulation, and vasoreactivity. Degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx can thus promote vascular dysfunction, inflammation propagation, and organ injury. The endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular pathophysiology has gained increasing attention over the last decade. While studies characterizing vascular glycocalyx injury and its downstream consequences in a host of adult human diseases and in animal models has burgeoned, studies evaluating glycocalyx damage in pediatric diseases are relatively few. As children have unique physiology that differs from adults, significant knowledge gaps remain in our understanding of the causes and effects of endothelial glycocalyx disintegrity in pediatric critical illness. In this narrative literature overview, we offer a unique perspective on the role of the endothelial glycocalyx in pediatric critical illness, drawing from adult and preclinical data in addition to pediatric clinical experience to elucidate how marked derangement of the endothelial surface layer may contribute to aberrant vascular biology in children. By calling attention to this nascent field, we hope to increase research efforts to address important knowledge gaps in pediatric vascular biology that may inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

4.
Nanoscale Advances ; : 6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1721605

ABSTRACT

The ongoing world-wide Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic shows the need for new potential sensing and therapeutic means against the CoV viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 protein is important, both for replication and pathogenesis, making it an attractive target for intervention. In this study we investigated the interaction of this protein with two types of titania nanoparticles by NMR and discovered that while lactate capped particles essentially did not interact with the protein chain, the aminoalcohol-capped ones showed strong complexation with a distinct part of an ordered alpha-helix fragment. The structure of the forming complex was elucidated based on NMR data and theoretical calculation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a tailored titanium oxide nanoparticle was shown to interact specifically with a unique site of the full-length SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 protein, possibly interfering with its functionality.

5.
Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580543

ABSTRACT

Non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) is a virulence factor found in all beta coronaviruses (b-CoVs). Recent studies have shown that Nsp1 of SARS-CoV-2 virus interacts with the nuclear export receptor complex, which includes nuclear RNA export factor 1 (NXF1) and nuclear transport factor 2-like export factor 1 (NXT1). The NXF1-NXT1 complex plays a crucial role in the transport of host messenger RNA (mRNA). Nsp1 interferes with the proper binding of NXF1 to mRNA export adaptors and its docking to the nuclear pore complex. We propose that drugs targeting the binding surface between Nsp1 and NXF1-NXT1 may be a useful strategy to restore host antiviral gene expression. Exploring this strategy forms the main goals of this paper. Crystal structures of Nsp1 and the heterodimer of NXF1-NXT1 have been determined. We modeled the docking of Nsp1 to the NXF1-NXT1 complex, and discovered repurposed drugs that may interfere with this binding. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at drug-repurposing of this complex. We used structural analysis to screen 1993 FDA-approved drugs for docking to the NXF1-NXT1 complex. The top hit was ganirelix, with a docking score of -14.49. Ganirelix competitively antagonizes the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) on pituitary gonadotrophs, and induces rapid, reversible suppression of gonadotropin secretion. The conformations of Nsp1 and GNRHR make it unlikely that they interact with each other. Additional drug leads were inferred from the structural analysis of this complex, which are discussed in the paper. These drugs offer several options for therapeutically blocking Nsp1 binding to NFX1-NXT1, which may normalize nuclear export in COVID-19 infection.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 752214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477838

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have brought severe challenges to public health all over the world in the past 20years. SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic that has led to millions of deaths, belongs to the genus beta-coronavirus. Alpha- and beta-coronaviruses encode a unique protein, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) that both suppresses host immune responses and reduces global gene expression levels in the host cells. As a key pathogenicity factor of coronaviruses, Nsp1 redirects the host translation machinery to increase synthesis of viral proteins. Through multiple mechanisms, coronaviruses impede host protein expression through Nsp1, while escaping inhibition to allow the translation of viral RNA. In this review, we discuss current data about suppression of the immune responses and inhibition of protein synthesis induced by coronavirus Nsp1, as well as the prospect of live-attenuated vaccine development with virulence-attenuated viruses with mutations in Nsp1.

7.
J Virol ; 95(4)2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944861

ABSTRACT

The periodic emergence of novel coronaviruses (CoVs) represents an ongoing public health concern with significant health and financial burdens worldwide. The most recent occurrence originated in the city of Wuhan, China, where a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged causing severe respiratory illness and pneumonia. The continual emergence of novel coronaviruses underscores the importance of developing effective vaccines as well as novel therapeutic options that target either viral functions or host factors recruited to support coronavirus replication. The CoV nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) has been shown to promote cellular mRNA degradation, block host cell translation, and inhibit the innate immune response to virus infection. Interestingly, deletion of the nsp1-coding region in infectious clones prevented the virus from productively infecting cultured cells. Because of nsp1's importance in the CoV life cycle, it has been highlighted as a viable target for both antiviral therapy and vaccine development. However, the fundamental molecular and structural mechanisms that underlie nsp1 function remain poorly understood, despite its critical role in the viral life cycle. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structure of the amino globular portion of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 (residues 10 to 127) at 1.77-Å resolution. A comparison of our structure with the SARS-CoV-1 nsp1 structure reveals how mutations alter the conformation of flexible loops, inducing the formation of novel secondary structural elements and new surface features. Paired with the recently published structure of the carboxyl end of nsp1 (residues 148 to 180), our results provide the groundwork for future studies focusing on SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 structure and function during the viral life cycle.IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. One protein known to play a critical role in the coronavirus life cycle is nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1). As such, it has been highlighted in numerous studies as a target for both the development of antivirals and the design of live-attenuated vaccines. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structure of nsp1 derived from SARS-CoV-2 at 1.77-Å resolution. This structure will facilitate future studies focusing on understanding the relationship between structure and function for nsp1. In turn, understanding these structure-function relationships will allow nsp1 to be fully exploited as a target for both antiviral development and vaccine design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Cell Line , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
8.
J Gen Virol ; 102(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910383

ABSTRACT

The emerging pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused social and economic disruption worldwide, infecting over 9.0 million people and killing over 469 000 by 24 June 2020. Unfortunately, no vaccine or antiviral drug that completely eliminates the transmissible disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been developed to date. Given that coronavirus nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) is a good target for attenuated vaccines, it is of great significance to explore the detailed characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1. Here, we first confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 had a conserved function similar to that of SARS-CoV nsp1 in inhibiting host-protein synthesis and showed greater inhibition efficiency, as revealed by ribopuromycylation and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) reporter assays. Specifically, bioinformatics and biochemical experiments showed that by interacting with 40S ribosomal subunit, the lysine located at amino acid 164 (K164) was the key residue that enabled SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 to suppress host gene expression. Furthermore, as an inhibitor of host-protein expression, SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 contributed to cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, which might provide a favourable environment for virus production. Taken together, this research uncovered the detailed mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 K164 inhibited host gene expression, laying the foundation for the development of attenuated vaccines based on nsp1 modification.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Lysine/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Amino Acid Substitution , Computational Biology/methods , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Lysine/metabolism , Mutation , Ribosomal Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/virology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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