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1.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039241

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions are one of the major tools to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Information about these behaviors is disseminated by messaging campaigns. However, people differ in their responses to persuasive messages. Here, we examine whether cultural orientation is associated with adherence to recommended COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Participants (n = 443, 201 from the United States via Amazon Mechanical Turk and 242 from Central New York via a convenience, snowball sample) completed an online survey during April and May 2020. Cultural orientation was measured via the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Scale. Adherence to limiting social contact was self-reported. Multi-level Poisson regression assessed the association between cultural orientation and social contact behaviors. Those high in horizontal individualist characteristics had a positive association with increased social contact behaviors (RR: 2.20, 95%CI: 1.97-2.47, p <0.001). Those high in vertical collectivist characteristics had a negative association with those behaviors (RR: 0.59, 95%CI: 0.52-0.67, p<0.000). We found an association with cultural orientation and adherence to social contact behaviors during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the United States, effective public health messages to promote adherence to preventative behaviors should be tailored to horizontal individualists, those least likely to engage in recommended behaviors.

2.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S123-S124, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035735

ABSTRACT

Background: Fluid boluses are amongst the strongest recommendations for the management of septic patients, and they are generally administered with the goal increasing cardiac output and improving tissue perfusion. Early identification of volume responsiveness is challenging and dependent on many patient factors, but it may prevent the harmful consequences of hypervolemia. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity time integral (VTI) has been used as a predictor of volume responsiveness. Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lack of volume responsiveness, defined as =15% change in LVOT VTI, is associated with increased risk of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or rapid response team activation within 24 hours of hospital arrival (composite outcome measure). We hypothesize that septic patients who are not volume responders will be more critically ill and therefore at greater risk of experiencing the composite outcome.

3.
XIV. Simpozij peradarski dani ; 11(14):71-77, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011268

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is an economically important, highly contagious, acute disease of Chickens caused by a single-stranded positive RNA Virus that belongs to the Coronaviridae family. The Virus can replicate in the oviduct and cause permanent damage in young hens resulting in the false layer occurrence. In laying hens, infectious bronchitis Virus (IBV) infections can cause a severe decline in egg production and a number of effects on egg quality and reduced hatchability. The most effective means of controlling IB in poultry is vaccination. In the areas with increased pressure of circulating field challenge Virus, live attenuated vaccines are also used during the laying period with the intention of keeping local protection of the respiratory tract at a high level. The vaccine strain IB V-173/11 contained in Avishield IB GI-13 vaccine is a strain that genetically (S1 gene) belongs to GI-13 lineage and antigenically to 793B IBV serotype. Viral infections of this serotype occur frequently in Europe and therefore most vaccination programs in broilers, layers and breeders along a live IBV vaccine of the Massachusetts serotype also include a live vaccine of the 793B serotype, GI-I3 lineage. In this paper, results of a safety evaluation of live attenuated IB vaccine strain V-173/11, when administered by spray method in a ten-fold maximum dose repeated by one maximum dose in 28-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) layer Chickens are presented. As a control, non-vaccinated SPF layer chickens were included in the study. The vaccine is considered to be safe when used in laying period because no vaccinated chicken showed abnormal local or systemic reactions or signs of IB related disease, no chicken died from the causes attributable to the vaccine, egg quality was not altered, and there was no statistically significant difference in. egg production between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated group.

4.
Archives of Razi Institute ; 77(5):1611-1619, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2002783

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis (IB) disease, avian Infectious Bronchitis disease in one of the major cause of respiratory problems and economic loss in poultry industry, even in developed countries with good biosecurity practice. Since the first isolation of the virus in 1931, a lot of serotypes and genotypes of the virus have been reported around the world. The GI-1 lineage, including Massachusetts (Mass) serotype viruses, is one of the most widely spread types worldwide. Moreover, the GI-23 lineage with a growing incidence rate was reported approximately 20 years ago in the Middle East, with no or little homologues vaccine use. The genotype was previously restricted to the Middle East;now, there is evidence that it has spread to European countries, raising concerns regarding potential outbreaks. In the present study, our attempt was to phylogenetically analyze the S1 gene of six isolates from Massachusetts and variant 2 genotypes, which were isolated from broiler and broiler breeder flocks in Iran. The variant 2 viruses were compared to other reported variant 2 viruses from neighboring countries and they had more than 98% identity with the latest reported Iranian variant 2. In addition, Three Mass type viruses were similar to vaccine strains which may be shows continuous circulation of vaccine viruses in the field. This event can cause increasing the risk of their mutation or even reversion to virulence after several passages in natural host, furthermore circulating viruses may recombinant with virulent field viruses and cause emergence of new variants. Considering the variable nature of IB viruses in which few changes lead to important differences, continuous epidemiological surveillance along with clinical studies of new isolates, are crucial to a better understanding of their pathogenicity and subsequent disease control.

5.
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice ; 28(Suppl. 1):S1-S110, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1957724

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 15 articles focusing on how public health professionals at local, state, and federal agencies and at academic institutions can address the pervasive structural racism against Asians by making them visible. Topics discussed are: anti-Latino racism, the racial state, and revising approaches to racial disparities;conquering the health disparities of structural racism;embedding equity in a local government's Response to COVID-19;the Massachusetts racial equity data road map;the power of community in addressing infant mortality inequities;disparities across income and health insurance in a national sample of US adults;community-informed mobile COVID-19 testing model to addressing health inequities.

6.
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock ; 15(2):88-92, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934366

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In March 2020, the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were reported in New York and a stay-at-home order was enacted soon after. Social isolation combined with pandemic-related stressors profoundly affected mental health. We hypothesize that there was an increase in violent suicide attempt during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown compared to previous years.

7.
Journal of Communication in Healthcare ; 15(1):27-33, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1890696

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most peer recovery programs had to end face-to-face services and move to an online and or phone-based format. It is not clear what impact if any, this may have had on individual referrals, contact and services rendered. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a community-based peer-recovery program.

8.
Museological Review ; 25:99-111, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1837876

ABSTRACT

Museums in 2020 have gone through severe change and uncertainty as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, which in some cases has prompted opportunities for drawing new relationships with communities. This study follows two contemporary art museums with a focused commitment to co-creating with communities - the Whitworth Art Gallery (Manchester, UK) and Queens Museum (New York, USA) - through that process of change. It gives an analysis of how co-creation has informed the organisations' responses to the pandemic and how the pandemic has influenced the staff's view on co-creation. Giving examples based on staff interviews and participant observations, it pays particular attention to how co-creating with communities has prompted organisational change and identifies areas where more change may be needed.

9.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(7):255-263, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812722

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Protection against COVID-19 after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine wanes, but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses. What is added by this report? Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19-associated emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations was higher after the third dose than after the second dose but waned with time since vaccination. During the Omicron-predominant period, VE against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and hospitalizations was 87% and 91%, respectively, during the 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% and 78% by the fourth month after a third dose. Protection against hospitalizations exceeded that against ED/UC visits. What are the implications for public health practice? All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.

10.
Preventing Chronic Disease ; 18(8), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1771673

ABSTRACT

This study created a map to visualise the community-level distribution of household internet access and COVID-19 vaccination in New York City. To facilitate equitable and efficient COVID-19 vaccine uptake in New York City, public health officials should establish appointment-free vaccination sites, work with other agencies and organizations to advocate for legal and policy approaches that increase internet access, and increase access to in-person and telephone-based services that provide assistance with vaccine appointment scheduling, especially in zip codes with low rates of internet access. Because most disparities in internet access and vaccination were in zip codes in the Bronx and Brooklyn, appropriate partners for public health officials in these areas include the offices of the borough president, the borough-based New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Neighborhood Health Action Centers, and borough-wide community-based organisations. After this writing, home-based vaccination, appointment-free walk-up vaccination sites, mobile vaccination sites, and pop-up vaccination sites were established. COVID-19 vaccination was significantly associated with household internet access in New York City at the zip code level. Although this association neither implies nor precludes causation, and does not control for possible confounders, it is consistent with the hypothesis that lack of internet access is a barrier to vaccination. Disparities in internet access exist across multiple socioeconomic dimensions and disproportionately affect low-income neighborhoods. More generally, they recommend that bivariate mapping be considered when selecting methods for comparing geographic distributions of health determinants and health outcomes.

11.
Geographical Review ; 111(4):571-591, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1747098

ABSTRACT

New York City has lost more lives from COVID-19 than any other American city. This study examines variation in covid-19 deaths across neighborhoods as it relates to variation in the racial, ethnic, and nativity-status composition of neighborhoods. This topic has received little scholarly attention and is imperative to explore, given the absence of racial and ethnic specific COVID-19 mortality rates by neighborhood. New York City is a racially and ethnically segregated city, and a longstanding destination of immigrants, making some neighborhoods more susceptible to greater levels of COVID-19 mortality than others. Using ZCTA-level data on COVID-19 deaths and demographic data from the American Community Survey, our descriptive and bivariate choropleth mapping analyses reveal that a racial, ethnic, and nativity-status hierarchy exists in the geographic distribution of COVID-19 mortality. Implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to residential segregation and persistent spatial inequalities faced by neighborhoods of color.

12.
Journal of Risk Research ; 24(3/4):416-431, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1747026

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 in the United States has resulted in over 11.2 million cases and over 240 thousand deaths. COVID-19 has affected the society in unprecedented way with its socioeconomic impact yet to be determined. This study aimed at assessing the vulnerability of the US at the county-level to COVID-19 using the pandemic data from January to June of the year 2020. The study considered the following critical factors: population density, elderly population, racial/ethnic minority population, diabetics, income, and smoking adults. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to validate the independence of the factors. Spatial correlations between the COVID-19 occurrence and the factors were examined using Jaccard similarity analysis, which revealed relatively high correlation. A vulnerability to COVID-19 map with a five-level Likert scale was created using Logistic Regression Analysis in ArcGIS. The map showed close agreement in seven representative states, which were selected based on COVID-19 cases including NY, CA, FL, TX, OH, NC, and MT with R2 values between 0.684 and 0.731 with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) values between ..0.033 and ..0.057. Furthermore, vulnerability levels from 'High' to 'Very High' were obtained for the top ten counties with the highest COVID-19 cases with residual values less than or equal to 0.04. The method and resulted vulnerability map can aid in COVID-19 response planning, prevention programs and devising strategies for controlling COVID-19 and similar pandemics in the future.

13.
International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health ; 9(4):176-182, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727450

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many COVID-19 cases and deaths have been reported from the United States (US). This study aimed to assess the health system inequalities as a determinant of COVID-19 case morbidity and mortality in the US.

14.
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health ; 6(3):281-290, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727303

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of convalescent plasma was recommended as empiric treatment during the Ebolavirus outbreak in 2014, and a protocol for the treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS) with convalescent plasma was created in 2015. These findings raise the hypothesis that the use of convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in SARS-infected patients. -CoV-2. The aim of this study was to estimate the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma therapy. Subjects and method: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out by collecting articles from the Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases. The articles were screened using the PICO model, including: (1) Population= confirmed COVID-19 patients, (2) Intervention= convalescent plasma therapy, (3) Comparison= standard of care, and (4) Outcome= mortality. The keywords used were "Convalescent plasma therapy" OR "Convalescent plasma transfusion" AND "Mortality" OR "death" AND "COVID-19" OR "Coronavirus disease 2019" OR "SARS-Cov-2'. Inclusion criteria were full text, randomized control trials, published from 2020 to 2021, and reported risk ratios. Articles were collected using PRISMA diagrams and quantitative syntheses were assessed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3).

15.
Ecotrophic: Journal of Environmental Science / Ecotrophic: Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan ; 15(1):124-137, 2021.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1727259

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has increased the improvement of air quality in various countries in the world, such as China, Italy, New York, India, Spain and Korea. This study aims to compare ambient air quality during the Covid-19 pandemic with new normal and normal periods, assess the effect of meteorological factors on ambient air quality, and map the spatial distribution of ambient air quality during the normal, Covid-19 pandemic and new normal in the ITDC Nusa Dua area. Air concentration parameter data and meteorological factors were collected using the midget impinger and direct reading method in 2019 (normal period), March and May 2020 (Covid-19 pandemic period) and July, September, and November 2020 (new normal period). Furthermore, comparing air quality using the Anova test, assessing the effect of meteorological factors on air quality using a linear regression test, and mapping the distribution of ambient air using the ArcGis 10.8 application. The analysis showed that the air quality during the Covid-19 pandemic and the new normal was significantly different from the normal period. The concentrations of SO2, NO2, NH3, CO, TSP and H2S during the Covid-19 pandemic and normal just decreased while the O3 concentration increased compared to the normal period. The meteorological factor that affects air quality is the wind speed, the higher the wind speed the lower the O3 concentration. Map of the distribution of spatial concentrations of SO2, NO2, NH3, CO, O3 and H2S in the normal, Covid-19 pandemic and new normal, lowest at the coast point of the peninsula and the highest distribution at the ITDC roundabout, bima statue or influence TSP is the highest spatial concentration of normal distribution at the ITDC roundabout and the bima statue, while the Covid-19 pandemic and normal are only at the coast point of the peninsula beach.

16.
Hereditas ; 42:12, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1651909

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, new coronavirus pneumonia caused by infection with a new type of coronavirus has become widespread in the world, posing a serious threat to life and health. However, after individuals are infected with SARS-CoV-2, significantly different outcomes occur, which can manifest as simple, mild, common, severe, and dangerous pneumonia. Previous research published in the New England Journal of Medicine suggested that severe infections in individuals may be related to genetic variation, but the genetic contribution and associated mechanisms of severe COVID-19 is still not well understood. Recently, JeanLaurent Casanova's team at Rockefeller University performed genomic testing on 1,193 patients with new coronary pneumonia and found that the critically ill patients carried rare harmful mutations. These mutations originate from 13 loci and related genes that are enriched in the TLR3/IRF7-dependent type I interferon pathway. Further studies of the function of all 118 non-synonymous mutations at these 13 loci revealed that cells harboring these mutations were more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. This study suggests that TLR3/IRF7-dependent interferon immunity associated with dsRNA sensing may play an important role in the control of SARS-CoV-2, and that genetic defects in these genes are implicated in immunity may be responsible for the development of severe COVID-19 in some individuals.

17.
Florida Public Health Review ; 17:67-70, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1558151

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effectiveness of enforced travel restrictions on COVID-19 case burden and deaths, epidemiologic data from Barnstable and Monroe County. As of 25 May, 2020, Barnstable County, MA had 1277 reported cases of COVID-19 and 110 related deaths. Barnstable County had a case rate of 600 infections per 100,000 population. For the same period, Monroe County, FL had 107 cases and four deaths. Monroe County had a case rate of 144 infections per 100,00 population. In Florida, the Monroe County Emergency Manager established a travel ban to the Florida Keys on 20 March, 2020. Phase 1 of Florida re-opening, the "Safe, Smart, Step-by-Step Plan for Recovery" was implemented 4 May, 2020;travel restrictions within the Florida Keys were lifted but travel to the Florida Keys remains restricted at time of this report. While local citizen organizations pushed for the closure of bridges to Cape Cod in Barnstable County, no transportation-limiting quarantine measures were put into effect. Although no policy statement for why travel restrictions were not in place in Barnstable but were for Monroe, it was suspected that the differences in policy stem from the feasibility of implementation and existing infrastructure. While a travel ban has been disruptive to the Keys economy, heavily reliant on tourism, the normalization of emergency measures likely lowered barriers to the implementation of travel restrictions. In Cape Cod, such restrictions may have been seen as a much more extreme measure due to the infrequency of severe natural disasters. In the beginning of the pandemic, Barnstable COVID-19 cases were not at elevated as those in nearby Massachusetts counties, likely limiting the perceived need for restricted access. Additionally, the perceived risk of population influx following COVID-19's pandemic designation may have been different in the two locations. In Monroe County, this timing corresponded with the beginning of Spring Break tourist season and implementing a peninsular lockdown may have seemed more critical. However, in Barnstable County, March and April are typically low tourism months and the risk of peninsular traffic may have seemed lower as a result.

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