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1.
Med Rev (Berl) ; 2(1): 89-109, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879339

ABSTRACT

Since late 2019, the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, transmission dynamics models have achieved great development and were widely used in predicting and policy making. Here, we provided an introduction to the history of disease transmission, summarized transmission dynamics models into three main types: compartment extension, parameter extension and population-stratified extension models, highlight the key contribution of transmission dynamics models in COVID-19 pandemic: estimating epidemiological parameters, predicting the future trend, evaluating the effectiveness of control measures and exploring different possibilities/scenarios. Finally, we pointed out the limitations and challenges lie ahead of transmission dynamics models.

2.
Russian Journal of Forensic Medicine ; 8(1):41-50, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876276

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) has become a challenge for the health care system around the world due to the progressive increase in the number of cases with severe manifestations of the disease. Autopsy findings are fundamental and critical to better understanding how infection affects the human body. These data are needed to improve diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to stratify risk groups. The purpose of the review is to analyze and summarize the pathological data available to date related to COVID-19. In COVID-19, the lungs are usually severe and swollen. Histologically, the most frequent is the detection of both exudative and proliferative diffuse alveolar injury with the formation of hyaline membranes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and stagnant small vessels. There is also evidence that SARS-CoV-2 causes endothelial dysfunction. There is still insufficient data to reflect the complete pathophysiological picture of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Almost all of the articles reviewed in this review focused on pulmonary macro- and microscopic changes;there is little data on the features of the virus affecting other organs and its systemic effect. Despite the tremendous attention and investment in the fight against the new coronavirus infection, diagnosis of most of the deaths associated with COVID-19 is difficult. It is necessary to conduct further pathological studies, the purpose of which should be the development of a standardized diagnostic method, as well as the isolation of pathognomonic signs of the disease. © Authors, 2022.

3.
Micro and Nanosystems ; 14(2):156-165, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875264

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that has emerged and spread throughout the world causing CoV disease-19 (COVID-19) has since its discovery affected not only humans and animals but also the environment. Because of the highly infectious nature of the virus, and the respiratory aerosol transmission route, face masks and personal protective equipment have become mandatory for public and healthcare workers, respectively. Also, the complex nature of the pathogenicity of the virus, wherein, it has been associated with mild, moderate, and severe life-threatening infections, has warranted increased laboratory testing and placing the infected people in isolation and under constant observation in quarantine centers or at dedicated hospitals. Some infected people, who are generally healthy, and do not show symptoms have been placed in home quarantines. At this juncture, there has been increased amount of Biomedical Waste (BMW), and infectious general waste along with plastic disposable recyclable and non-recyclable waste. The increased BMW along with the potentially hazardous plastic waste collection, segregation, transport, and disposal has assumed increased significance during the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, this review attempts to investigate the current scenario of BMW management and strategies to minimize BMW and prevent potential environmental pollution. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(7): 1366-1374, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875359

ABSTRACT

Each September in England, ≈1 million students relocate to study at universities. To determine COVID-19 cases and outbreaks among university students after their return to university during the COVID pandemic in September 2020, we identified students with COVID-19 (student case-patients) by reviewing contact tracing records identifying attendance at university and residence in student accommodations identified by matching case-patients' residential addresses with national property databases. We determined COVID-19 rates in towns/cities with and without a university campus. We identified 53,430 student case-patients during September 1-December 31, 2020, which accounted for 2.7% of all cases during this period. Student case-patients increased rapidly after the start of the term, driven initially by cases and outbreaks in student accommodations. Case rates among students 18-23 years of age doubled at the start of term in towns with universities. Our findings highlight the need for face-to-face and control measures to reduce virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
5.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875261

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a new virus of the Coronaviridae family that is now spreading worldwide. Therefore, disseminating information about patients with the virus can help identify the virus, pathogenesis, and find treatments. The current study aimed to review the new coronavirus (Covid-19). To reach this aim, we searched keywords containing Covid-19, coronavirus, respiratory infection, epidemiology in Pub Med, Web of Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Databases, and Google scholar. The results of our study led to the achievement of articles on the study of Covid-19. Based on the results of the study, Covid-19 is a global transmitter with rapid transmission power for which no specific drug has yet been found to treat it. The rapid spread of the Covid-19 virus, the relationship between disease severity and mortality with various factors, respiratory transmission, especially in the short distance, masks, hand washing, and physical distance observance as the most important way to prevent, diversify clinical symptoms and at the same time fever and cough as the most common clinical symptoms, treatment with non-specific antiviral drugs and treatment based on controlling clinical symptoms and strengthening immunity with known drugs, paying attention to children as asymptomatic carriers, and pretentious pregnancy in the event of Covid-19 are the most important findings of this study. The case fatality rate of Covid-19 has varied from 0.08% to 10.8% in the world, but fortunately, the number of patients who have recovered is very promising and more than 66 million people have recovered. There is still no effective drug or vaccine to prevent the disease and investigation in this field is ongoing. The only way to prevent and control the disease is adherence to the health protocols. Due to the need of the medical community to achieve the scientific results of this epidemic in Iran and other parts of the world, this article was written.

6.
Acta Haematol ; 145(3): 297-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the result of intricate interactions between the novel coronavirus and the immune system. In patients with hematologic malignancies (HM), these interactions dramatically change the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Patients with HM and COVID-19 are at an increased risk for prolonged viral shedding, more protracted and severe presentation, and death, even when compared to other immunocompromised hosts. HM (e.g., multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and anticancer treatments (e.g., anti-CD20 agents) that impair humoral immunity markedly increase the risk of severe COVID-19 as well as protracted viral shedding and possibly longer infectivity. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is an important player in the pathophysiology of severe and fatal COVID-19. Treatments targeting specific cytokines involved in CRS such as interleukin-6 and Janus kinase have proven beneficial in COVID-19 patients but were not assessed specifically in HM patients. Although neutropenia (as well as neutrophilia) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality, granulocyte colony-stimulating factors were not beneficial in patients with COVID-19 and may have been associated with worse outcomes. Decreased levels of T lymphocytes and especially decreased CD4+ counts, and depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes, are a hallmark of severe COVID-19, and even more so among patients with HM, underlying the important role of T-helper dysfunction in severe COVID-19. In HM patients with intact cellular immunity, robust T-cell responses may compensate for an impaired humoral immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the mechanisms of severe COVID-19 among patients with HM and assess the efficacy of new immunomodulating COVID-19 treatments in this population. KEY MESSAGES: Understanding the immunopathology of COVID-19 has greatly benefited from the previous research in patients with HM. So far, no COVID-19 treatments were properly evaluated in patients with HM. Patients with HM should be included in future RCTs assessing treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Multiple Myeloma , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Neutropenia/complications
7.
Fractals ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1874693

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modeling can be utilized to find out how the coronavirus spreads within a population. Hence, considering models that can precisely describe natural phenomena is of crucial necessity. Besides, although one of the most significant benefits of mathematical modeling is designing optimal policies for battling the disease, there are a few studies that employ this beneficial aspect. To this end, this study aims to design optimal management policies for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is a pioneering research that designs optimal policies based on multi-objective evolutionary algorithms for control of the fractional-order model of the COVID-19 outbreak. First, a fractional-order model of the disease dynamic is presented. The impacts of the fractional derivative’s value on the modeling and forecasting of the disease spread are considered. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem is proposed by considering the rate of communication, the transition of symptomatic infected class to the quarantined one, and the release of quarantined uninfected individuals. Numerical results clearly corroborate that by solving the proposed multi-objective problem, governments can control the massive disease outbreak while economic factors have reasonable values that prevent economic collapse. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fractals is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Data Science for COVID-19: Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives ; : 465-486, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872873

ABSTRACT

The spontaneous nature of health emergencies and disasters (HED) require research prioritization and preparedness from multidisciplinary sectors such as the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has become a center of attention to the research community globally. This study aims at assessing global research evolution, precedence, and preparedness toward combating the COVID-19 pandemic via systematic analysis of published studies. We retrieved COVID-19 studies from Scopus and Web of Science databases from January 01, 2020, to March 23, 2020, according to the PRISMA guidelines using the search term “COVID-19 OR coronavir*". The dataset was analyzed for productivity indices, conceptual frameworks (CFs), discipline, and collaboration networks (CNs). Results revealed a total of 817 studies on COVID-19. The top two productive researchers include those by Wang Y. (3.55%) and Li Y. (2.94%). Among disciplines, virology (n = 40, 5 h-index), microbiology (n = 27, 2 h-index), immunology (n = 22), and infectious diseases (n = 21) were at the forefront. China (n = 181) and the United States (n = 69) ranked the first and second productive nations, respectively. Country CNs in COVID-19 can be clustered into four subnetworks. Also, four thematic areas evolved in COVID-19 research for the period, namely, epidemiologic studies of infectious bronchitis virus including coronavirus, elucidation of historical respiratory viral outbreaks, zoonoses and phylogenetic analysis, and influenza zoonosis;while the prevailing CFs of research prioritization ranged from comparative symptomatology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), perceptivity studies from SARS-CoV-1, 2 outbreaks, antigenic structural studies for vaccine production to antibody therapeutic target studies. In conclusion, the COVID-19 research has received progressive attention since the beginning of the pandemic;however, this study recommends that integrative and multidisciplinary research priority and preparation should be channelled toward HED from all experimental and nonexperimental biases of knowledge. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

9.
Intern Med ; 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869290

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate seizure control in patients with epilepsy during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, and the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies. Studies that reported seizure control in patients with epilepsy during the COVID-19 pandemic were included. Pooled proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of patients with epilepsy who experienced seizure worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using a random-effects model. The quality of the assessment for each study, heterogeneity between the studies, and publication bias were also evaluated. Subgroup analyses were performed, excluding studies with reports of seizures worsening from caregivers. Results A total of 24 studies with 6,492 patients/caregivers were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled proportion of seizure worsening was 18.5% (95% CI: 13.9-23.6; I2 = 96%; p<0.01). The pooled proportion of seizure worsening in the subgroup analysis was 18.9% (95% CI: 13.5-25.0; I2 = 96%; p<0.01). Conclusion Although the heterogeneity was high, our results showed a relatively high incidence of seizure worsening during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, physicians should be aware of the likelihood of worsening seizures in patients with epilepsy.

10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 294: 664-668, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865431

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients shared their personal experiences of the viral infection on social media. Gathering their symptomatic experiences reported on Twitter may help better understand the infectious disease and supplement our knowledge of the disease gathered by healthcare workers. In this study, we identified personal experience tweets related to COVID-19 infection using a pre-trained and fine-tuned language model, and annotated the machine-identified tweets in order to extract the information of infection status, symptom concepts, and the days the symptomatic experience occurred. Our result shows that the top 10 most common symptoms mentioned in the collected Twitter data are in line with those published by WHO and CDC. The symptoms along with the day information appear to provide additional insight on how the infection progresses in infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics
11.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (5): 126-134, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863437

ABSTRACT

The authors report hybrid treatment of a patient with angina pectoris class II, multiple previous reconstructive interventions on the aortofemoral segment and chronic ischemia of the left lower limb stage IV and concomitant COVID-19. Coronary angiography was performed after regression of infectious disease under antiviral therapy. Occlusion of the left anterior descending artery was observed that required LAD stenting. On the next day, hybrid revascularization of the lower extremities was implemented: thrombectomy and endarterectomy from the branch of the aorto-femoral bypass graft and deep femoral artery at the first stage, stenting of the orifice of proximal branch of aorto-femoral bypass graft at the second stage, endarterectomy from superficial femoral artery, recanalization and stenting of superficial femoral artery and popliteal artery at the third stage and prosthetic- femoral bypass with autologous vein at the fourth stage. Postoperative angiography revealed patent stents and no residual stenoses. The choice in favor of these procedures and step-by-step approach has been substantiated. The authors emphasized effectiveness and safety of this treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Arterial Occlusive Diseases , COVID-19 , Peripheral Vascular Diseases , Femoral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Femoral Artery/surgery , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/surgery , Popliteal Artery/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Treatment Outcome , Vascular Patency
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1281-1283, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862553

ABSTRACT

Bars and restaurants are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A multistate outbreak after a bar gathering in Chicago, Illinois, USA, highlights Omicron variant transmissibility, the value of local genomic surveillance and interstate coordination, vaccination value, and the potential for rapid transmission of a novel variant across multiple states after 1 event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine ; 13:303-306, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856547

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been several studies describing clinicoradiological features of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. It seems that we still should know more about pathological features in the different stages of this infection. Case presentation: A 77 year-old man with cough and respiratory distress was admitted to the intensive care unit. Real-time PCR on nasopharyngeal swab was done for him and it was positive for SARS-CoV-2.He was treated with oxygen therapy, hydroxychloroquine and antibiotic therapy and was discharged from the hospital with brief improvement of clinical symptoms. However, due to persistent dyspnea, the patient was admitted to the hospital again and throracotomv and wedge biopsy were performed for about 3 months from the onset of symptoms. Conclusion: Pathological examination revealed diffuse alveolar damage, fibroblastic hyperplasia, infiltration of inflammatory cells and hyaline membrane formation.

14.
OTO Open ; 6(2): 2473974X221100547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854589

ABSTRACT

Objective: The goal of this study is to assess burnout and professional fulfillment during the initial weeks of the COVID-19 pandemic among otolaryngology practitioners. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: International survey of otolaryngologists during a pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed from April 24 to May 8, 2020, via email and social media platforms to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on otolaryngology practitioners in academic and private practice. The Professional Fulfillment Index was used to assess professional fulfillment and burnout. Burnout was divided into work exhaustion and interpersonal disengagement. Results: Of 243 respondents, 202 completed the Professional Fulfillment Index portion of the survey. An average score ≥3 on the professional fulfillment section correlates with fulfillment, while an average score ≥1.33 on the burnout section correlates with burnout. The average score of professional fulfillment was 2.17, with 85.6% of respondents reporting lack of professional fulfillment. The average score on burnout was 1, with 40.1% of otolaryngologists reporting burnout. In multivariable analyses, females were found to have statistically lower professional fulfillment (beta = -2.28, P = .010) with higher rates of work exhaustion (beta = 0.62, P < .001), interpersonal disengagement (beta = 2.08, P = .023), and burnout (beta = 4.49, P = .002). Conclusion: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, most participants reported a lack of professional fulfillment while just under half experienced burnout. Female gender was associated with low professional fulfillment and high work exhaustion, interpersonal disengagement, and burnout. Attention to burnout and job satisfaction during a pandemic is critical for the appropriate well-being of otolaryngology practitioners.

15.
IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP) - Good Technologies for Creating Future ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853497

ABSTRACT

The lives of people around the world have been heavily affected due to the unprecedented outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus, more commonly known as COVID-19 pandemic. The situation is no more just an economic and public health crisis, rather a disruption in all aspects of the society of which electricity grid is no exception. Electrical utilities and operators of many affected countries of the world have found themselves in a precarious position. Due to governmental restrictions to contain the virus within the country, the grid experienced drastic change in electricity generation and demand patterns. In this paper, the change in daily load curve of Bangladesh is analyzed and compared to that of previous years. Comparison is made between system demand pattern before and after country-wide governmental restrictions were enacted. The results from the study provides valuable insights into Bangladesh power system under a natural and global contingency.

16.
ISA Trans ; 124: 82-89, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851356

ABSTRACT

Testing is one of the important methodologies used by various countries in order to fight against COVID-19 infection. The infection is considered as one of the deadliest ones although the mortality rate is not very high. COVID-19 infection is being caused by SARS-CoV2 which is termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus. To prevent the community, transfer among the masses, testing plays an important role. Efficient and quicker testing techniques helps in identification of infected person which makes it easier for to isolate the patient. Deep learning methods have proved their presence and effectiveness in medical image analysis and in the identification of some of the diseases like pneumonia. Authors have been proposed a deep learning mechanism and system to identify the COVID-19 infected patient on analyzing the X-ray images. Symptoms in the COVID-19 infection is well similar to the symptoms occurring in the influenza and pneumonia. The proposed model Inception Nasnet (INASNET) is being able to separate out and classify the X-ray images in the corresponding normal, COVID-19 infected or pneumonia infected classes. This testing method will be a boom for the doctors and for the state as it is a way cheaper method as compared to the other testing kits used by the healthcare workers for the diagnosis of the disease. Continuous analysis by convolutional neural network and regular evaluation will result in better accuracy and helps in eliminating the false-negative results. INASNET is based on the combined platform of InceptionNet and Neural network architecture search which will result in having higher and faster predictions. Regular testing, faster results, economically viable testing using X-ray images will help the front line workers to make a win over COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Pneumonia , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , RNA, Viral , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , X-Rays
17.
Gene Rep ; 27: 101624, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851129

ABSTRACT

Background and aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who has a compromised immune system can be associated with more significant risks for severe complications. To date, no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate HIV in patients with COVID-19. In the present study, we assessed the status of patients co-infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV as a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic literature search strategy was conducted via reviewing original research articles published in Medline, Web of Science, and Embase databases in 2019 and 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA software, version 14.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA), to report the prevalence of HIV among patients with COVID-19. Case reports/case series were also evaluated as a systematic review. Results: Sixty-three studies (53 case reports/case series and ten prevalence studies) were included in our study. A meta-analysis of prevalence studies showed that HIV infection among patients with COVID-19 was reported in 6 countries (Uganda, China, Iran, USA, Italy, and Spain) with an overall frequency of 1.2% [(95% CI) 0.8-1.7] among 14,424 COVID-19 patients. According to the case reports and case series, 111 patients with HIV have been reported among 113 patients with COVID-19 from 19 countries. Most of the cases were in the USA, China, Italy, and Spain. Conclusion: The small number of SARS-CoV-2-HIV co-infected patients reported in the literature makes it difficult to draw precise conclusions. However, since people with HIV are more likely to develop more severe complications of COVID-19, targeted policies to address this raised risk in the current pandemic should be considered. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying underlying diseases, co-infections, co-morbidities, laboratory findings, and beneficial treatment strategies for HIV patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

18.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105618, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850903

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently raging worldwide, with more patients being diagnosed every day. It usually is diagnosed by examining pathological photographs of the patient's lungs. There is a lot of detailed and essential information on chest radiographs, but manual processing is not as efficient or accurate. As a result, how efficiently analyzing and processing chest radiography of COVID-19 patients is an important research direction to promote COVID-19 diagnosis. To improve the processing efficiency of COVID-19 chest films, a multilevel thresholding image segmentation (MTIS) method based on an enhanced multiverse optimizer (CCMVO) is proposed. CCMVO is improved from the original Multi-Verse Optimizer by introducing horizontal and vertical search mechanisms. It has a more assertive global search ability and can jump out of the local optimum in optimization. The CCMVO-based MTIS method can obtain higher quality segmentation results than HHO, SCA, and other forms and is less prone to stagnation during the segmentation process. To verify the performance of the proposed CCMVO algorithm, CCMVO is first compared with DE, MVO, and other algorithms by 30 benchmark functions; then, the proposed CCMVO is applied to image segmentation of COVID-19 chest radiography; finally, this paper verifies that the combination of MTIS and CCMVO is very successful with good segmentation results by using the Feature Similarity Index (FSIM), the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), and the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). Therefore, this research can provide an effective segmentation method for a medical organization to process COVID-19 chest radiography and then help doctors diagnose coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
19.
Prev Med Rep ; 28: 101834, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851950

ABSTRACT

The control of human flow has led to better control of COVID-19 infections. Japan's state of emergency, unlike other countries, is not legally binding but is rather a request for individual self-restraint; thus, factors must be identified that do not respond to self-restraint, and countermeasures considered for those factors to enhance its efficacy. We examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint toward social behaviors during a pandemic in Japan. This cross-sectional study used data for February 18-19, 2021, obtained from an internet survey; 19,560 participants aged 20-65 were included in the analysis. We identified five relevant behaviors: (1) taking a day trip; (2) eating out with five people or more; (3) gathering with friends and colleagues; (4) shopping for other than daily necessities; (5) shopping for daily necessities. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-restraint for each of the behaviors. Results showed that for behaviors other than shopping for daily necessities, women, those aged 60-65, married people, highly educated people, high-income earners, desk workers and those who mainly work with interpersonal communication, and those with underlying disease reported more self-restraint. Older people had less self-restraint than younger people toward shopping for daily necessities; an underlying disease had no effect on the identified behavior. Specialized interventions for these groups that include recommendations for greater self-restraint may improve the efficacy of the implementing measures that request self-restraint.

20.
Japanese Journal of Gastroenterological Surgery ; 55(3):199-206, 2021.
Article in Japanese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847601

ABSTRACT

A 77-year-old woman was admitted to another hospital with a positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA test, complaining of a wet cough and fever that had started 3 days earlier. On the day of admission, she had decreased oxygenation, decreased food intake, and vomiting. A CT scan showed suspicious findings of small bowel necrosis, and the patient was transferred to our hospital. A preoperative CT scan of the chest showed no pneumonia. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy for diagnosis of peritonitis due to necrosis of the small intestine. Postoperatively, the abdominal symptoms improved, but the pulmonary infiltrate rapidly worsened and the patient died of respiratory failure on the fifth postoperative day. It has been reported that surgery in patients with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with higher postoperative mortality due to pulmonary complications, and it is recommended that surgery be postponed or nonoperative treatment be chosen if possible. In this case, the suspected small bowel necrosis made nonoperative management difficult, and emergency laparotomy was performed. However, postoperative pneumonia rapidly worsened and the patient died. This case suggests that the prognosis after general anesthesia surgery is poor in patients with COVID-19, even in the absence of preoperative pneumonia. Here, we report this case and discuss the literature and perioperative infection control measures. © 2022. The Japanese Society of Gastroenterological Surgery

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