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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245403

ABSTRACT

Structure-based virtual screening (SBVS), also known as molecular docking, has been increasingly applied to discover small-molecule ligands based on the protein structures in the early stage of drug discovery. In this review, we comprehensively surveyed the prospective applications of molecular docking judged by solid experimental validations in the literature over the past fifteen years. Herein, we systematically analyzed the novelty of the targets and the docking hits, practical protocols of docking screening, and the following experimental validations. Among the 419 case studies we reviewed, most virtual screenings were carried out on widely studied targets, and only 22% were on less-explored new targets. Regarding docking software, GLIDE is the most popular one used in molecular docking, while the DOCK 3 series showed a strong capacity for large-scale virtual screening. Besides, the majority of identified hits are promising in structural novelty and one-quarter of the hits showed better potency than 1 µM, indicating that the primary advantage of SBVS is to discover new chemotypes rather than highly potent compounds. Furthermore, in most studies, only in vitro bioassays were carried out to validate the docking hits, which might limit the further characterization and development of the identified active compounds. Finally, several successful stories of SBVS with extensive experimental validations have been highlighted, which provide unique insights into future SBVS drug discovery campaigns.


Subject(s)
Drug Discovery , Software , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proteins , Ligands , Protein Binding
2.
Int Orthop ; 47(8): 2113-2123, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239138

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We propose to survey - even if arbitrarily - the publications in paediatric orthopaedics and traumatology that have had the greatest impact on the specialty during the period extending from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020 and the end of all health restrictions in March 2023. METHODS: Only studies with a high level of evidence or clinical relevance were selected. We briefly discussed the results and conclusions of these quality articles to situate them in relation to the existing literature and current practice. RESULTS: Publications are presented by dividing traumatology and orthopaedics whose publications are further subdivided according to anatomical districts; articles concerning neuro-orthopaedics, tumours, and infections were presented separately while sports medicine is jointly presented with knee-related articles. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered during the global COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2023), orthopaedic and trauma specialists, including paediatric orthopaedic surgeons, have maintained a high level of scientific output, in terms of quantity and quality of production.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedics , Traumatology , Humans , Child , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
BioData Min ; 16(1): 16, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317686

ABSTRACT

While we often think of words as having a fixed meaning that we use to describe a changing world, words are also dynamic and changing. Scientific research can also be remarkably fast-moving, with new concepts or approaches rapidly gaining mind share. We examined scientific writing, both preprint and pre-publication peer-reviewed text, to identify terms that have changed and examine their use. One particular challenge that we faced was that the shift from closed to open access publishing meant that the size of available corpora changed by over an order of magnitude in the last two decades. We developed an approach to evaluate semantic shift by accounting for both intra- and inter-year variability using multiple integrated models. This analysis revealed thousands of change points in both corpora, including for terms such as 'cas9', 'pandemic', and 'sars'. We found that the consistent change-points between pre-publication peer-reviewed and preprinted text are largely related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We also created a web app for exploration that allows users to investigate individual terms ( https://greenelab.github.io/word-lapse/ ). To our knowledge, our research is the first to examine semantic shift in biomedical preprints and pre-publication peer-reviewed text, and provides a foundation for future work to understand how terms acquire new meanings and how peer review affects this process.

4.
Leisure Sciences ; 43(1-2):295-304, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2268397

ABSTRACT

Recreational sex is a popular form of leisure that has been redefined by the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic. "Social distancing" rules have imposed limits on sex for leisure while also creating new opportunities. We discuss results from an online survey of 1,559 adults who were asked about the pandemic's impact on their intimate lives. While nearly half of the sample reported a decline in their sex life, one in five participants reported expanding their sexual repertoire by incorporating new activities. Common additions included sexting, trying new sexual positions, and sharing sexual fantasies. Being younger, living alone, and feeling stressed and lonely were linked to trying new things. Participants making new additions were three times more likely to report improvements in their sex life. Even in the face of drastic changes to daily life, many adults are adapting their sexual lives in creative ways. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
Frontiers in Education ; 8, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2267202

ABSTRACT

The pandemic led to an increase of online teaching tools use. One such tool, which might have helped students to stay engaged despite the distance, is gamification. However, gamification is often criticized due to a novelty effect. Yet, others state novelty is a natural part of gamification. Therefore, we investigated whether gamification novelty effect brings incremental value in comparison to other novelties in a course. We created achievement- and socialization-based gamification connected to coursework and practice test. We then measured students' behavioral engagement and performance in a quasi-experiment. On the one hand, results show ICT students engaged and performed moderately better in a gamified condition than in control over time. On the other hand, BA course results show no difference between gamified and practice test condition and their novelty effect. We conclude an external gamification system yields better results than a classical design but does not exceed practice tests effect. Copyright © 2023 Kratochvil, Vaculik and Macak.

6.
Journal of Information Technology ; 38(1):45-59, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2261374

ABSTRACT

Grover & Lyytinen (2015) urged to reassess the Information System (IS) field's exclusive dependence on reference theories and to engage more in blue-ocean theorizing. From its inception, such need has been latent in the field, because it deals with novel, fast changing, complex, and systemic phenomena that is hard to account with received theory. We note in this essay that the need for innovative theorizing is heightened given the unprecedented, pervasive digitalization of contemporary society, accelerated by ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this essay, we scrutinize further the idea of blue-ocean theorizing and review the characteristics, impediments, and merits of developing innovative theory. We define endeavors toward such theory as collectively endorsed cognitive processes which increase variance and novelty of theoretical accounts of IS phenomena. These push to deviate from the field's established theoretical (canonical) core by relaxing six assumptions that guide dominant, legitimate forms of the field's theorizing. We identify and review institutional barriers that curb the development of innovative theory. In conclusion, we offer guidelines for how the field and its stakeholders can productively engage in developing and evaluating innovative theory.

7.
Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2254131

ABSTRACT

Research Summary: There is growing consensus that exogenous environmental changes can affect entrepreneurship. The external enabler framework, which provides the structures and terminology to analyze these enabling effects, has typically focused on new venture creation. In an attempt to extend the external enabler framework to corporate entrepreneurship and innovation, our longitudinal multiple-case study explores how environmental changes enable entrepreneurial initiatives in existing organizations. Our findings contribute to the external enabler framework, corporate entrepreneurship, and innovation literature by identifying new conceptual tools to understand the enabling effect of environmental change for the emergence, novelty, and persistence of entrepreneurial initiatives in existing organizations. Managerial Summary: We studied how the Covid-19 pandemic enabled the initiation and continuation of entrepreneurial activities. Our study of eight small US-based news companies shows that some entrepreneurial initiatives emerged as these organizations redirected their course of action toward new initiatives enabled by the changes in the external environment. Notably, the entrepreneurial initiatives that were new-to-the-industry originated from ideas that were already available in some form within the organization but were not in use until the pandemic gave them a second life. Furthermore, the continuation of these initiatives depended on the persistence of the changes in the environment and on the low maintenance requirements of these initiatives in terms of time, effort, and resources. © 2023 The Authors. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Strategic Management Society.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2023 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166533

ABSTRACT

Pandemics such as COVID-19 pose serious threats to public health and disrupt the established systems for obtaining healthcare services. Mobile health (mHealth) apps serve the general public as a potential method for coping with these exogenous challenges. However, prior research has rarely discussed the antecedents and effects of mHealth apps and their use as a coping method during pandemics. Based on the technology acceptance model, empowerment theory, and event theory, we developed a research model to examine the antecedents (technology characteristics and event strength) and effects (psychological empowerment) of mHealth apps and their use. We tested this research model through a sequential mixed-method investigation. First, a quantitative study based on 402 Chinese mHealth users who used the apps during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted to validate the theoretical model. A follow-up qualitative study of 191 online articles and reviews on mHealth during the COVID-19 pandemic was conducted to cross-validate the results and explain the unsupported findings of the quantitative study. The results show that (1) the mHealth app characteristics (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) positively affect mHealth app use; (2) mHealth app use positively affects the psychological empowerment of mHealth users; and (3) the characteristics of pandemic events (event criticality and event disruption) have positive moderating effects on the relationship between mHealth app characteristics and mHealth app use. This study explains the role of mHealth apps in the COVID-19 pandemic on the micro-level, which has implications for the ways in which mHealth apps are used in response to public pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Telemedicine , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , Confidentiality
9.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; 83(11-B):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2045530

ABSTRACT

Across 2 experiments, I examined the effects of the establishment of English Incidental Bidirectional Naming (Inc-BiN) on the transformation of stimulus function from English to Spanish Inc-BiN for novel familiar stimuli. A total of 10 preschool-aged participants with disabilities were selected across both experiments, as none demonstrated incidental learning for listener and speaker responses. Participants were categorized as either a Monolingual (ML) or Dual Language Learner (DLL), based on the language they were exposed to outside the educational setting. Further, I conducted pre-experimental screenings to determine participants' initial strength of Inc-BiN stimulus control and paired them into dyads consisting of 1 student from each language community. In the pilot study, I used a pre-test post-test simultaneous treatment design across 2 dyads to test the effects of Brief and Prolonged Naming Exposures on the establishment of English Inc-BiN. Across all phases of the intervention, I provided visual match-to-sample Naming experiences followed by tests for the acquisition of untaught listener and speaker English responses for novel familiar stimuli. Upon completing any given phase to the intervention, I assessed for the transformation of stimulus function using the same set of Naming experiences and tests in Spanish. Results showed that English Inc-BiN was established for both DLLs, 1 of whom also acquired Spanish Inc-BiN while the other demonstrated Spanish Incidental-Unidirectional Naming (Inc-UniN) without intervention. However, this developmental capability was not established for any ML participants, as the intervention was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In Experiment II, I utilized a multiple probe design across 3 dyads to conduct a systematic replication of the pilot study. Overall, English Inc-BiN was established across all participants. Brief Naming Exposures were effective in establishing the capability for 4 participants while the remaining 2 required additional Prolonged Naming Exposures. The intervention was also effective in establishing the transformation of stimulus function across listener and speaker responses of different languages, with the acquisition of Spanish Inc-BiN for 3 participants and Spanish Inc-UniN for 2 participants. Reported differences in the number of Naming exposures required to establish English Inc-BiN further indicate that Inc-BiN may be acquired at varying rates across members of different language communities. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of establishing incidental language repertoires in order to improve DLLs rate of learning and long-term educational success. These results further pose question on the effectiveness of our nation's current bilingual education system, as there may be a need to shift focus from language of instruction to quality of instruction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

10.
Technology in Society ; : 102126, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2042157

ABSTRACT

The present study aims to assess the intention of the older population to use healthcare wearable devices (HWDs) for wellness during life-threatening situations like COVID-19. The target population for the study was senior citizens (individuals aged above 60) living in Delhi and the national capital region. The respondents were aware that smartwatches could be used to monitor their health. Data from 534 respondents was collected using a structured questionnaire and nonprobability-based sampling method. The partial least squares structure equation model (PLS-SEM) was used to test the hypothesized model derived from the protection motivation theory (PMT) and constructs from previous studies on HWDs. Healthcare wearables offer new perspectives for gauging both health and technology-related dimensions. The present study is important as unlike existing studies, it discusses not only the utilitarian characteristics of HWDs but also their health-protective dimensions, which are crucial in times of life-threatening situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings indicate that there is a significant impact of both the protective and utilitarian dimensions of HWDs. The study assesses the perceived vulnerability and severity of the older population in COVID 19 and the intention to use HWDs to handle such health crises. The study confirms that perceived usefulness and information accuracy of HWDs, as well as self-efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived vulnerability of senior citizens are high during the COVID-19 pandemic, which significantly influences their intention to use HWDs.

11.
Comput Human Behav ; 138: 107439, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982724

ABSTRACT

Given the amount of misinformation being circulated on social media during the COVID-19 pandemic and its potential threat to public health, it is imperative to investigate ways to hinder its transmission. To this end, this study aimed to identify message features that may contribute to misinformation sharing on social media. Based on the theory of social sharing of emotion and the extant research on message credibility, this study examined if emotions and message credibility serve as mechanisms through which novelty and efficacy of misinformation influence sharing intention. An online experiment concerning COVID-19 misinformation was conducted by employing a 2 (novelty conditions: high vs. low) × 2 (efficacy conditions: high vs. low) between-subjects design using a national quota sample in South Korea (N = 1,012). The findings suggested that, contrary to the expectation, the overall effects of novelty on sharing intention were negative. The specific mechanisms played significant and unique roles in different directions: novelty increased sharing intention by evoking surprise, while also exerting a negative influence on sharing intention through an increase in negative emotions and a decrease in positive emotions and message credibility. Consistent with the expectation, efficacy exhibited positive total effects on sharing intention, which was explained by higher levels of (self- and response-) efficacy of protective action increasing positive emotions and message credibility but decreasing negative emotions. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

12.
Applied Sciences ; 12(14):7296, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1963691

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a new version and a three-month evaluation of the Troubadour platform—an open-source music theory ear training platform. Through interviews with teachers, we gathered the most-needed features which would aid their use of the platform. In the new version of the Troubadour platform, we implemented different types of interaction, including class management, re-occurring homework and challenges. Previous research has shown a significant improvement in the students’ performance while using the platform. However, the short time span of the previous experiments has not shown whether these results can be attributed to the novelty bias. To evaluate the efficacy of the platform beyond its novelty bias, we performed a three-month-long evaluation experiment on the students’ interaction through questionnaires and platform-collected data. We collected data on their engagement with the platform. During the experiment, the students attended the school through online courses during the first part of the evaluation, and in-class in the second part. In this paper, we investigate the students’ engagement during the three-month period, explore the influence of the platform’s use in-class versus online learning process, analyze the students’ self-report on their practice habits and compare them with the collected data. The results showed high student engagement during the lockdown period, while the in-class process showed a decrease in the platform’s use, unveiling the students’ need for such platform as a complementary learning channel in remote learning.

13.
Inf Syst Front ; : 1-20, 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942246

ABSTRACT

Tourists deal with two intrinsic, uncertainty-driven attributes of travel, tourist worries and novelty seeking, that simultaneously affect their transaction and travel experience satisfaction. Rapid technological advances coupled with uncertainties caused by momentous events such as COVID-19 highlight the increasing significance of smart technologies in the tourism industry. This study explores the relationships between novelty and worries and travel satisfaction, as well as examines how tourists enhance their quality of trips with the use of smart tourism technologies. We find the tourists' novelty seeking would enhance the trip experience, leading to overall travel satisfaction. In contrast, tourist worries, particularly in trip planning, would negatively affect tourists' transaction satisfaction, which in turn impacts the overall travel experience satisfaction. As a moderator in its ambidextrous role, smart tourism technologies help tourists to develop a sense of novelty when planning and visiting a destination and mitigate the worries emanated from the uncertainty of transaction made during the pre-trip planning. Insights and implications of such findings are discussed for both theory and practice.

14.
Psychol Rep ; : 332941221092655, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832911

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To better understand the role of novelty satisfaction in distance physical education (PE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study aimed to determine the relationships among students' novelty satisfaction, basic psychological needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, effort, and enjoyment and to examine the mediating effects of autonomous motivation in the relationships between novelty satisfaction and effort and enjoyment. METHODS: The participants were 332 undergraduate students from 10 PE classes. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Satisfaction of students' need for novelty and the three basic needs positively predicted autonomous motivation, which in turn positively predicted effort and enjoyment. The relationships between students' novelty satisfaction and their effort and enjoyment were mediated by autonomous motivation. CONCLUSION: This study provides important insights into needs satisfaction and motivational underpinnings of outcomes in distance PE during the COVID-19 pandemic. We suggest that future studies develop novelty support strategies based on our findings.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780088

ABSTRACT

The public debate over COVID-19 vaccinations tends to focus on vaccine-related arguments, such as their effectiveness and safety. However, the characteristics of a person's worldview, such as beliefs about the world's positivity and orderliness, may also shape attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. These relationships were investigated using schema incongruity theory. The degree of the vaccine's incongruence with the world's order schema existing in people's minds was represented by perceived vaccine novelty. Accordingly, the results of an online survey among European young adults (N = 435) indicate that perceived vaccine novelty negatively affects behavioral outcomes (vaccination intent, willingness to pay for vaccinations, and vaccination advocacy). Moreover, there occurred a negative interaction effect of positivity and orderliness beliefs on behavioral outcomes. Specifically, an effect of positivity was more positive when people perceived the world as less ordered. Furthermore, this interaction effect was more negative when perceived vaccine novelty was higher. A mediating role of perceived vaccine effectiveness was demonstrated for the above relationships. The results extend the existing literature on people's worldviews into the domain of vaccine attitudes, and provide new insights on the role of perceived vaccine novelty. For vaccination policymakers and marketers, the paper suggests how to promote vaccinations with consideration of orderliness/positivity beliefs and vaccine novelty perception.

16.
Front Robot AI ; 9: 733078, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776100

ABSTRACT

Social distancing policies such as limits on public gatherings and contact with others were utilized around the world to slow the spread of COVID-19. Yet, decreased social interactions may also threaten people's well-being. In this project, we sought to understand novelty-relevant experiences surrounding in-home companion robot pets for adults that were living in some degree of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. After 6-weeks of participants living with the robot companion, we conducted semi-structured interviews (N = 9) and six themes emerged from our iterative analysis (expectations versus reality, ontological comparisons, interactions, third-party influence, identity, and comfort). Findings suggest that novelty is a complex phenomenon consisting of various elements (i.e., imagined novelty, technology novelty, and relational novelty). Each component influences the user's experience. Our findings also suggest that our understanding of novelty as a nonlinear resource may hold important implications for how we view human-robot relationships beyond initial encounters.

17.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 34(5):1906-1924, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1774487

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Through the lens of the upper echelons theory, this study aims to investigate how generalist chief executive officers (CEOs) affect social novelty. This paper also explores the moderating effect of CEO power on the relationship between generalist CEOs and social novelty.Design/methodology/approach>This study uses generalized estimating equation models and robust standard errors by firm to correct for autoregressive disturbances within clusters in the data.Findings>Restaurant firms with generalist CEOs are likely to feature gender diversity and member change in the top management structure. This positive effect of a generalist CEO on top management team’s (TMT) structure is enhanced by the CEO’s power over board members.Practical implications>This study presents important evidence that CEOs’ characteristics largely influence the gender heterogeneity and dynamic of the TMT, which in turn promote and shape innovative initiatives and actions.Originality/value>To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first to investigate the effect of CEOs’ human capital on the way in which the TMT is composed and characterized in the restaurant sector.

18.
Front Psychol ; 13: 818845, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753409

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound psychological and behavioral impact on people around the world. Consumer purchase behaviors have thus changed greatly, and consumer services companies need to adjust their business models to adapt to this change. From the perspective of consumer psychology, this paper explores the impact of consumer purchase behavior changes over the course of the pandemic on the business model design of consumer services companies using a representative survey of 1,742 individuals. Our results show that changes in consumer purchase behavior have a significant impact on the design of consumer services firms' business models. Specifically, changes in consumers' purchase object, motive, and timeframe are more likely to spark a novelty-centered business model design, whereas changes in purchase method tend to inspire an efficiency-centered one. Our findings provide a theoretical reference for consumer services companies in designing business models when faced with unexpected crises.

19.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1512(1): 61-75, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714293

ABSTRACT

With limited resources, exploring new opportunities is crucial for survival. Exploring novel options, however, comes at the cost of uncertainty. Therefore, there is a trade-off between exploiting options with a known beneficial outcome and exploring novel options with a potentially higher gain. Computational models have suggested that novelty may promote exploratory behavior by inducing a so-called novelty bonus through reward-related processes. So far, few studies have provided behavioral evidence for such a novelty bonus. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether spatial novelty can stimulate exploratory behavior (Experiment 1), and whether age, novelty-seeking, and reduced action radius or social interactions due to COVID-19 restrictions influenced the exploration-exploitation trade-off (Experiment 2). In both experiments, we employed a novel paradigm in which participants made binary decisions between food items, while on rare trials, a surprise option was presented. Results from Experiment 1 are in line with a novelty bonus, with spatial novelty promoting exploratory behavior. In Experiment 2, we found that exploratory behavior declined with age, high novelty seekers made more exploratory choices than low novelty seekers, and participants with a smaller action radius made fewer exploratory choices. These findings are consistent with previous findings in animals and predictions from computational models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exploratory Behavior , Animals , Bias , Humans , Reward , Uncertainty
20.
International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1612800

ABSTRACT

The recent explosion in false information on social media has led to intensive research on automatic fake news detection models and fact-checkers. Fake news and misinformation, due to its peculiarity and rapid dissemination, have posed many interesting challenges to the Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) community. Admissible literature shows that novel information includes the element of surprise, which is the principal characteristic for the amplification and virality of misinformation. Novel and emotional information attracts immediate attention in the reader. Emotion is the presentation of a certain feeling or sentiment. Sentiment helps an individual to convey his emotion through expression and hence the two are co-related. Thus, Novelty of the news item and thereafter detecting the Emotional state and Sentiment of the reader appear to be three key ingredients, tightly coupled with misinformation. In this paper we propose a deep multitask learning model that jointly performs novelty detection, emotion recognition, sentiment prediction, and misinformation detection. Our proposed model achieves the state-of-the-art(SOTA) performance for fake news detection on three benchmark datasets, viz. ByteDance, Fake News Challenge(FNC), and Covid-Stance with 11.55%, 1.58%, and 21.76% improvement in accuracy, respectively. The proposed approach also shows the efficacy over the single-task framework with an accuracy gain of 11.53, 28.62, and 14.31 percentage points for the above three datasets. The source code is available at https://github.com/Nish-19/MultitaskFake-News-NES.

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