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1.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):122-135, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812785

ABSTRACT

Unlike migration in many parts of the world, foreign workers in the Gulf region were subject to the 'Conditional Migrant Integration Model' to avoid granting of certain rights that would alter the prevalent socio-economic-political fabric. This ensured that expatriates remain in a state of "permanent impermanence". However, amid a combination of factors-transition from oil to post-oil economy, economic slowdown, and intra-regional economic competition-Covid19 has served as a disruptor of the rules of engagement between the regional governments and the expatriate population, including women. Recognizing the benefits of retaining talented and wealthy expatriates, some of the Gulf countries have rolled out multiple strategies, including reforming the Kafala system, offering longer durations of residence, and even potential citizenship, which is viewed as "conditional inclusion". Using a combination of empirical data from secondary sources, laced with anecdotal evidence, this research paper delves into these changes, analyzes their impact on the future of Gulf expatriates and their contracts with their governments, assesses the impact on the delicate citizen-expatriate alignment, as well as the contradictions in some of these measures, especially nationalization of the workforce.

2.
International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management ; 15(2):221-222, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1794910

ABSTRACT

[...]they find that fiscal stimulus to be helpful to reduce volatility in the bond market but ineffective the stock market volatility. Subekti and Rosadi study Shariah-compliant portfolio modelling (Black–Litterman) and perform a study on the Indonesian stock market. 2.2 Covid-19 and Islamic social finance The papers also share recent developments of zakat, infaq, waqf, sustainable and responsible investment (SRI) Sukuk, and other forms of Islamic social finance instruments. Ascarya reveals that Islamic social finance instruments (i.e. zakat, infaq and waqf) could lead to economic recovery post-pandemic with proposed solutions such as medical assistance using zakat-infaq, health-care waqf, a social safety net, and a graduation program using zakat-infaq.

3.
International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management ; 15(2):331-358, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1794904

ABSTRACT

Purpose>This paper aims to investigate and provide an objective appraisal of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Islamic and conventional financial institutions and Islamic windows in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.Design/methodology/approach>The panel data techniques are conducted country-wise in each financial institution type: random-effect model, fixed-effect model and Hausman test.Findings>The results of the first phase analysis that extends from 1 January 2020 to 30 October 2020 show that Islamic financial institutions are less exposed to the repercussions of the COVID-19 outbreak than the conventional and Islamic window financial institutions in Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and UAE. Moreover, the Islamic financial institutions in Saudi Arabia and Oman have not been affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. The second phase analysis for the COVID-19 outbreak that extends from 1 November 2020 to 17 March 2021 confirms the disappearance of the negative impact of COVID-19 on Islamic financial institutions in Bahrain and Oman.Practical implications>The findings present that Islamic banks are not as resilient in the COVID-19 pandemic as in the 2008 financial crisis. It can be suggested that regulatory authorities, financial institutions and other key policymakers in the GCC countries should focus on implementing regulatory reforms related to human capital, innovative products, research and development to further develop individuals, societies and institutions within the framework of Islamic ontology to be more resilient in such crises.Originality/value>This paper provides a different perspective from existing literature on the pandemics and financial institutions by comparing the stock prices in Islamic and conventional financial institutions and Islamic windows in GCC countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this paper should be considered as a contribution to filling a gap in the literature.

4.
2021 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789269

ABSTRACT

With capability training becoming ever important, our Pilot in-house developed and run program during COVID-19 delivered a comprehensive digital learning ecosystem which enabled participants to develop their digital skills and competencies. The digital learning journey empowered Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) staff to become ambassadors working in collaboration to enable their department digital plans. Building on international best practices, uplifting our engineers to become data scientists will drive direct business value in an efficient decentralized manner and cater for the ever-growing demand for digital transformation. As PDO embarks into the digital world, the program offered participants customized learning paths enabling them to utilize technology to optimize their daily operations, increase efficiency and effectiveness. Also the program enabled staff to get hands-on exposure to digital projects and what other companies in the sector add a practicing in the space of digital transformation. Hence, participants have built the required digital muscle and competencies to drive PDO digital agenda and bring value to the business. With the vision of promoting and pioneering our talent and organization as future ready, the program played a vital role in reshaping PDO's image in coping with the Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous (VOCA) working environment. The program started as a pilot project covering a specific number of PDO staff to build their digital competencies and experiment with various learning paths and tools. Also, the program focused on on-boarding their managers into the program to fully understand the added value of launching a 19 week program with diverse approaches to build their staff's skills. Moreover, one of the key goals of the pilot project is to test various mentorship and coaching approaches to ensure higher completion rates from all participants and cater for their technical challenges. As PDO working towards corporate digital strategy, the program is paving the way to build a robust training and competency framework, a task force capable of driving change and forward looking plans. With the successful results of the pilot, replication of the methodology and maturing the program is now being taken by PDO Information technology department to corporately build digital muscle within PDO value chain. As a result of participants' first pilot project and implementation posts evaluation assessment, the management endorsed the launch of cohort 2 for the program tackling a bigger number of staff and expanding the range of competencies to tackle in the areas of data science, machine learning and personal intelligence. One of the key learnings which was implemented in cohort 2, is building a comprehensive stakeholder map and alignment plans to ensure the right path of corporate scale beyond and benefit a bigger audience within the corporate. For example, multiple workshops and engagement sessions have been done with PDO Learning Academy and technical coaches in different departments to match the outcomes from cohort 2 and the aspiration of PDO building digital competency framework. In addition, PDO digital competency development program has aspired to build an ecosystem within the organization and in collaboration with external stakeholders like universities, e-learning platforms and technical partners to ensure sustainability of such initiatives and their scalability beyond PDO. The program sparked many conversations within the ecosystem to build collaborative teams and joint task force to investigate how we can build digital competencies for our staff and as well for startups to encourage growth from various aspects. © Copyright 2021, Society of Petroleum Engineers

5.
2021 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789265

ABSTRACT

This paper summarises a ONE development success story of reviving a mature brownfield in South of Oman, Field β, just within ONE year through collaboration between different disciplines, comprehensive data analysis, optimising and recompletion of existing wells. Field β, comprised of multi-stacked clastic reservoirs, was put on stream in 1980s and peaked in early 1990s. Pilot water injection started in 1993 and full field water flooding continued in 1997. After more than 35 years since start of production, one can say the field was already in the tail end of its life. It had been stabilizing at low rate after 25 years and starting to decline further and at some point was one of the potential candidates to be decommissioned. A new FDP (FDP18) for part of the field was delivered in 2018 with the first well drilled at the end of that year. In 2019, despite drilling further wells on the FDP18, production was declining and was at 2018 rate towards the year end. Intensive data analysis and integrated reservoir reviews per reservoir layers were actively performed and new opportunities and data gathering were identified. FDP18 wells from 2019 onwards were then deepened to also acquire log data over deeper than the target reservoirs. Further synergy between asset and exploration teams also instigated in new discoveries including oil in shallower carbonate reservoirs, which were logged and sampled when drilling the FDP18 wells. Declining production, low oil price and COVID-19 crisis that hit 2020 challenged the team to be more resilient and with ONE development mindset between development and WRFM team, also between asset and exploration team, existing long-term closed in and very low productivity wells were utilised to tap these new opportunities. As a result, the field production has been increased by more than double, highest since 10 years ago, with a potential of triple its production rate, all achieved through optimizing and recompletion of existing wells within 1 year, at a very attractive low UTC. © Copyright 2021, Society of Petroleum Engineers

6.
Respirology ; 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769764
7.
IJID Regions ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1768187

ABSTRACT

Background Among the challenges imposed by COVID-19 to public health systems was vaccine scarcity and prioritizing the high-risk groups. This prompted countries to accelerate the pace of immunization campaigns against COVID-19 to deploy the immunization umbrella to the largest possible number of target groups. In this paper, we share Oman's perspective on the impact of accelerating the administration of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in one border governorate, Musandam, compared to another, Al-Buraimi, where measures were not implemented. Methods Daily admission data (10 April 2020–24 June 2021) and vaccination data (1 January–24 June 2021) were systematically collected. For each governorate, cumulative doses (first and second doses) and vaccination coverage were calculated daily. Results Within one month, first dose vaccination coverage increased from 20%–58% in Musandam reducing the incidence of hospital admission by 75% compared to Al-Buraimi where vaccination coverage plateaued at 20% and the incidence of hospital admission increased by 500% . Conclusions Given the peculiarity of geographical location and being the first line of access for imported cases, border regions should have priority for vaccine deployment as a preventive measure. Our two different approaches, implemented in broadly similar cross-border governorates, provided evidence of the significant effect of accelerating the first dose of vaccine in reducing hospitalization.

8.
Journal of Tourism ; 22(2):27-39, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766673

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has drastically restructured the way education is delivered around the world. Institutions quickly turned to virtual/online due to the sudden shift away from classroom (face to face) teaching. This paper attempts to understand the impacts of the COVID 19 pandemic on tourism students of the Public Sector Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in shifting classroom education to the online and e-Learning mode of teaching and learning. The Oman government has prioritized the tourism and education sector in its 10th Five Year plan;however, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, regular tourism classes, seminars, conferences, industrial visits, practical internships etc., were suspended in Oman. HEIs in Oman adopted many preventive measures to ensure that education quality and continuous teaching and learning as the government's priority sector should not suffer. Therefore, from regular teaching and learning mode, the HEIs in Oman shifted to the online and e- Learning mode of teaching and learning. The present study is empirical and utilizes primary research to gather statistical data of undergraduate tourism students from Oman's various public sector HEIs. The present study investigates tourism students' perceptions and experience about the education shift from classroom to online and e- Learning mode in general and influence of IT tools anxiety (technology acceptance), enjoyment, subjective norms, emotional life, and personal circumstances in their learning experience in particular. An online survey was administered to conduct the research and collect data. The findings of this study show that all four variables under study, i.e., perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, environment readiness, and perceived selfefficacy, positively correlate with the behavioural intention of using e-learning. Thus, for effective e-learning to happen, prepare tourism students to accept technology, provide better infrastructure and internet accessibility, and train tourism teachers as per the new paradigm. The findings of this study may serve as a base for further research on tourism students' e-learning experience models.

9.
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education ; 12(11):7019-7031, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743671

ABSTRACT

Past Research studies analyzed the impact of entrepreneurship education programs and its efficiency. Oman is known as an emerging country with high unemployment among fresh graduates from educational institutions. This issue set off the policies of the Omani government to reshape the state towards a knowledge-based economy, where the main element was described as 'entrepreneur.' The challenges facing the government is to shift students ' attitudes towards entrepreneurship rather than jobs. This research will present the elements of the entrepreneurial intention and proposed model information system and factors that affect student perceptions of entrepreneurship education. Quantitative method used to collect data which included 325 Oman students between 20 to 40 years from private institutions. Results have shown that entrepreneurship education, experience and the external setting have an overall impact on students' a positive outlook to entrepreneurship. In contrast, personal attributes and perceived feasibility have a real effect on unfavourable perceptions._

10.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 22(1): 98-105, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737467

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the correlation between the severity of the initial chest x-ray (CXR) abnormalities in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and the final outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Royal Hospital, Oman between mid-March and May 2020 and included patients who had been admitted with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and had a final outcome. Serial CXRs were identified and examined for presence, extent, distribution and progression pattern of radiological abnormalities. Each lung field was divided into three zones on each CXR and a score was allocated for each zone (0 is normal and 1-4 is mild-severe). The scores for all six zones per CXR examination were summed to provide a cumulative chest radiographic score (range: 0-24). Results: A total of 64 patients were included; the majority were male (89.1%) and the mean age was 50.22 ± 14.86 years. The initial CXR was abnormal in 60 patients (93.8%). The most common finding was ground glass opacity (n = 58, 96.7%) followed by consolidation (n = 50, 83.3%). Most patients had bilateral (n = 51, 85.0%), multifocal (n = 57, 95.0%) and mixed central and peripheral (n = 36, 60.0%) lung abnormalities. The median score of initial CXR for deceased patients was significantly higher than recovered patients (17 versus 11; P = 0.009). Five CXR evolution patterns were identified: type I (initial radiograph deteriorates then improves), type II (fluctuate), type III (static), type IV (progressive deterioration) and type V (progressive improvement). Conclusion: A higher baseline CXR score is associated with higher mortality rate and poor prognosis in those with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , X-Rays
11.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 1-6, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734111

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs) is widely reported. Here we report on the prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and the factors associated with it in a sample of non-vaccinated HCWs. Data from 433 not vaccinated medical and non-medical HCWs from various health care facilities after the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination in Oman were analyzed. Most of the participants were nurses (41.5%) followed by physicians (37.5%) and non-medical HCWs (21%). Forty percent of HCWs were willing to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines. Physicians and male HCWs had more positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines than nurses and female HCWs. Concerns about the COVID-19 vaccines including unknown health issues, efficacy and safety were stated by the participants. Our results show a low level of willingness to uptake the COVID-19 vaccines among HCWs, an issue that must be urgently addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Economies ; 10(2):29, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715181

ABSTRACT

Sustainable tourism supports a great level of tourist contentment and assures a significant experience for the visitors, realizes the importance of sustainability issues and encourages sustainable tourism practices and customs among them. Long-term success in tourism is possible only with the support of the local residents. Earlier research supports the significance of local population backing in order to make tourism more sustainable. As a result, it is necessary to comprehend the attitudes and perception of the local people, which will provide a treasured acquaintance for numerous tourism improvement programs. The present study was conducted in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, to understand the community perception on tourism impact and environmental protection measures taken by the government. The study indicates that the local community is aware of the benefits of tourism development. The government should take steps to create awareness about the need for public support for the preservation of heritage sites. They should also be provided information about how the local community can benefit by way of job opportunities, small businesses, etc.

13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686564

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to study the perceptions of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors related to diet and food shopping on a sample of 356 adults in Oman. The study is based on the results of an Arabic-language online survey conducted between September 15 and October 10, 2020, using the Survey Monkey platform. The questionnaire had 25 questions (multiple options and one option), subdivided into three parts. Respondents were asked to disseminate the survey to their networks as part of the study's snowball sampling method. Descriptive statistics and various statistical tests (e.g., U-Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, chi-square) have been used to evaluate the study results. The study showed a significant shift in the attitude and behavior of respondents regarding food and health. Indeed, the paper findings indicated (i) a shift to healthier diets, as shown by the fact that 45.5% of the participants increased their intake of fruits and vegetables, 42.4% ate more healthy foods, and 53.1% reduced their intake of unhealthy foods; (ii) an increase in the consumption of local products, owing to food safety concerns, with 25.8% of the cohort stating that they purchase more local food items; (iii) a shift in grocery shopping behaviors, especially with 28.1% of the participants buying more groceries online; (iv) the absence of panic buying in Oman, since 62.36% of the participants said they did not stockpile food items; and (v) a reduction of food waste. Indeed, 78.9% of the participants specified they were not wasting more food than average since the beginning of the pandemic, and 74.72% indicated they were more aware of how much food they were wasting. Surprisingly, COVID-19 appears to bring many beneficial adjustments in Oman to make food consumption more sustainable and healthier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Food , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 269-277, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Oman and longitudinal changes in antibody levels over time within the first 11 months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted as a four-cycle serosurvey using a multi-stage stratified sampling method from July to November 2020. A questionnaire was used and included demographics, history of acute respiratory infection and list of symptoms, COVID-19 contact, previous diagnosis or admission, travel history and risk factors. RESULTS: In total, 17,457 participants were surveyed. Thirty percent were female and 66.3% were Omani. There was a significant increase in seroprevalence throughout the study cycles, from 5.5% (4.8-6.2%) in Cycle 1 to 22% (19.6-24.6%) in Cycle 4. There was no difference in seroprevalence between genders, but significant differences were found between age groups. There was a transition of seroprevalence from being higher in non-Omanis than Omanis in Cycle 1 [9.1% (7.6-10.9%) vs 3.2% (2.6-3.9%)] to being higher in Omanis than non-Omanis in Cycle 4 [24.3% (21.0-27.9%) vs 16.8% (14.9-18.9%)]. There was remarkable variation in the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 according to governorate. Close contacts of people with COVID-19 had a 96% higher risk of having the disease [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.64-2.34]. Labourers had 58% higher risk of infection compared with office workers (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.35). CONCLUSION: This study showed a wide variation in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 across governorates in Oman, with higher estimated seroprevalence in migrants in the first two cycles. Prevalence estimates remain low and are insufficient to provide herd immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Oman/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Journal of Economic Cooperation & Development ; 42(3):133-166, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1647507

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the effect of the COVID-19 on the stock prices in service, industrial, and financial sectors using daily data for 295 companies from January 1, 2020, to February 23, 2021, in the GCC countries. The panel data techniques are utilized based sector-wise in each country: random-effect model, fixed-effect model, and Hausman test. The impact of COVID-19 was analysed during two phases. The first phase included analysing the financial markets' response from 01-01-2020 to 30-07-2020. The second phase is the analysis of the financial market response from 01-08-2020 to 23-02-2021. The first phase of results show that the COVID-19 outbreak leads to decreasing stock market prices in GCC countries. The empirical results show that the COVID-19 outbreak has badly hit the stock markets in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar while the stock markets in Bahrain, Kuwait, and Oman are the least impacted countries in GCC. Furthermore, the sector-wise analysis results reveal that the financial sector in Saudi Arabia is the most affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in GCC countries. However, the response of stock markets to COVID-19 varied over time. The second phase's findings confirm that the negative impact of COVID-19 on stock markets in the GCC countries has faded in most sectors due to government support.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(2):829, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1631965

ABSTRACT

Mobile broadband (MBB) is one of the critical goals in fifth-generation (5G) networks due to rising data demand. MBB provides very high-speed internet access with seamless connections. Existing MBB, including third-generation (3G) and fourth-generation (4G) networks, also requires monitoring to ensure good network performance. Thus, performing analysis of existing MBB assists mobile network operators (MNOs) in further improving their MBB networks’ capabilities to meet user satisfaction. In this paper, we analyzed and evaluated the multidimensional performance of existing MBB in Oman. Drive test measurements were carried out in four urban and suburban cities: Muscat, Ibra, Sur and Bahla. This study aimed to analyze and understand the MBB performance, but it did not benchmark the performance of MNOs. The data measurements were collected through drive tests from two MNOs supporting 3G and 4G technologies: Omantel and Ooredoo. Several performance metrics were measured during the drive tests, such as signal quality, throughput (downlink and unlink), ping and handover. The measurement results demonstrate that 4G technologies were the dominant networks in most of the tested cities during the drive test. The average downlink and uplink data rates were 18 Mbps and 13 Mbps, respectively, whereas the average ping and pong loss were 53 ms and 0.9, respectively, for all MNOs.

17.
Financ Res Lett ; : 102686, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616496

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is causing economic panic among people, governments, and businesses, requiring greater corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a sample of Omani-listed firms, this study shows that CSR budgeting and spending have increased considerably during the pandemic. It also shows that CSR budgeting is positively affected by the increase in COVID-19 deaths. CSR spending increases with the number of COVID-19 confirmed and fatal cases. These findings suggest that firms resort to CSR to reduce the negative consequences of the pandemic.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 770946, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591003

ABSTRACT

Despite the apparent challenges inflicted by COVID-19 globally, the pandemic provided an opportunity to utilize and expand existing public health capacities for a more adaptive and resilient system during and after each wave of the disease. This paper provides a narrative review of Oman's public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic from January 2020 to July 2021, and the challenges it faced for a more rapid and efficient response. The review demonstrates that the three main pillars influencing the direction of the pandemic and aiding the control are Oman's unified governmental leadership, the move to expand the capacity of the health care system at all levels, and community partnership in all stages of the response including the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. The opportunities identified during response stages in the harmonization of the multisectoral response, streamlining communication channels, addressing vulnerable communities (dormitories, residences at border regions), and providing professional technical leadership provide an excellent precursor for expediting the transformation of Oman's health care system to one with a multisectoral holistic approach. Some of the major challenges faced are the shortage of the public health cadre, lack of a fully integrated digital platform for surveillance, and the scarcity of experts in risk communication and community engagement. A future health system where the center for diseases surveillance and control acts as a nucleus for multisectoral expertise and leadership, which includes community representatives, is crucial to attain optimum health. The destruction inflicted by this prolong COVID-19 pandemic at all levels of human life had valued the importance of investing on preventive and preparedness strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Services , Humans , Oman/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Diseases ; 10(1)2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580942

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has a devastating impact worldwide. Recognizing factors that cause its progression is important for the utilization of appropriate resources and improving clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were hospitalized with moderate versus severe COVID-19 illness. A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted between 3 March and 9 September 2020. Following the CDC guidelines, a two-category variable for COVID-19 severity (moderate versus severe) based on length of stay, need for intensive care or mechanical ventilation and mortality was developed. Data including demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, therapeutic interventions and clinical outcomes were assessed using descriptive and inferential analysis. A total of 1002 patients were included, the majority were male (n = 646, 64.5%), Omani citizen (n = 770, 76.8%) and with an average age of 54.2 years. At the bivariate level, patients classified as severe were older (Mean = 55.2, SD = 16) than the moderate patients (Mean = 51.5, SD = 15.8). Diabetes mellitus was the only significant comorbidity potential factor that was more prevalent in severe patients than moderate (n = 321, 46.6%; versus n = 178, 42.4%; p < 0.001). Under the laboratory factors; total white cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer and corrected calcium were significant. All selected clinical characteristics and therapeutics were significant. At the multivariate level, under demographic factors, only nationality was significant and no significant comorbidity was identified. Three clinical factors were identified, including; sepsis, Acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) and requirement of non-invasive ventilation (NIV). CRP and steroids were also identified under laboratory and therapeutic factors, respectively. Overall, our study identified only five factors from a total of eighteen proposed due to their significant values (p < 0.05) from the bivariate analysis. There are noticeable differences in levels of COVID-19 severity among nationalities. All the selected clinical and therapeutic factors were significant, implying that they should be a key priority when assessing severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. An elevated level of CRP may be a valuable early marker in predicting the progression in non-severe patients with COVID-19. Early recognition and intervention of these factors could ease the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and reduce case fatalities as well medical expenditure.

20.
International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education ; 10(3):930-937, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1563788

ABSTRACT

The objective of the research was to find out the key factors that influence the acceptance and usage of cloud computing systems in the Omani higher education sector, with special emphasis on the COVID-19 outbreak. For this purpose, a quantitative research approach was conducted where 200 students from several Omani higher education institutions were surveyed, and by using Partial Least Square (PLS) to analysis the collected data. The findings revealed that the intention to use cloud computing in this context is significantly dependent on its perceived ease of use, usefulness, perceived reliability and responsiveness. It is noteworthy that this is one of the early studies that address the subject of cloud computing usage during times of crises, and specifically the COVID-19 outbreak. As such, it provides significant contributions in the area of technology adoption.

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