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1.
Educ Inf Technol (Dordr) ; : 1-12, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966154

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to explore how the Hellenic Open University managed to adapt to the new normal of the pandemic and particularly what methods it deployed in its postgraduate Healthcare Management program. The first part introduces the key features of the Hellenic Open University and analyzes the strategic policy deployed by the University during the pandemic through the pillars of academic integrity, openness and excellence. The second part presents the research method and findings regarding both instructors and students of the Healthcare Management postgraduate program. The third part concludes that the policy introduced by University had a positive effect overall both to academic staff and healthcare practitioners. The importance and innovation of this study lies in the fact that it emphasizes on adult students who are in their crashing majority healthcare practitioners and thus have already a saying regarding the pandemic's management. The scope of the research was to demonstrate that this student audience had a significant input in the teaching procedure, since they were at the forefront of the pandemic crisis. In this regard, the instructor-student relationship was more than ever reciprocal based on the knowledge of the first and the experience of the latter.

2.
Educ Stud Math ; : 1-19, 2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965562

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China, all school classes were delivered through an online environment from February 24 to May 22, 2020. To support this transition, the Shanghai Education Commission led expert teachers and specialists to develop a series of online video lessons based on the Shanghai unified curriculum, and suggested students watch the online video lessons individually from home, followed by an online synchronous lesson supported by class teachers. This study investigated what primary mathematics teachers learned from addressing these challenges through a case study. By following two purposefully selected teachers over 2 weeks during the transition, multiple data sets including online video lessons, online synchronous lessons, daily reflections, and post-online teacher interviews were collected. A fine-grained analysis of the data from the lens of the documentational approach to didactics found that teachers adaptively used online video lessons as important resources for their online synchronous lessons and virtual Teaching Research Groups as a teachers' collaboration mechanism supported them to develop online video lessons and address various technological constraints. Finally, implications of this case study for mathematics education globally are discussed. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10649-022-10172-2.

3.
Anatomical Sciences Education ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1966026

ABSTRACT

To examine the implications of the transition from face-to-face to online learning from a psychobiological perspective, this study investigated potential differences in physiological stress parameters of students engaged in online or face-to-face learning, and determined whether these can be identified as possible mediators between learning experience and achievement emotions. In a randomized experimental field study, medical students (n = 82) attended either regular face-to-face classes of the microscopic anatomy course or the same practical course online using Zoom videoconferencing platform. The present study investigated Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and salivary cortisol concentration as stress correlates, within the contexts of online and face-to-face learning and compared these parameters with a control group that was measured at rest. Additionally, participants completed a standardized questionnaire about their experienced emotions in relation to task achievement and subjective stress levels. A significant reduction in HRV was found in face-to-face learning, suggesting stronger stress responses in the face-to-face learning environment (?2 =?0.421, P <?0.001). Furthermore, participants engaged in face-to-face learning showed significantly higher cortisol concentrations (?2 =?0.115, P =?0.032). Additionally, increased sympathetic activation correlated with the discrete positive emotion of enjoyment exclusively within the face-to-face condition (r = 0.365, P =?0.043). These results indicate that the transfer of a face-to-face practical course in microscopic anatomy to an online learning environment is associated with decreased sympathetic and enhanced vagal cardiovascular influences, together with lower cortisol concentrations in healthy medical students.

4.
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning ; 17(13):145-156, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964199

ABSTRACT

The countrywide lockdown since March 2020 due to COVID 19 pandemic has brought drastic changes in the Indian education system. Today, many higher education institutions offer online delivery as an alternative and/or addition to provide more flexibility to learners, specifically in the current COVID 19 Pandemic. The conventional teaching method to the technology-driven virtual mode of teaching provided opportunities with challenges to academic stakeholders. Now with the new session, discussions on the reopening of educational institutions are going on. Hence, it is time to review the learning that took place during this pandemic situation. Learners being confronted with such services come with different expectations of what that means to their learning paths and behaviors. Learning Analytics is a relatively new and innovative way of making learner behavior and performances explicit by analyzing significant learners' feedback data. In this study, we take the case of online courses offered by various educational institutions all over India, and the analysis encompasses the population of learners of the online courses during the COVID 19 Pandemic period. Primary data has been collected using Google form when journals, reports, and websites are secondary data collection sources. We classified the data into distinctive parts: the overall learning experience of this course, the fulfillment of the learners' objectives, the difficulty of the assignments, the quality of the material supplied, the difficulty level of the course, the quality of the live session, opinion about the virtual approach of teaching, opinion about the contribution of virtual academic programs on knowledge building, opinion about the impact of virtual mode of teaching on performance, and opinion about the causes affecting students’ performance in the virtual mode of learning. The analysis outcomes will guide the host institutions and other similar institutions to design their pedagogy for future online courses more effectively, influencing learner engagement and retention. © 2022. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning. All Rights Reserved.

5.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963414

ABSTRACT

The provision and practice of an online environment have become the main challenge for many institutes including universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the use of an online learning system was used by the majority of the teachers through an understanding of the adoption of ICT with the major challenges faced by them during the teaching–learning process. It has been found through this study that the teachers are lacking in ICT literacy. Therefore, they are facing online classroom management and connectivity issues throughout their journey during COVID-19. This study aims to explore the challenges and coping strategies faced by university teachers during the pandemic of COVID-19. A qualitative research method with a case study approach was used to get an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon of online teaching during COVID-19. Interviews were collected from eleven teacher educators (TEs) of the university. After analyzing the data, nine themes were generated with major findings, that is, connectivity issues, online teaching methods and techniques, learning environment for online teaching and learning, and challenges faced by teachers. The study findings are a good sought of addition and contribution for the university policymakers to evaluate, influence, and ensure the successful implementation of the e-learning system. Additionally, it is a suggestion for the university management to arrange some workshops or training programs for TEs to improve productivity and performance during their online teaching. Copyright © 2022 Sahito, Shah and Pelser.

6.
GMS Journal for Medical Education ; 39(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963360

ABSTRACT

Objective: Obtaining a systematic medical history (MH) from a patient is a core competency in medical education and plays a vital role in the diagnosis of diseases. At the Faculty of Medicine at LMU Munich, students have their first course in MH taking during their second year. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the traditional bedside MH taking course had to be transformed into an online course (OC). Our objectives were to implement an online MH taking course, to evaluate its feasibility and to compare the evaluation results to a historic cohort that had undertaken the traditional bedside teaching course (BTC). Methods: 874 second-year students participated in the OC (BTC=827). After teaching the theoretical background via asynchronous online lectures, students participated in a practical exercise with fellow students using the video communication platform Zoom where they were able to practice taking a MH on the basis of fictitious, text-based patient cases. Students were then asked to evaluate the course through a standardized online survey with 31 questions on teaching quality and self-perceived learning success, which had also been used in previous years. The survey results were compared to the results of the historic cohort using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A total of n=162 students (18.5%) evaluated the OC. In the historic cohort, n=252 (30.5%) completed the survey. 85.3% of the OC respondents thought that the atmosphere during the practical exercise was productive and 83.0% greatly appreciated the flexibility in terms of time management. Moreover, they appreciated the online resources as well as having the opportunity to undertake a MH taking course during the COVID-19 pandemic. 27.7% of the respondents thought that traditional BTCs should be supplemented through more online activities in the future. With respect to the ability of independently taking a MH upon completion of the course, the OC was rated significantly lower relative to the BTC (mean OC=2.4, SD=±1.1 vs. mean BTC=1.9, SD=±1.1 (1=strongly agree;5=strongly disagree);p<0.0001). Conclusion: OCs are a feasible format and seem to convey the theory and practical implementation in a peer-exercise format of MH taking to medical students. The theoretical background can be acquired with great flexibility. Nevertheless, the students’ self-appraisal suggested that the traditional teaching format was more effective at teaching MH taking skills. Thus, we propose a blended learning concept, combining elements of both formats. In this context, we suggest prospective, randomized trials to evaluate blended learning approaches. © 2022 Lange et al.

7.
27th ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE 2022 ; 2:591-592, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1962399

ABSTRACT

We present an approach for teaching introductory Scrum concepts through a playful online collaborative activity. It was conducted with 1st-semester students who never had any in-person contact and started their course under emergency online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. We adapted the Lego4Scrum approach and instead of plastic bricks, we combined an online whiteboard (Miro) with a communication tool (Discord) for teams. © 2022 Owner/Author.

8.
Journal of China Tourism Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960816

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic brought radical pedagogical shifts to global higher education. Online teaching/learning has become the mainstream under the context of the pandemic. Although vaccines have been increasingly provided and face-to-face teaching has resumed in some institutions, people are advised to adapt themselves to the changes under the new normal. Lecturers and students still need to be prepared for online teaching/learning in case of another round of outbreak. This study was conducted to generate and compare lecturers’ and students’ assessment of online teaching/learning in hospitality and tourism undergraduate programmes in Mainland China. With the theoretical guidance of the technology acceptance model (TAM), from semi-structured interviews with seventeen lecturers and ten students, a ‘Love’ framework and a ‘Hate’ framework were proposed explaining why lecturers and students love or hate online teaching/learning. Consistency and variances were identified comparing lecturers’ and students’ concerns. Both frameworks extend TAM in the online education setting and can be used as theoretical guidance for future online teaching/learning studies. Findings provide stakeholders clear directions and practical solutions to better prepare for the new normal. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

9.
Computers in the Schools ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1960682

ABSTRACT

During the Spring 2020 semester, K-12 teachers throughout many parts of the world adapted from face-to-face to online teaching. To better understand these experiences, seven advanced placement (AP) Statistics high school teachers were interviewed following a semi-structured protocol. A collaborative and consensus-driven analysis of transcripts revealed 12 distinct themes. The three most extensively discussed themes appeared to be assessment (19.11%), communication methods (12.23%), and use of online instructional approaches (11.90%). Teachers from schools that did not provide devices to students (i.e., not “one-to-one”) tended to report concerns around digital access more frequently (6.87%) and tended to express a more negative sentiment (Sentiment Mean = –.09) than teachers at schools that provided devices (5.69%;Sentiment Mean = 1.35, p <.01). These findings highlight issues facing teachers during the transition to remote and online instruction and suggest a need for supporting teachers in developing familiarity with online and remote assessment resources and strategies. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

10.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958215

ABSTRACT

Enrollment into Arabic as a second language (ASL) in Dubai has increased steadily due to the high influx of expatriates' populations. Although Arabic is the primary language in Dubai, the government has mandated that Arabic be taught in all private schools for non-native Arabic speakers from grades one to nine. This was at the time when the COVID-19 pandemic hit the world and it threw this mandated study into the world of teaching and learning via online means. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the teaching and learning of ASL online in Dubai during the COVID-19 pandemic by exploring the role of innovation and technology infusion in teaching ASL, assessing how education stakeholders can motivate students in online learning, and investigating ways of effectively assessing students' progress in online learning. The study utilized a qualitative case study where ten teachers and ten learners in 20 private schools in Dubai were interviewed, having been selected through the purposively sampling technique for the administration of unstructured interviews. The researcher analyzed the data using thematic analysis.There were three major findings in this study. First, the adoption of online digital technologies for the teaching and learning of ASL has a positive influence on online teaching. The adoption of such technologies was successfully carried out with the support of capable infrastructure and efforts by the Dubai government, parents, leaders, and teachers of Dubai schools. Second, students are motivated by their parents and teachers for the adoption of online learning techniques where the learning was made interesting, flexible, manageable, autonomous, and generalized. Third, online learning shifted the focus from quantifiable assessment means such as grades, credits, rankings, and markets to the achievement of learning and teaching outcomes and acquiring the needed skills. The study concluded with recommendations, implications for practitioners, and limitations of the study. It also identified suggestions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
2021 AIS SIGED International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958187

ABSTRACT

Fourth year Information Systems (IS) students are expected to write a research paper on a selected IS topic. At the University of Pretoria in South Africa, a number of challenges were faced towards reaching this goal: many students have poor research and academic writing skills;the supervision load grows significantly as student numbers increase annually;and students' final research papers are rarely publishable. Some of these problems were solved by changing the module's objective to writing a systematic literature review (SLR). This paper describes how the curriculum of the module was adjusted to reach the objective and how the transition to fully remote teaching during the pandemic was managed. Blackboard Collaborate was used for synchronous online teaching and student engagement was facilitated by online learning tools, which include Jamboard. Both students and lecturers generally experienced the changes as positive. Recorded lectures are considered valuable as it enables flexible learning, and online learning tools were successfully utilised to make lectures more interactive. © Proceedings of the 2021 AIS SIGED International Conference on Information Systems Education and Research.

12.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; 83(9-A):No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1957943

ABSTRACT

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and digital transformation have significantly changed how people learn (Calvo & Peters, 2014;Riva et al., 2016). The COVID-19 pandemic precipitated a sudden transition in the teaching and learning community, necessitating a shift from face-to-face or blended learning environments to online or distance education. The drastic change challenged people's mental health, well-being, and coping mechanisms. Given the possibilities that technology can offer in this context, studying human flourishing in education has become imperative. Among the over eight million teachers in the U.S, approximately 287,600 of educators in postsecondary institutions were born outside of the U.S. (Furuya et al., 2019). Yet this marginalized population remains under-researched. This study attempts to incorporate constructs from ontological and epistemological concepts in psychology to understand the experiences of foreign-born educators who practice positive psychology while teaching online courses. This dissertation utilizes hermeneutic phenomenology to examine the lived experiences of eight foreign-born instructors, guided by the research question: what is it like to experience transcendence and transformation for foreign-born online teachers who practice positive psychology? Four themes emerged from the findings on lived experience: (1) understanding optimism and resilience as strength, (2) meeting challenges and opportunities when in collaboration with others, (3) being flexible and adaptable to technological changes, and (4) seeking sustained opportunity for self-improvement. The findings provided insights into the challenges and triumphs of online education and may energize future strength-based and growth-oriented positive technology research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

13.
Retos ; 42:872-881, 2021.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955646

ABSTRACT

The education system attempts to effectively respond to the instructional changes and challenges caused by COVID-19. The adaptation process of predominantly face-to-face teaching to virtual one has involved a substantial effort for Physical Education (PE) teachers with the aim of adapting the teaching and learning process. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have analyzed the different at-home PE units done by teachers. This research aimed at examining, from a curricular perspective, distinct at-home PE proposals in order to ascertain their characteristics, share instances of good teaching practices, and provide teachers with useful guidelines to help them design quality proposals in the future. The results evidenced that the predominant activity profile was an individual motor exercise focused on physical fitness and introduced as a challenge, in which students repeat a specific movement sequence with the aid of the internet. Alternate : El sistema educativo está tratando de responder de manera eficaz a los retos y cambios en materia educativa provocados por la COVID-19. El proceso de transición de una enseñanza predominantemente presencial a una virtual ha supuesto un esfuerzo considerable para el profesorado de Educación Física (EF) con la finalidad de adaptar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. No hay evidencias de estudios que hayan analizado las iniciativas de EF en casa realizadas por los docentes. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar, desde una perspectiva curricular, diferentes propuestas de EF en casa con la finalidad de conocer sus características, compartir ejemplos de buenas prácticas y ofrecer al profesorado orientaciones útiles que les ayuden a diseñar propuestas de calidad en el futuro. Los resultados evidenciaron que el perfil predominante de actividad fue un ejercicio individual de carácter motriz centrado en el desarrollo de la condición física y presentada como un reto, donde el alumnado repite una secuencia específica de movimientos con ayuda de internet.Alternate :O sistema educacional está tentando responder de forma eficaz aos desafios e mudanças na educação causados ​​pelo COVID-19. O processo de transição de um ensino predominantemente presencial para o virtual tem envolvido um considerável esforço dos professores de Educação Física (EF) na adaptação do processo ensino-aprendizagem. Não há evidências de estudos que analisaram iniciativas de EF em casa realizadas por professores. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar, numa perspetiva curricular, diferentes propostas de EF em casa, de forma a conhecer as suas características, partilhar exemplos de boas práticas e oferecer aos professores orientações úteis que os ajudem a conceber propostas de qualidade no futuro. Os resultados mostraram que o perfil de atividade predominante foi um exercício motor individual voltado para o desenvolvimento da condição física e apresentado como um desafio, onde os alunos repetem uma sequência específica de movimentos com o auxílio da Internet.

14.
Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice ; 22(6):138-147, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955520

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to collect the latest data on changes in the teaching of art disciplines under the influence of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to trace how this revolution affects the emergence of innovations in teaching. The ultimate goal is to find an approach that will help future teachers solve problems related to the technologization of education and new requirements of the labor market. A promising way to solve this problem is to implement the principles of STEAM education in the training of future specialists. This will bridge the gap between technical and creative disciplines, theory and practice, and make it possible to integrate individual knowledge into creative innovative projects. © 2022, North American Business Press. All rights reserved.

15.
i-Manager's Journal of Educational Technology ; 18(4):30-44, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1955422

ABSTRACT

Across the globe, the educational system from school level to higher education has been collapsed due to the novel Covid-19, which has raised significant challenges to the educators. In this context, a qualitative research analysis was conducted using Online focus group qualitative design, Online survey questionnaire and Online interviews to study the perspectives of the online teaching learning process in this pandemic period. Overall 65 educators and 35 parents participated in this research. Thematic inductive coding method was used to analyze the data and the most frequent themes are coded and categorized using bucketing method. Interpretation of data was done by calculating the frequency and percentage of the themes of the buckets. Data source triangulation approach was used to ensure the accuracy and truthfulness of the research findings. The finding reveals that online teaching is a flexible mode of teaching, but individual attention is reduced and the educators are not happy with the online examination. Engaging learners is an interesting part where teachers need more training and faculty development programs to prepare effective e-content and engaging materials.

16.
45th Jubilee International Convention on Information, Communication and Electronic Technology, MIPRO 2022 ; : 767-771, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1955338

ABSTRACT

The previous years have brought a major disruption with the COVID-19 outbreak, and universities around the world had to quickly adapt to the new format of teaching and learning. Different fields faced various obstacles in trying to provide the best possible classroom-like experience to students during the lockdown. For engineering study programs, especially in the courses where the laboratory is very important, it was a difficult task to replicate the syllabus in the online domain. This paper presents experiences from online teaching of the Digital System Design course at the University of Novi Sad. Traditional and online variants of the course are presented and compared, with the focus on laboratory exercises which were the most difficult to adapt. In addition, student experiences are summarized and compared to experiences in the previous years when the course was held traditionally. © 2022 Croatian Society MIPRO.

17.
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences ; 14:S87-S93, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954387

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The rationale of this study was to compare the efficiency of online learning and the differences in outcome between the two universities in India and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a validated questionnaire among dental students of a dental college in India and a dental college in the UAE. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22, and comparison was done using the Chi-square test, ANOVA, correlation, and regression analysis. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A total of 491 students responded to the questionnaire, of which 314 were from India and 177 from UAE. The awareness of online learning among students had increased after COVID-19, and Zoom was the most common platform (30.9%). The satisfaction ratio was 78.4%, and smartphones were commonly used by students. Based on the satisfaction of online learning, study participants from UAE had a higher mean attitude score (2.72 ± 0.98) as compared to Indian students (2.47 ± 0.77) (P < 0.027*). Conclusion: The study results show that online learning was comparable to traditional method of learning. Although poor network connectivity was a deterrent for online learning among students from India and UAE, future teaching methods could inculcate online teaching methods and hence encourage blended learning as part of the teaching curriculum. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
2022 ACM Designing Interactive Systems Conference: Digital Wellbeing, DIS 2022 ; : 217-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950310

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused an abrupt switch from face-to-face to online teaching. This led to unknown challenges and consequences for students and lecturers. In the first semester after its outbreak, we developed a messenger-based chatbot to perform an experience sampling study to evaluate students' well-being and experiences (n = 31) with the radical changes in higher education. Finding a decrease in students' perceived motivation but an increase in productivity, we conducted a follow-up survey to compare the development a year later (n = 41). Our results revealed two main student profiles, one feeling severely impacted by the persisting social distance in their study performance and the other appreciating the flexibility and expended free time due to the changes in the teaching formats. Based on our findings, we introduce implications for the overall design of higher education and show the benefits and challenges of combining chatbot-enabled experience sampling with traditional surveys. © 2022 ACM.

19.
Journal of Further and Higher Education ; 46(6):766-779, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947783

ABSTRACT

Exploring online teaching competencies is paramount in the pandemic setting. This study explores and compares the perceived importance of teachers’ online teaching competence and ability in two higher education (HE) institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The study employs the validated Faculty Readiness to Teach Online (FRTO) instrument which assesses four online teaching competencies: CourseDesign, Course Communication, Time Management, and Technical Competence, to gather data. The findings from 156 respondents revealed that Course Design was rated highest for online teaching competence and ability, followed by Course Communication, Time Management, and Technical Competence. A multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, was conducted to examine whether demographic variables made a difference in teachers’ perceived importance and ability. All demographic variables did not influence the perceived importance of online teaching competence and ability. Further analysis from the t-test revealed no significant variation between the perceived importance of online teaching competence and ability. The findings highlight opportunities for strategic orientation to change during crisis. Further qualitative and longitudinal research among more HE institutions is needed to uncover whether such perceptions were articulated into online teaching practices. Implications for pedagogy and policy are discussed.

20.
ZDM ; 54(2): 359-372, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942941

ABSTRACT

In the research reported in this paper we investigated teachers' changes when adopting and adapting to emergency online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the perspective of the Interconnected Model of Professional Growth (IMPG). By adapting complementary accounts methodology to research into teachers' changes when addressing the unexpected migration to online teaching, an integrated data set, including online teaching videos, teacher daily reflections, and teacher interviews from two purposefully selected teachers over two weeks of online teaching, was collected and analyzed qualitatively. Both teachers encountered different difficulties and thus had different knowledge changes displayed in different change routes. For the experienced teacher, students' mistakes in homework and her online teaching practice triggered her knowledge changes. For the young teacher, the online video lessons, relevant resources on the Internet and students' performance were her primary sources that triggered the changes of her knowledge for teaching. These differences between the experienced teacher and young teacher provide evidence of the complexity of teacher's professional growth, which is related to a variety of external and internal factors. This study demonstrates how the IMPG model helps uncover teachers' changes in such an unprecedented virtual-teaching environment. Finally, the implications of this study for teacher professional development in general are discussed. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11858-022-01378-y.

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