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1.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(11):1389-1392, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2201092

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in November 2022.

2.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 21(6):786-788, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2156444

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of human rhinovirus outbreak in a college in Guangzhou, and provide a better evidence for the prevention and control of human rhinovirus outbreaks. Method: Epidemiological investigation was carded out for the influenza-like illness outbreak epidemic in the a college in Guangzhou city on 3rd November, 2020, and the progress of the cases were followed up, and samples were tested for SAILS-COV-2, influenza virus, and respiratory poly-pathogens.

3.
NCHS Data Briefs ; 402(8), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2040482

ABSTRACT

This article describes emergency department (ED) visit rates for patients with influenza and pneumonia (either influenza or pneumonia, or both) by selected patient characteristics. Results showed that the emergency department (ED) visit rate per 1,000 persons was 7.9 for patients with pneumonia, 4.4 for patients with influenza, and 12.2 for patients with either or both. The ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was higher among younger children than older children and increased with age among adults, and ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was highest among non-Hispanic black persons compared with persons from other race and ethnicity groups. The ED visit rate for patients with influenza and pneumonia was also higher for persons with Medicare (19.9 per 1,000 persons with Medicare) or Medicaid (26.2 per 1,000 persons with Medicaid) compared with persons with private insurance or uninsured persons. With the recent spread of COVID-19, which has signs and symptoms that can mirror or appear similar to those resulting from influenza and pneumonia, monitoring ED visits for influenza and pneumonia will continue to be important.

4.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S69-S69, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035714

ABSTRACT

Study Objective: Seasonal influenza is associated with significant healthcare resource utilization. An estimated 490,000 hospitalizations and 34,000 deaths were attributed to influenza during the 2018 - 2019 season. Despite robust influenza vaccination programs in both the inpatient and outpatient setting, the emergency department (ED) represents a missed opportunity to vaccinate patients at high risk for influenza who do not have access to routine preventive care. Feasibility and implementation of ED-based influenza vaccination programs have been previously described but have stopped short of describing the predicted health resource impact. The goal of our study was to describe the potential impact of an influenza vaccination program in an urban adult emergency department population using historic patient data.

5.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(2):157-165, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034280

ABSTRACT

Environmental factors and infectious diseases are closely related, mathematical models seek to explain these interactions, however, the same analytical practices are often observed with infectious diseases despite substantial differences from non-infectious diseases that can result in analytical challenges.

6.
Slovensky Veterinarsky Casopis ; 45(2):72-74, 2020.
Article in Slovak | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034129

ABSTRACT

This article describes the differences between the influenza pandemic and the Covid-19 pandemic and the immunological and virus-host cell characteristics of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033645

ABSTRACT

This study presents the current epidemiological scenario for influenza in EU and EEA countries. Results showed that no human cases of avian influenza were reported in the EU and EEA for 2020. Sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H5N6), A(H5N8) and A(H9N2) infection were reported. In 2020, outbreaks and detections of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, mainly A(H5) of clade 2.3.4.4, continued to affect poultry, wild and captured birds worldwide. Influenza virus A(H1N1)v, A(H1N2)v and A(H3N2)v of swine origin caused sporadic human cases in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, the Netherlands, and the USA. Slightly more human cases were identified, possibly due to greater awareness, combined with more targeted testing in those with respiratory symptoms during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, for the EU and EEA, influenza activity remained at, or below, inter-seasonal levels throughout the 2020 to 2021 season, possibly due to the impact of the various public health and social measures implemented to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Chinese Journal of Zoonoses ; 38(7):577-581, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2024428

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to develop a rapid diagnostic method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid based on recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RPA-LFD), to provide technical support for the prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 epidemics in basic hospitals and remote areas. According to the conserved nucleotide sequence of the N gene of SARS-CoV-2, the best recombinase polymerase amplification primers and lateral flow strip probes were designed, analyzed and screened in bioinformatics software. The reaction conditions for recombinase polymerase amplification were optimized, and the sensitivity and specificity of the established method were examined. The RPA-LFD assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 performed best at 37 degrees C at 15 min. The lowest quantity of SARS-CoV-2 detected in a reaction was 100 fg. No cross-reaction with influenza virus, para-influenza virus, rhinovirus and adenovirus in the RPA-LFD assay was found. Thus, an easily performed, rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with high sensitivity and specificity was established. In conclusion, our preliminary rapid diagnostic method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 with good sensitivity and specificity through RPA-LFD is worthy of further clinical application.

9.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021498

ABSTRACT

Early and accurate diagnosis of respiratory pathogens and associated outbreaks can allow for the control of spread, epidemiological modeling, targeted treatment, and decision making-as is evident with the current COVID-19 pandemic. Many respiratory infections share common symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose using only syndromic presentation. Yet, with delays in getting reference laboratory tests and limited availability and poor sensitivity of point-of-care tests, syndromic diagnosis is the most-relied upon method in clinical practice today. Here, we examine the variability in diagnostic identification of respiratory infections during the annual infection cycle in northern New Mexico, by comparing syndromic diagnostics with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing-based methods, with the goal of assessing gaps in our current ability to identify respiratory pathogens. Of 97 individuals that presented with symptoms of respiratory infection, only 23 were positive for at least one RNA virus, as confirmed by sequencing. Whereas influenza virus (n = 7) was expected during this infection cycle, we also observed coronavirus (n = 7), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 8), parainfluenza virus (n = 4), and human metapneumovirus (n = 1) in individuals with respiratory infection symptoms. Four patients were coinfected with two viruses. In 21 individuals that tested positive using PCR, RNA sequencing completely matched in only 12 (57%) of these individuals. Few individuals (37.1%) were diagnosed to have an upper respiratory tract infection or viral syndrome by syndromic diagnostics, and the type of virus could only be distinguished in one patient. Thus, current syndromic diagnostic approaches fail to accurately identify respiratory pathogens associated with infection and are not suited to capture emerging threats in an accurate fashion. We conclude there is a critical and urgent need for layered agnostic diagnostics to track known and unknown pathogens at the point of care to control future outbreaks.

10.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(7), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2021475

ABSTRACT

This study uses two existing data sources to examine how patients' symptoms can be used to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory diseases. One dataset consisted of 839,288 laboratory-confirmed, symptomatic, COVID-19 positive cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from March 1, 2019, to September 30, 2020. The second dataset provided the controls and included 1,814 laboratory-confirmed influenza positive, symptomatic cases, and 812 cases with symptomatic influenza-like-illnesses. The controls were reported to the Influenza Research Database of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2018. Data were analyzed using case-control study design. The comparisons were done using 45 scenarios, with each scenario making different assumptions regarding prevalence of COVID-19 (2%, 4%, and 6%), influenza (0.01%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%) and influenza-like-illnesses (1%, 3.5% and 7%). For each scenario, a logistic regression model was used to predict COVID-19 from 2 demographic variables (age, gender) and 10 symptoms (cough, fever, chills, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath, runny nose, sore throat, myalgia, and headache). The 5-fold cross-validated Area under the Receiver Operating Curves (AROC) was used to report the accuracy of these regression models. The value of various symptoms in differentiating COVID-19 from influenza depended on a variety of factors, including (1) prevalence of pathogens that cause COVID-19, influenza, and influenza-like-illness;(2) age of the patient, and (3) presence of other symptoms. The model that relied on 5-way combination of symptoms and demographic variables, age and gender, had a cross-validated AROC of 90%, suggesting that it could accurately differentiate influenza from COVID-19. This model, however, is too complex to be used in clinical practice without relying on computer-based decision aid. Study results encourage development of web-based, stand-alone, artificial Intelligence model that can interview patients and help clinicians make quarantine and triage decisions.

11.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

12.
Infectious Diseases Now ; 51(8 Suppl), 2021.
Article in French | GIM | ID: covidwho-2010651

ABSTRACT

This proceedings contains s on the proper use of antibiotics, multidrug-resistant infections and new molecules;influenza and COVID-19;osteoarticular infections;and pneumocystis and CMV in the immunocompromised (excluding HIV).

13.
Inserto BEN Bollettino Epidemiologico Nazionale ; 3(2):1-9, 2022.
Article in Italian | GIM | ID: covidwho-2002913

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Istituto Superiore di Sanita and the Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco coordinate the project TheShinISS-Vax, Flu, a post-marketing "active" surveillance of influenza vaccines. We report the results of the investigation using the Self- Controlled Case Series (SCCS) design on influenza vaccine and Guillain-Barre syndrome in vaccinated population aged over than 6 months, during the influenza vaccine campaign 2020-2021 in Italy. Materials and methods: A SCCS multi-regional study was carried out using linked data from Regional Health Care Registries of Valle d'Aosta, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana, Lazio, Campania, and Puglia. Relative incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome was estimated, comparing the exposure risk periods (0-41 days from the vaccination day, subdivided in six intervals) with the unexposed period.

14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(12):1109-1112, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975565

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the effects of respiratory control measures before and after COVID-19 epidemic on influenza virus.

15.
Journal of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine ; 74(1 Suppl):89-96, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975125

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Influenza (flu) causes seasonal epidemics and has led to numerous pandemics worldwide. Its rapid diagnosis and treatment are critical. This study evaluated the correlation between rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) results and clinical reflection. Materials and Methods: A total of 795 patients who were performed the RIDT during the 2018-2019 influenza season were included. According to the test results, the patients were then divided into two groups. The Flu+ group was composed of patients with positive diagnostic test results, while the Flu- group was those with negative test results.

16.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):109-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964619

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gather information on the research status and the hot spots of zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms worldwide, and to provide references for the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in China. Method: COOC 12.6 and Citespace 5.8 R1 software were used to carry out frequency statistics, co-occurrence analysis, cluster analysis, timeline analysis and burst analysis on the keywords associated with zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms in PubMed database. Result: According to the keywords frequency statistics and co-occurrence analysis results from the year of 2001 to 2021 in pubMed database, the zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms arousing high international attentions were classified into the following three categories: the first category was commonly observed zoonotic microorganisms such as Brucella, hepatitis E virus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella, to which continuous public attentions were still needed to be paid;the second category was the zoonotic microorganisms worldwide concerned in recent years such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus, which were worthy of more in-depth research to control the spread of these diseases as soon as possible;the third category was the zoonosis that had massively prevailed in specific regions abroad such as Q fever and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and these diseases were expected to be noticed in terms of imported risks to avoid their outbreaks in China. In addition to the above mentioned zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms, some keywords associated with detection and diagnosis such as phylogeny and PCR were also of high interests. The cluster analysis generated a total of 10 clusters, in which the tick-borne infectious disease cluster suggested the role of ticks in the transmission of zoonotic diseases;the results of timeline and burst analysis demonstrated that among the zoonotic microorganisms, the attentions being paid to influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 were gradually increasing. At the same time, the detection technology of zoonotic microorganisms was evolving from specific sequence detection to whole genome sequencing. These fields were likely to be the research direction and trend in the future.

17.
Annals of Epidemiology ; 67:102-131, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1957708

ABSTRACT

This conference proceeding contain 39 articles that discuss epidemiology in the US. Topics include the Millenium Cohort Study, The CRONICAS Cohort Study, religious beliefs, coping mechanisms and type 2 diabetes, spatio-temporal modelling of COVID-19, cigarette smoking and spinal pain, self-perceived health status and obesity, oral cancer and smoking, renal impairment and diabetes, depression and BMI, affordable housing and COVID-19, opioid misuse among youth, emotions and cancer prevention, influenza vaccination among adults, blood lead levels and private wells, and air pollution and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

18.
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association ; 93(31-37):31-37, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1935013

ABSTRACT

The informal poultry and pig sector in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa is of significant socio-economic importance as it sustains livelihoods and ensures food security;yet little is known about the distribution and prevalence of infectious and zoonotic diseases in this region. This paper reviews data published for pig and poultry diseases in the province during the last 20 years (2000-2020). The review included relevant published papers identified by a computerised literature search from Web of Science;provincial animal health reports;the national database from the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD);animal health reports submitted by DALRRD to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) via the World Animal Health Information Database (WAHID) interface and laboratory records. A publication was considered eligible if it included qualitative or quantitative information on any disease affecting pigs and poultry including zoonosis. The search retrieved 174 publications, of which 26 were relevant. The review found that Newcastle disease (ND), coccidiosis and fowl pox (FP) were the most reported avian diseases in the national database, whereas avian infectious bronchitis (AIB), ND and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were the most reported diseases in the OIE database. Classical swine fever (CSF) was the most reported pig disease in both databases. The retrieved literature on pig and poultry diseases was scarce and no longer up to date, providing decision makers with little information. The review identified important zoonotic diseases that require further studies yet failed to find information on important neglected diseases like leptospirosis.

19.
HPS Weekly Report ; 55:44, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1929154

ABSTRACT

Public Health Scotland (PHS) implemented the next phase of surveillance for community acute respiratory infection in Scotland on 1 November 2021. A sentinel approach involving community assessment centres and GP practices is being used to test a representative sample of people with symptoms of respiratory infection for influenza, SARS CoV-2, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and other clinically important respiratory infections such as rhinovirus and parainfluenza.

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927906

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The rapid emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant that evades many monoclonal antibody therapies illustrates the need for anti-viral treatments with low susceptibility to evolutionary escape. The small molecule PAV-104, identified through a moderate-throughput screen involving cell-free protein synthesis, was recently shown to target a subset of host protein assembly machinery in a manner specific to viral assembly. This compound has minimal host toxicity, including once daily oral dosing in rats that achieves >200-fold of the 90% effective concentration (EC90) in blood. The chemotype shows broad activity against respiratory viral pathogens, including Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Adenoviridae, Herpesviridae, and Picornaviridae, with low suceptability to evolutionary escape. We hypothesized that PAV-104 would be active against SARSCoV- 2 variants in human airway epithelial cells. Methods: Airway epithelial cells were differentiated from lung transplant tissue at air-liquid interface (ALI) for four weeks prior to challenge with Alpha (Pango lineage designation B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), and Delta (B.1.617.2) SARS-CoV-2 variants. Viral replication was determined by quantitative PCR measurement of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) gene. Dose-dependent virus inhibition and cytotoxicity of PAV-104 in the Calu-3 airway epithelial cell line was determined by PCR and MTT assay. Student's t-tests were used to evaluate statistical significance. Results: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants of SARS-CoV-2 showed comparable infectivity in human primary airway epithelial cells at ALI (N=3 donors), 47- to 550-fold higher than the parent (USA-WA1/2020) strain. PAV-104 reached 50% cytotoxicity in Calu-3 cells at 240 nM (Fig. 1A). Dose-response studies in Calu-3 cells demonstrated PAV-104 has a 6 nM 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for blocking replication of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020) (Fig.1B). In primary cells at ALI from 3 donors tested, there was >99% inhibition of infection by SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant (N=3, MOI 0.1, P <0.01) with 100 nM PAV-104 (Fig. 1C). Addition of 100 nM PAV-104 2-hours post-infection, but not pre-infection, resulted in >99% suppression of viral replication, indicating a post-entry drug mechanism. PAV-104 bound a small subset of the known allosteric modulator 14-3-3, itself implicated in the interactome of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: PAV-104 is a host-targeted, orally bioavailable, pan-viral small molecule inhibitor with promising activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants in human primary airway epithelial cells. (Figure Presented).

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