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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163324

ABSTRACT

When a viral outbreak occurs, governments are obligated to protect their citizens from the diverse adverse effects of the disease. Health policymakers often have several interventions to consider based on the health of the population, as well as the cascading social and economic consequences of the possible mitigation strategies. The current outbreak of the monkeypox virus has elicited debate on the best mitigation strategy, especially given that most world economies are still recovering from the harsh economic effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper sought to analyze the costs and benefits of three possible strategies and determine which option has the best health outcomes and positive economic effects. A case study of Jeddah was performed, whereby a model was simulated to determine the number of infections over 28 days based on one case of the monkeypox virus. Findings reveal that the vaccination provides the best intervention, as it effectively reduces the transmission rate and prevents loss of lives in the city. From the model, only three people were infected over the research period, while no deaths were reported. Although vaccination incurs a huge direct cost at the beginning, in the long run, it saves the economy from the disease's financial burden in terms of productivity loss from work absenteeism and premature deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox virus , Humans , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
2.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2159748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the increasing evidence supporting the importance of airborne transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infection, it has not been considered relevant in the vast majority of reported nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to describe a nosocomial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection whose features suggest that aerosol transmission had an important role. METHODS: This is a descriptive analysis of a nosocomial outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in an internal medicine ward that occurred in December 2020. All cases were confirmed by a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: From December 5 to December 17, 21 patients and 44 healthcare workers (HCWs) developed a nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Fifty-one of the 65 cases (78.5%) were diagnosed between December 6 and 9. The attack rate in patients was 80.8%. Among HCWs, the attack rate was higher in those who had worked at least one full working day in the ward (56.3%) than in those who had occasionally been in the ward (25.8%; p = 0.005). Three days before the first positive case was detected, two extractor fans were found to be defective, affecting the ventilation of three rooms. Sixteen cases were asymptomatic, 48 cases had non-severe symptoms, and 2 cases required admission to the intensive care unit. All patients eventually recovered. CONCLUSION: The high attack rate, the explosive nature of the outbreak, and the coincidence in time with the breakdown in air extractors in some rooms of the ward suggest that airborne transmission played a key role in the development of the outbreak.

4.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(16):3502-3508, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164840

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the level of depression among group D workers during COVID-19 outbreak from selected hospitals. 2) To find out the association between the level of depression among Group D workers during COVID-19 outbreak with selected demographic variables. Methodology: The study was undertaken using a non-experimental descriptive research design. It was conducted over 100 Group D workers by using non probability convenient sampling technique. Result(s): Assessment was done by using Rating Scale to assess Level of Depression. Analysis showed that 11% of group D workers had no depression, 39% of them had mild depression, 43% of them had moderate depression and 7% of group D workers had severe depression. Mean depression score was 41.78+/-11.88 and mean percentage of depression score was 55.70+/-15.84. The item wise distribution was of each item and divides into never, sometimes, always. Conclusion(s): Analysis reveals that in overall association there is association of level of depression with age, family income, working hours and job title among group D workers and none of the other demographic variables were associated with the level of depression score. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

5.
China CDC Weekly ; 4(50):1131-1135, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-2164741

ABSTRACT

< -type="Summary"> <sec> What is already known about this topic? After the initial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, the outbreaks during the dynamic-zero policy period in the mainland of China have not been systematically documented.</sec><sec> What is added by this report? We summarized the characteristics of 74 imported COVID-19 outbreaks between March 19, 2020 and December 31, 2021. All outbreaks of early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants were successfully contained with the aid of nucleic acid testing, modern communication technologies, and non-pharmacological interventions.</sec><sec> What are the implications for public health practice? These findings provide us with confidence for the containment of future emerging infectious diseases alike at early stages to prevent pandemics or to win time to gain experience, develop vaccines and drugs, vaccinate people, and wait for the possible lessening of the virus' pathogenicity. </sec>

6.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(6):778-791, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2164402

ABSTRACT

The ongoing 2022 multicountry monkeypox epidemic has drawn worldwide attention. Human monkeypox is a virus that spreads from animals to humans. It is an endemic disease in the rain forests of Central and West Africa. However, the disease recently emerged in India, and also in United States through imported wild rodents from Africa, even though the world is still struggling to escape from the clutches of the COVID-19 pandemic. Monkeypox is one of the contagious zoonotic diseases caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), transmitted to humans by direct contact with an infected person or animal or contact with virus-contaminated material. Its lesions are similar to smallpox in humans with various medical complications including flu-like symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and a characteristic rash. Public health experts around the world are very concerned about the rapid spread of the infection, which has intensified efforts to find the source and cause of this phenomenon. Several viral infections with epidemic potential threaten global health security. Early recognition of cases and timely intervention of potential transmission chains are necessary to contain further outbreaks. At this early stage of monkeypox outbreaks, the current review provides updated information on the current worldwide monkeypox outbreak status, disease aetiology, clinical presentation, therapy, and preventive measures worldwide. Our review will also provide useful information to health professionals and the general public. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

7.
Pamukkale Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi-Pamukkale University Journal of Education ; - (56):175-195, 2022.
Article in Turkish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2164225

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic compelled countries globally to a complete lockdown. This unusual disruption to routine lifestyle has created a sense of anxiety and fear across the globe. Examinations, entrance tests, admissions to schools and colleges were postponed, and they switched to the online mode of instruction. This prevailing uncertainty led to the deteriorated mental health of Grade 12th students. Understanding their current mental health from their lived experiences can lead to better management, decisions from the authorities, and mental health care. The present study aimed to analyze the mental health of 12th-grade students' from their lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed a mixed-method research design. The quantitative part involved the administration of a questionnaire to 300 students pursuing their 12th grade in Bangalore city. The qualitative part involved a semi-structured interview of eight students and analyzed interview data using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The study revealed a high degree of mental stress experienced by the participants. Girls' had higher mental stress than boys did. The study described the participant's lived experiences amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in main themes and sub-themes. The main themes found are factors affecting mental health, positive lived experiences, and mechanisms to cope with the crisis.

8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13):181-190, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162920

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for resilient health systems with the capacity to effectively detect and respond to disease outbreaks and ensure continuity of health service delivery. The pandemic has disproportionately affected resource-limited settings with inadequate health capacity, resulting in disruptions in health service delivery and worsened outcomes for key health indicators. As part of the US government's goal of ensuring health security, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has used its scientific and technical expertise to build health capacity and address health threats globally. We describe how capacity developed through global health programs of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Cameroon was leveraged to respond to coronavirus disease and maintain health service delivery. The health system strengthening efforts in Cameroon can be applied in similar settings to ensure preparedness for future global public health threats and improve health outcomes.

9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(13):159-167, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162883

ABSTRACT

Kenya's Ministry of Health (MOH) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Kenya (CDC Kenya) have maintained a 40-year partnership during which measures were implemented to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the MOH and CDC Kenya rapidly responded to mitigate disease impact on Kenya's 52 million residents. We describe activities undertaken jointly by the MOH and CDC Kenya that lessened the effects of COVID-19 during 5 epidemic waves from March through December 2021. Activities included establishing national and county-level emergency operations centers and implementing workforce development and deployment, infection prevention and control training, laboratory diagnostic advancement, enhanced surveillance, and information management. The COVID-19 pandemic provided fresh impetus for the government of Kenya to establish a national public health institute, launched in January 2022, to consolidate its public health activities and counter COVID-19 and future infectious, vaccine-preventable, and emerging zoonotic diseases.

10.
14th IEEE International Conference of Logistics and Supply Chain Management, LOGISTIQUA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2161468

ABSTRACT

Supply chains SC increasing complexity has made it more and more vulnerable to an array of disruptions and disturbances especially in an unstable and volatile environment. Transportation and distribution functions being an integral part of the supply chain and the last phase to touch the costumers, can be impacted high negatively by some risks. That's has been exposed by the arrival of the coronavirus pandemic which crippled the whole SC both globally and locally. This paper presents a case study based on a survey that addresses supply chains risks which are generated in both transportation and distribution systems of 50 Moroccan companies and the ones which are implemented in the Moroccan territory in the Covid-19 era. The study reveals some measures and strategies that companies have and can implement to withstand and cope with the risks caused by the health crisis disruptions such as the rising importance of integration, digitalization and the need to revisit the meaning of efficiency in transportation and distribution management. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Spatial Information Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2158247

ABSTRACT

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic is a top-level public health concern. This paper is an attempt to identify and COVID-19 pandemic in Iran using spatial analysis approaches. This study was based on secondary data of confirmed cases, deaths, recoveries, number of hospitals, hospital beds and population from March 2, 2019 to the end of November 2021 in 31 provinces of Iran from hospitals and the website of the National Institute of Health. In this paper, three geographical models in ArcGIS10.3 were utilized to analyze and evaluate COVID-19, including Geographic Weight Regression (GWR), Getis-OrdGi* (G-i-star) statistics (hot and cold spot), and Moran autocorrelation spatial analysis. Moran statistics, based on the GWR model, demonstrated that deaths and recoveries followed a clustering pattern for the confirmed cases index during the study period. The Moran Z-score for all three indicators confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries, which was greater than 2.5 (95% confidence level). The Getis-OrdGi* (G-I-Star) (hot and cold spot) data revealed a wide range of levels for six variables (confirmed cases, deaths, recoveries, population, hospital beds, and hospital) across Iran's provinces. The overall number of deaths exceeded the population and the number of hospitals in the central and southern regions, including the provinces of Qom, Alborz, Tehran, Markazi, Isfahan, Razavi Khorasan, East Azerbaijan, Fars, and Yazd, which had the largest number and The Z-score for the deaths Index is greater than 14.314. The results of this research can pave the way for future studies.

12.
Nursing Practice Today ; 8(4):257-264, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156823

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: Hand dermatitis is one of the occupational skin diseases among nurses. Due to the prevalence of COVID-19, nurses' exposure to disinfectant solutions has increased, which can increase the incidence of dermatitis among them. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hand dermatitis among nurses in COVID and non-COVID wards and its related factors during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Iran. Methods & Materials: This descriptive-correlational study was performed by available sampling on 287 nurses. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire on hand dermatitis. Data were analysed using SPSS software version 22. Results: The prevalence of hand dermatitis among COVID wards nurses was 65.7% and among non-COVID wards nurses was 36.2%. However, the logistic regression showed that Female gender (P= 0.001, odds ratio=3.19, CI=1.57-6.46), marital status (single) (P= 0.011, odds ratio=2.64, CI=1.25-5.57), age 31-40 (P=0.003, odds ratio=0.16, CI=0.06-0.55), COVID wards (P= 0.000, odds ratio=4.99, CI=2.36-10.59), Allergy history (P= 0.000, odds ratio=13.07, CI=6.12-27.95) increase the prevalence of hand dermatitis among nurses. Conclusion: Hand dermatitis is a serious problem among corona ward nurses. Therefore, timely identification and treatment of this injury can be very helpful. Nurses should receive adequate training and care for hand dermatitis.

13.
International Journal of Mental Health Promotion ; 24(5):619-634, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156172

ABSTRACT

A recent rapid review highlighted the negative psychological impacts of quarantining during coronavirus outbreaks on the public. However, to date, there has been no review of the psychological impacts of coronavirus on adults using research from community samples and not restricted to people quarantined during coronavirus. A rapid review was conducted to provide timely evidence about the mental health implications of coronavirus outbreaks on adults and to inform psychological research concerning the current COVID-19 outbreak. Three databases and Google Scholar were searched and a total of 27 studies were identified. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were identified during coronavirus outbreaks alongside concerns about becoming infected and family becoming infected. Those with pre-existing mental health conditions, young adults, women and those reporting physical symptoms appear to be vulnerable to negative psychological outcomes during coronavirus outbreaks. How people think about and understand coronavirus, and the coping strategies employed by people, may play a role in mitigating negative psychological outcomes. Results demonstrate the adverse psychological impacts of coronavirus outbreaks on adults and the need for continued investment in mental health services for the wider community during these times. Further longitudinal research is required to ascertain the long-term psychological consequences of coronavirus outbreaks. This review can be used to inform continued research on the psychological impacts of COVID-19 on adults.

14.
International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Research ; 12(6):L47-L58, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2156014

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced the public health authorities to impose a lockdown as an epidemiological containment strategy. Due to COVID-19, the world is facing an unprecedented challenge that has changed people's lifestyles. This study aimed to evaluate how the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected students in Tamilnadu in terms of changes to their eating habits, sleeping patterns, and level of physical activity. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a random representative sample of 263 undergraduate students (mean age 19.63+ 1.86 years, males 33.46%) from Tamilnadu voluntarily filling out an online questionnaire. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and The International Physical Activity Questionnaires, Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were used to assess sleep quality, Physical Activity, and Eating Attitude disorder, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality among participants was 43.3% (males: 44.32% and females: 42.86%). The mean score of the participants' EAT-26 score was found to be 10.92 +/- 8.63. Students' high body weight and BMI risk factors for eating disorders (chi(2)=9.68 p=0.02, chi(2)=9.59 p=0.02). 46% of students did not do any physical activity. There is no significant correlation between sleep and Eating attitude scores (p=0.21). 66.16% of participants experienced Psychological stress due to lock down. Findings from this study indicate that a lockdown period due to COVID-19 negatively impacted young undergraduate adults' physical activity levels and sleep quality. Finally, body weight, BMI, monthly family income, and poor physical activity with excess eating during the COVID 19 lockdown were the common exposures that are significantly associated with a higher risk of developing sleep disturbances and eating disorders. Several efficient strategies, programs, and coordinated efforts must be rigorously executed to encourage a seamless transition between school and daily life.

15.
Revista de Medicina y Cine ; 18(3):225-236, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2155843

ABSTRACT

Background: During epidemic disease outbreaks, people’s daily lives are restricted by quarantine and social distancing measures that can affect not only their physical and mental health but also other aspects of their lives, including education. The quality of medical education has suffered amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, with on-site classes and conferences canceled or postponed. To address the resultant gaps in learning and supplement the rigors of formal medical teaching, recent research has suggested the use of nonfictional films. However, research on the educational and therapeutic value of fictional films is currently lacking. Methods: This study explored fiction films featuring medical practices, diseases, and treatments. The researcher conducted multiple searches using the largest internet movie databases (Internet Movie Database (IMDb), the American Film Institute Catalog, and the British Film Institute’s Collections Search) and literature research focusing on studies related to the value of films as visual learning and educational tools and their therapeutic effects on viewers in times of pandemics. Results: The researcher chose a representative selection of 20 films from over 100 years of cinematic history to educate and intellectually challenge practitioners under lockdown and use as a therapeutic tool. This study identified many ways films could be a potent instrument for medical education and a wide range of educational and therapeutic possibilities for use during public health crises. Medical fiction offers a highly entertaining and effective way to expand and improve medical knowledge and practices while respecting pandemic restrictions. The findings expand our knowledge on the value of medical fiction as an educational and therapeutic tool. Conclusions: Fictional films can be an advantageous, effective, and entertaining medium for educating physicians and improving their medical skills and practices. When public health crises or other concerns necessitate «work from home» and socially distanced conditions, movies can augment and enhance high-level medical learning and offer new perspectives that might be obscured in times of trauma, making them especially valuable for those struggling with the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 The authors.

16.
Cureus ; 14(10):e30920, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2155761

ABSTRACT

The first incidence of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) was reported in a Danish research facility. Even though first discovered in monkeys, rodents account for the largest reservoir of the disease. It is an encapsulated, brick-shaped double-stranded DNA virus strongly related to the smallpox virus. The risk of acquiring MPXV has been found to be inversely related to smallpox vaccination. Although the cases were initially restricted to African countries, they were first reported outside Africa in the early 2000s. MPXV is transmitted through close personal contact, most commonly through direct skin-skin contact. The fatality rates associated with the MPXV tend to vary in different regions, with Congo clad basin having the highest mortality rate. The majority of the cases of MPXV have been reported in men who have sex with men. Although optimal infection control and treatment strategies are under investigation, the current management focus is on immunization and the isolation of patients. Effective control strategies are based on implementing a method of contact tracing, quarantining exposed and infected individuals, and using vaccines. There is no proven cure for MPXV, and most infected patients recover without medical intervention. Extensive studies are being conducted to determine the efficacy of antivirals in managing MPXV, with tecovirimat being the first antiviral medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to manage MPXV. The smallpox vaccine has traditionally been thought of as the most effective method of controlling the infection, possibly due to the similarities between the two viruses. However, numerous obstacles prevent the effective control of MPXV, including social isolation and stigma, poor understanding of the disease dynamics, lack of adequate patient education, and public health strategies.

17.
Archives of Health Science and Research ; 9(3):144-148, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2155638

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic is ramification of coronavirus SARS-CoV2. This outbreak has greatly affected every domain of individuals’ lives. It has spread over 214 countries and over 392 million positive cases were reported till February 6, 2022. Due to the latest breakthroughs in the sphere of digital divide, Big Data can aid in dealing with the enormous data of COVID-19 derived from state health surveillance, health monitoring, and daily briefing of government bodies. “Big data” is huge amounts of facts that work wonderfully. It has become a subject of particular interest for the last 2 decades due to its unseen significant potential in it. The purpose of the current review is to overview the potential applications of Big Data. Furthermore, issues and challenges associated with the solutions to the pandemic situations were highlighted and last, recommendations were provided for effective control of the pandemic situation. This review is an effort to provide a fresh insight into the way of big data in terms to stop the pandemic outbreak. © 2022 AVES. All Rights Reserved.

18.
Journal of Education and Health Promotion ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2155537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the underlying medical conditions that put children at increased risk for coronavirus. This study aimed to predict preventive behaviors of COVID-19 among children with CHD based on the protection motivation theory (PMT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2021 to April 2021, on 240 children 3-7 years with CHD whose data had been registered in Persian Registry of Cardiovascular Disease/CHD (PROVE/CHD) System in Isfahan, Iran. The research variables were measured using an online researcher-made questionnaire that was based on PMT constructs. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests (e.g., Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis). RESULTS: From a total of 240 participants (mean age of 4.81 +/- 1.50) in the present study, 122 (50.8%) were girls. The most common types of CHD among children participating in this study were related to atrial septal defect (ASD) (29.2%, n = 70) and ventricular septal defect (VSD) (26.7%, n = 64), respectively. Protective behaviors showed a significant correlation with all constructs of PMT. The PMT constructs explained 41.0% of the variances in protective behavior, in which the perceived reward (beta = 0.325) and perceived self-efficacy (beta = 0.192) was the most important, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed well the effectiveness of PMT on the preventive behaviors of COVID-19 in children with CHD. This theory can be used to teach preventive behaviors of COVID-19 to children with CHD in education programs.

19.
European Psychiatry ; 65(Supplement 1):S504, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2154007

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID19 outbreak was declared a public health emergency by The Word Health Organisation (WHO) on January 2020. By spring 2020, more than half of the world's population had experienced a lockdown with strict pandemic prevention such as physical distancing measures. The COVID-19 pandemic have negatively affected many people's mental health especially the ones who are at risk such as patients with cancer. Objective(s): This study aimed to screen mental health problems among patients with cancer during the fisrt wave of COVID 19. Method(s): To assess the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health of patients with cancer, a Survey was conducted at the department of medical oncology in Nabeul (Tunisia) between March and May 2020. The patients were asked to answer a sociodemographic questionnaire. The COVID-19 infection-related mental Heath problems were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Medical conditions and clinical characteristics were extracted from patients healthcare records. Result(s): The median age was 53 years (range, 34-70) with sex ratio 0.35. The majority of the patients had a social support (85%) and lived in urban areas (60%). Only 19 % of them had college degree. Almost quarter of patients had medical conditions. The most common cancer in our cohort was breast cancer (54%) followed by colorectal cancer (20%). Sixty four per cent of them were on adjuvant chemotherapy. Among the 80 person surveyed, 20% had depression and 39 % anxiety. Conclusion(s): Further investigations are required to screen mental health status for all cancer patients in order to help them coping.

20.
The Computer Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2151958

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has been identified as a key issue for human society, in recent times. The presence of the infection on any human is identified according to different symptoms like cough, fever, headache, breathless and so on. However, most of the symptoms are shared by various other diseases, which makes it challenging for the medical practitioners to identify the infection. To aid the medical practitioners, there are a number of approaches designed which use different features like blood report, lung and cardiac features to detect the disease. The method captures the lung image using magnetic resonance imaging scan device and records the cardiac features. Using the image, the lung features are extracted and from the cardiac graph, the cardiac features are extracted. Similarly, from the blood samples, the features are extracted. By extracting such features from the person, the method estimates different weight measures to predict the disease. Different methods estimate the similarity of the samples in different ways to classify the input sample. However, the image processing techniques are used for different problems in medical domain;the same has been used in the detection of the disease. Also, the presence of Covid-19 is detected using different set of features by various approaches.

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