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1.
JACC: Case Reports ; 6:101706, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149930
2.
MEDICC Rev ; 24(3-4): 57-60, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2146583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Polyserositis is described as inflammation with effusion of more than one serous membrane. There is very little published literature linking it to COVID-19 as a late complication. OBJECTIVE: Present and describe a case of post-COVID-19 polyserositis. METHODS: Data were collected from the medical record of a female patient admitted for fainting spells and marked weakness. The patient underwent a clinical evaluation, additional hematology, imaging and histopathology tests, and a surgical procedure. The new index, called the abdominal adipose deposit index, was obtained by multiplying the subcutaneous fat thickness by visceral fat thickness, both measured by ultrasound. A cutoff point was established that facilitated discernment of an unhealthy phenotype: normal weight but metabolically obese, a cardiometabolic risk factor. RESULTS: We present the case of a 57-year-old female patient admitted to hospital for fainting spells and marked weakness, four months after COVID-19 infection. She also had a history of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes mellitus and a cholecystectomy in December 1992 for gallstones. Clinical assessment revealed pericardial effusion and bilateral pleural effusion, in addition to a tumor-like lesion outside the pericardium, proximal to the right ventricular wall. A surgical procedure and findings from additional tests led to diagnoses of thymic remnants and polyserositis. CONCLUSIONS: This is a case of polyserositis in a post-COVID-19 patient. After other causes of polyserositis were ruled out, and since there is a likely physiological and pathogenic mechanism operating between the two diseases, the polyserositis was determined to be a late complication of COVID-19. To date, it is the second case reported in the world and the first reported in Cuba.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Cuba , Inflammation , Obesity/complications , Chronic Disease , Syncope
3.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 1026349, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109821

ABSTRACT

Background: Pericarditis is rare in Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) infection and only a few cases were reported in children. Case presentation: We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with symptoms of high fever and worsening chest pain during COVID-19 infection. Chest computer tomography (CT) and echocardiography confirmed pericardial tamponade requiring urgent drainage. Despite antiviral drug treatment, after 18 days severe attack developed requiring repeated pericardiocentesis. High dose ibuprofen, colchicin and the interleukin-1 antagonist, anakinra were given. Clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters improved after seven days of treatment. Autoinflammatory diseases were also suspected in the background the severe pericarditis, but genetic analysis ruled out any mutations. Conclusion: Pericarditis associated with COVID-19 infection may present in the acute phase or later as MIS-C. Though pericardial tamponade related to ongoing Covid-19 infection is rare in children, even biological treatment with interleukin-1 antagonist may be needed to control the inflammation.

4.
Pediatricheskaya Farmakologiya ; 19(3):263-268, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067388

ABSTRACT

The steady increase in the number of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus causing COVID-19 all over the world necessitates further study of fundamental features of pandemic spreading and clinical signs of disease, especially in children population. This article presents the experience of managing patients with pericardial effusion that has developed after new coronavirus infection COVID-19. The role of timely diagnosis of pericardial effusion, principles of its diagnostics, management, and follow-up observation on outpatient level within the pandemic are presented.

5.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):686, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063517

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 infection involves entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus into cells via interaction between its spike protein and angiotensin converting enzyme resulting in an NF-kappabeta mediated inflammatory response. A cytokine storm may cause organ dysfunction. Cardiac manifestations without pulmonary symptoms is uncommon but has been described in the literature during an acute infection. We report a rare case of a potential late cardiac complication months after an acute COVID-19 infection. Method(s): A 62-year-old male with hypertension and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis three times a week presented with fever, arthralgia and myalgia. He denied chest pain or respiratory symptoms. Patient tested positive for COVID-19 and received conservative management only. Over the next nine months he reported persistent fatigue and new onset of shortness of breath. He continued to be very compliant with dialysis. On presentation to the hospital, all laboratory investigations, including BUN (27mg/dL) were within normal limits. Chest X- ray revealed cardiomegaly. Echocardiogram showed a large circumferential pericardial effusion without tamponade. Pericardiocentesis was accomplished with removal of 1700 ml of bloody fluid. Cell count, LDH, protein and glucose was normal. Fungal, aerobic, and anaerobic cultures of the pericardial fluid was negative. No malignant cells were detected. Patient had gradual resolution of his symptoms. Serial echocardiograms at 1, 3 and 5 months revealed a persistent small pericardial effusion. Result(s): Cardiac manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 includes myocarditis, pericarditis and pericardial effusions. In case reports, the presence of the cardiac inflammatory state occurred simultaneously with an acute COVID-19 infection. In our case the COVID-19 infection occurred over nine months earlier yet remains a plausible explanation for his hemorrhagic pericardial effusion due to the absence of other identified causes. Further, COVID-19 molecular PCR testing of pericardial testing remains low yield due to its specific development for nasopharyngeal swab sampling. Conclusion(s): Cardiac manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection typically occur at the time of diagnosis. A late cardiac complication of COVID-19 may include pericardial inflammation with effusion. Further data and testing needs to be developed to confirm the diagnosis and guide therapy.

6.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):834-835, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063431

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Little is known about the development of Human Leukocyte Antigen antibodies with the use of the new Impella 5.5 temporary mechanical circulatory assist device. Method(s): The prevalence and strength of HLA Class I and II antibodies were assessed prospectively from 6 patients with the Impella 5.5 and 10 control patients with no device support. Single antigen beads (One Lambda) were used to detect HLA antibodies in serum samples pre- and post-implantation of the device up to the time of heart transplantation. 6-month analysis for de novo HLA antibodies, rejection, rehospitalization and deaths were analyzed. Result(s): Baseline characteristics are shown in table 1A. 3/10 and 2/6 patients had pre-transplant HLA antibodies in the control and Impella groups, respectively. Additionally cross match results are shown in Table 1B. There was no increase in the prevalence of HLA antibodies detected post-transplant. None of the patients were admitted for concern of rejection, nor required outpatient optimization of immunosuppression. In the control group, 3 patients were hospitalized within 6 months post-transplant for non-rejection (COVID infection, pericardial effusion and right ventricular failure). There were no re-admissions within the Impella group. There was one death in the Impella group prior to discharge at index admission for transplant due to CMV viremia and stenotophomonas maltophilia infection post-transplant. There were no deaths in the control group. (Table 1C). Conclusion(s): The use of the new Impella 5.5 MCS assist device does not appear to increase the risk of development of de novo HLA antibodies nor appear to increase the risk of allograft rejection. Larger studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings.

7.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S92-S93, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062132

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in chil-dren (MIS-C) causes widespread systemic inflammation including a pancarditis in the weeks following a COVID infection. Further coronavirus surges appear inevitable and with vaccination rates lower in young people an understanding of the medium-term car-diac impacts of this condition is important for planning further treatment and understanding the impacts on their health. Method(s): A retrospective single-center study of 67 consecutive patients with MIS-C was performed. Three time points were determined as the point of worst cardiac dysfunction during the acute admission, then at intervals of 6-8 weeks and 6-8 months. Echocardiographic findings were used to evaluate both 2D and 3D measures of cardiac function. Coronary artery measurements were recorded. Corresponding serial ECG findings were evaluated. Result(s): The worst cardiac function arose 6.8 +/- 2.4 days after the onset of fever. The mean M mode-derived FS was 30.9 +/- 8.1% during the acute phase. The mean 3D left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was borderline at 50.5 +/- 9.8%. A pancarditis was typ-ically present: 46.3% showed cardiac impairment;31.3% had some pericardial effusion;26.8% had moderate (or worse) valvar regur-gitation and;26.8% had coronary dilatation. Cardiac function returned to normal in all patients by 6-8 weeks (mean 3D LV EF 61.3 +/- 4.4%, plt;0.001 compared to admission). Coronary dila-tation normalized in all but one patient who initially developed large aneurysms at presentation;these continued 6 months later. ECG findings mainly featured T-wave changes resolving at fol-low-up. There were a small number of adverse events: need for ECMO (2), death as an ECMO-related complication (1), suben-docardial infarction (1), LV thrombus formation (1). Conclusion(s): MIS-C causes a pancarditis with decreased cardiac function and almost a quarter of patients showing coronary changes. In most, discharge from long-term follow-up can be con-sidered as full cardiac recovery is expected by 8 weeks. The excep-tion includes patients with medium sized aneurysms or greater or those with more of a Kawasaki disease phenotype as these require on-going surveillance for persistence of coronary changes.

8.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S230-S231, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062113

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Cardiovascular manifestations are common (35-100%) in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), including ventricular dysfunction, shock, coronary artery dilation, pericardial effusion and conduction abnormalities. Our study aimed to analyse cardiovascular involvement in our patients with MIS-C treated in our hospital. Method(s): The retrospective cohort study included all patients with MIS-C treated from April 2020 to December 2021 in the Mother and Child Health Institute of Serbia. In every case, cardiovascular manifestations were analysed: ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery dilatation, pericardial effusion, shock and ECG changes. Result(s): The study included 77 patients, 45 boys and 32 girls, aver-age years of age 9.3 +/- 4.8. Elevated cardiac troponin I and pro-BNP were observed in 35.9% and 87.8% of patients, respectively. Myocardial dysfunction was observed in half of our patients (50.6%), with an average ejection fraction of 50.5 +/- 8.9%. Children older than 10 years had 4 times higher chances for myo-cardial dysfunction (OR 4.3, 95%CI 1.6-10.8;p = 0.003). Shock syndrome had 21.1% of children on admission, while 5.3% devel-oped shock during the in-hospital stay. Transient coronary artery (CA) dilatation was observed in 6.5% of patients;left CA in 3 pts (Z score +2,95 +/- 0.3), right CA in one patient (Z score +2), and in one LCA and RCA (RCA Z score 2.6). Transient CA dilatations were observed only in patients with KD-like clinical presentation (5/54 pts). Mild pericardial effusion with spontaneous resolution was detected in 28.6% of children, while one female adolescent had severe pericardial effusion with threatening cardiac tamponade. On the standard ECG, 53% of children had negative T wave in inferior or/and precordial leads averagely on day 2 (IQR 1-3 day);transient QTc prolongation was registered in 46% of patients, averagely on day 7 (IQR 5-9). Sinus bradycardia and coronary rhythm were registered in 42.1% of patients, while premature ven-tricular beats were observed in 2.7% of pts. left ventricle thrombus was detected in one patient with normal echocardiography find-ing. In this patient, increased activity of Factor VIII and XII was proven. Conclusion(s): Cardiac manifestations are common and potentially life-threatening in MIS-C and should be assessed for at presenta-tion and during the clinical course as indicated.

9.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S242-S243, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062101

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Multi-system inflammatory syndrome in chil-dren (MISC) associated with COVID-19 has been described as a potentially life-threatening disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate cardiovascular findings in children diagnosed with MISC at initial presentation and follow up. Method(s): Between November 2020 and November 2021, 35 children diagnosed with MISC based on WHO criteria were evaluated in this retrospective study.Cardiac markers, electrocardi-ography and echocardiography were performed in all cases at pre-sentation. Cardiac evaluation were repeated at the mean of 10th week after discharge(range:5 to 33weeks). Result(s): At this period, 633 children had positive PCR test of Covid-19. The freguency of MISC was 5.5% in our cohort. The median age was 9 years at diagnosis. Comorbid diseases were found in 20% cases, but none had preexisting heart disease. All patients had high grade fever and laboratory evidence of hyperin-flammation. Most cases had mild form disease, however 12 patients had been hospitalized in ICU median 6 day. 27 cases (77%) had cardiovascular involvement.Kawasaki-like findings were found in 10 patients and 5 cases were presented with shock(Figure-1) Echocardiography;Left ventricular (LV)systolic dysfunction (EFlt;57%) was detected in 11 cases (31.4%) and coronary artery (CA) dilatation(z scoregt;2)was found in five(14.2%) cases. Pericardial effusion was seen in 12 cases. Electrocardiography: Sinus tachycardia was the most common finding. 2 cases had pro-longed QTc interval and four cases had T wave alterations. Four cases had experienced complex ventricular arrhythmia. Cardiac markers:24 cases had high Pro-BNP level. 18 cases also had high Troponin T levels. Pro-BNP and Troponin T levels were not found to be correlated with LVEF. Only one adolescent boy who had severe cardiac dysfunction died during the acute period. Followup:There were two cases with persistent cardiac symptom, but no case had LV systolic dysfunction. The mean PR intervale was significantly lower than initial measurements. The mean of QT and QTc at follow up were not different from basal measurements.The mean LVEF was significantly higher than the initial levels. The basal CA z scores normalized at followup. Conclusion(s): MISC is characterized predominantly by cardio-vascular system involvement, but the children with MISC have good cardiac outcomes at short term follow up.

10.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S176, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062097

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Mixed shock in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 is con-sequence of acute heart failure, inflammation-induced vasodilation and potential volume loss. Method(s): Retrospective analysis included 25 patients (7 girls) with MIS-C-related combined shock, treated in period from April 2020 to December 2021. Result(s): Mean age of patients was 12.6 +/- 4.0 years. Admission was 6.1 +/- 1.6 days after symptoms onset. Systemic inflammatory response was manifested with neutrophilia (10.7 +/- 4.2 x109/), lymphopenia (1.1 +/- 0.7 x109/L), elevated CRP (220.9 +/- 86.1 mg/L), ferritin (684.5 +/- 549.5 mug/L) and D-dimer (1528 +/- 1254 ng/mL). One third of patients had acute kidney injury with glomerular filtration rate of 64 +/- 22 mL/min/1.73 m2 and urea level of 16.0 +/- 8.4 mmol/L. All patients had acute heart failure with ejection fraction 47.2% +/- 7.7% and fractional shortening 23.6% +/- 4.9%, 92% of patients had NTproBNP gt;1500 pg/mL and 58% had elevated troponin I (1.34 +/- 1.47 ng/mL). Z-scores for end-diastolic left ventricle, interventricular septum and pos-terior wall diameters were 0.7 +/- 1.1, 1.7 +/- 1.3 and 0.6 +/- 0.7 respectively. All patients had mild/moderate mitral regurgitation, and 60% had mild pericardial effusion. Inotropes, administered during first 3.7 +/- 1.6 days, were divided in three groups: 1) dop-amine (n = 14), 2) dobutamine + dopamine (n = 5), 3) milrinone +/- dopamine (n = 6). Additional treatment included diuretics and captopril. Total fluid balance (including insensible loss of 300 mL/m2/day) through days 1-7 was +860 mL/m2, +128 mL/m2,-108 mL/m2,-36 mL/m2,-306 mL/m2,-335 ml/m2,-298 ml/m2 (total-95 ml/m2). Methylprednisolone/intravenous immuno-globulin and low-molecular-weight heparin/acetylsalicylic acid were administered and fever persisted 1.2 days averagely. Oxygen supplementation was needed in 71% of patients. Transitory bradycardia was noticed and there was no difference in heart rate between treatment groups. Profound hypotension was revealed on admission and correction differed regarding treat-ment (p lt;0.05) (Figure 1). All patient survived with clinical improvement (one had mechanical ventilation, and one had stroke). Conclusion(s): Mixed shock is the most severe manifestation of MIS-C, and treatment of heart failure should be combined with cau-tious fluid resuscitation.

11.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062092

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in paedi-atric population has a generally mild course. In Spain, patients under 15 years old have accounted only for 0,4% of hospital admis-sions and 0,7% of intensive care admissions. However, in May 2020, cases of children with a systemic inflammatory syndrome related to a recent COVID-19 infection were described. In severe forms, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms have been described. The aim of this study is to describe the results obtained in cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in previously healthy patients with PIMS. Method(s): Prospective study of PIMS patients who performed CPET. Godfrey ramp protocol recommended by European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was used in all cases. Measured var-iables, expressed by predicted values, were: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV1), ratio of minute venti-lation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VO2 slope), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), oxygen pulse (O2 pulse) and maximum heart rate (HR). Result(s): Eight patients (75% boys) aged 5-14 years (median 10,5 years) performed CPET reaching a mean peak load of 105,87 W (median 112,5 W and mean load per kg of weight 2,34 W/kg). Only 1 patient (12,5%) presented basal spirometric disturb-ances in context of asthma without chronic treatment. Obtained mean respiratory parameters were: FVC 97,88%, FEV1 92,7%, Tiffeneau 83% and VECO2p 32,47. Oxygen satu-ration before and after CPET was greater than 95% in 100% of patients. In 6 patients (75%) the V02max and oxygen pulse was greater than 80% of predicted value (100% of patients reached at least 40% of V02 max at anaerobic threshold). Obtained mean cardiovascular parameters were: VO2 max 1624mL/min (median 1655 ml/min and V02 per kg of weight 36,9 ml/kg), pulse oxygen 9 ml and OUES 1,92. Conclusion(s): PIMS may cause severe cardiac disturbances justifying cardiological monitoring of these patients. CPET allows to assess functional capacity of these children after the disease. In our serie, most of patients had a good functional capacity (75%). Studies with more patients are needed to make extended conclusions.

12.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S241, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062091

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: In April 2020, clinicians in the United Kingdom observed a group of children with hyperinflammatory shock with significant cardiovascular effects, with features similar to Kawasaki disease and toxic shock syndrome. This new syn-drome that is temporally related to previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection, is now known as multisystem inflammatory syn-drome in children (MIS-C). The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, the clinical, laboratory and echocardiografic character-istics of hospitalized children who met criteria for the MIS-C and analyse short time general and cardiac outcomes in our region. Method(s): Data from children admitted who fulfilled the case def-inition of MIS-C were collected between October 2020 and November 2021. Result(s): 10 cases of MIS-C were reported;the incidence of MIS-C during this period was 1 per 10000 positive sars-cov2 cases (diag-nosed by polymerase chain reaction test or antigen test). The median age was 10 years (IQR 6-12). 70% were male and 50% corresponded to ethnic minority group in our country (20% Latin American and 30% African). 8 of 10 patients (80%) had evi-dence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and 2 of 10 (20%) had an antecedent of contact with a COVID positive patient. Fever (100% patients), hematologic disturbances (90%), cardiac involvement (biochemical or echocardiographic) (80%), gastrointestinal (80%) and mucocutaneus (50%) symptoms were common presenting features. 8 of 10 were admitted in the pedi-atric intensive care unit. When referring to cardiovascular involve-ment, 1 of 10 (10%) patients had left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 2 of 10 (20%) had mild pericardial effusion and 4 of 10 (40%) mild coronary artery abnormalities. Conclusion(s): Although the incidence is low, in this case series most patients show homogeneous clinical and laboratory findings. Since cardiac involvement is described in a high proportion of patients, long-term follow-up is required due to the unclear prognosis and risk of progression of cardiac manifestation.

13.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(12): 4584-4588, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061805

ABSTRACT

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous immune disorder that can infiltrate many organ systems. When the cardiac system is involved, the myocardium and conduction system are frequently affected. We report the case of a patient presenting with complete heart block following cardioversion from atrial flutter accompanied by pleural and pericardial involvement whose diagnosis of sarcoidosis was subsequently made on pathological examination. Pericardial effusion and pleural effusion are rare manifestations of sarcoid, and the both of them happening simultaneously (less than 10 case reports) in conjunction with cardiac conduction system and myocardial involvement are almost nonexistent in the literature (one case report). As cardiac involvement in sarcoid can drastically increase the mortality, it is important to be vigilant for the diverse manifestations of cardiac involvement in all patients for which there is clinical suspicion of sarcoid.

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2480-A2481, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060951

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: The incidence of acute pericarditis is 3.32 per 100,000 person-years (11). Patone et. Al, found that 0.001% had acute pericarditis after a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, while 11.9% were COVID-19 positive (11). 1.5% of patients with COVID- 19 developed new onset pericarditis and six-month all-cause mortality was 15.5% (2). CASE PRESENTATION: 48-year-old male with no known past medical history who presented with acute onset of sharp, left-sided chest pain and associated with dyspnea on exertion. He was not vaccinated for COVID-19 and denied being around any sick contacts. On physical examination he was afebrile, normotensive and saturating 99% on room air. EKG initially showed diffuse ST elevations in leads II,III, aVF, V2-V6. Initial high sensitivity trop was <6. He was incidentally found to be COVID positive. Initial echocardiogram was not suggestive of wall motion abnormalities or pericardial effusions. He was not initiated on management for COVID-19 pneumonia as he was asymptomatic and on room air. He was started on colchicine 0.6 mg BID and ibuprofen 400 TID for pericarditis treatment and symptoms resolved on follow up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 causing pericarditis is relatively rare and our patient presented with pericarditis and no associated respiratory symptoms. The clinical signs of pericarditis include: a pleuritic or sharp chest pain relieved by leaning forwards, a pericardial friction rub auscultated near the left sternal border and EKG changes including diffuse ST elevations or PR depressions seen in the leads I,II,III, aVL, aVF and the precordial leads V2-V6 (3). The common complications seen with pericarditis are pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis (1). A common etiology for pericarditis is a viral illness which can be seen to precede the cardiac symptoms and be seen as flu-like symptoms or as gastrointestinal symptoms. Treatment is with colchicine and NSAIDs. Aspirin has been the drug of choice in patient's who present with pericarditis following a myocardial infarction, solely because the other NSAIDs have been studied and shown to interfere with myocardial healing (3)(4). NSAIDs were believed to be harmful in patient's diagnosed with COVID, due to upregulation of ACE2 receptors in multiple sites which is used by SARS-COV-2 as a point of entry into cells (9). Drake et. Al, looked at patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and found use of NSAIDs did not play any significant role in mortality (10). First-line therapy for pericarditis is NSAIDs and colchicine. Second line therapy can be with corticosteroids and refractory therapy is generally with intravenous human immunoglobulins, Azathioprine or anti-IL1 agents such as Anakinra (12). CONCLUSIONS: COVID 19 continues to present with varying levels of comorbidities. Timely diagnosis and intervention of pericarditis precipitated by COVID-19 can lead to near complete recovery and prevent fatal outcomes. Reference #1: Dababneh E, Siddique MS. Pericarditis. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing;2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK431080/ Reference #2: Buckley BJR, Harrison SL, Fazio-Eynullayeva E, Underhill P, Lane DA, Lip GYH. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of myocarditis and pericarditis in 718,365 COVID-19 patients. Eur J Clin Invest. 2021 Nov;51(11):e13679. doi: 10.1111/eci.13679. Epub 2021 Sep 18. PMID: 34516657;PMCID: PMC8646627.1 Reference #3: Little WC, Freeman GL. Pericardial disease. Circulation. 2006 Mar 28;113(12):1622-32. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.561514. Erratum in: Circulation. 2007 Apr 17;115(15):e406. Dosage error in article text. PMID: 16567581. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Atika Azhar No relevant relationships by Berty Baskaran No relevant relationships by Andres Cordova Sanchez No relevant relationships by Harvir Gambhir No relevant relationships by Hanish Jai

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A1349-A1350, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060808

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Issues After COVID-19 Vaccination Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Immune mediated vaccine related pericarditis reports have been well documented;albeit rare and generally well tolerated, it remains a real complication with possible devastating impacts. The incidence has increased even more with the covid vaccine.3 Here we describe a 72 year old female that received her 4th BNT162b2 dose, 5 months after the 3rd dose, and subsequently developed pericarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: 72 year old female, previously well, who presented with a 3 day history of central, sticking chest pain associated with exertional dyspnea, cough, palpitations and malaise. She denied any coryzal symptoms. On presentation she was hemodynamically stable but hypoxic and tachycardic. Laboratory investigations revealed leucocytosis and troponinemia of 0.13ng/ml. ECG showed diffuse ST elevations. A transthoracic echo showed a small pericardial effusion with normal LV and RV function, EF 60-65% and a CT Pulmonary Angiogram revealed a small sub-segmental pulmonary embolism with atelectasis and trace effusions. On further questioning she revealed that the symptoms started 3 days after she received her 2nd booster dose of the Pfizer covid vaccine. She was started on colchicine and apixaban and was discharged home with follow-up. Two days after discharge the patient represented to the hospital with worsening chest pain. Investigations revealed worsening leucocytosis and increased inflammatory markers (CRP 303mg/L, ESR 62mm/h). A new finding of a small pericardial effusion and bilateral pleural effusions with consolidations were noted on a repeat CT scan. Decision was made to continue colchicine and commence prednisone. Other infectious and inflammatory causes of pericarditis were ruled out. The COVID spike IgG was negative and the NAAT Cov 2 IgG showed titres >250 (<50). DISCUSSION: The exact pathogenesis of the COVID-19 vaccine-induced pericarditis remains unknown. It is thought that mRNA vaccines produce a large number of antibodies which elicit a multi-system inflammatory response1;despite this, steroid therapy remains controversial given the risk of recurrent pericarditis.2 A shorter vaccine interval has been associated with adverse outcomes. CDC extended the dosing interval in young persons to reduce the risk of severe myocarditis;however the interval for persons 65 years or more and immunocompromised remained unchanged. Our case and the identical case described by Singh et al1 reinforces the need to determine the best time interval for administration of the covid booster vaccines;especially in patients more than 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: More research needs to be done as to the most appropriate interval between booster doses to reduce the inflammatory complications related to the vaccine. A consideration should also be made to determine if the measurement of SARS COV-2 IgG spike titres have any role in determining the timing of subsequent booster doses. Reference #1: Singh A, Nguyen L, Everest S, et al. (February 12, 2022) Acute Pericarditis Post mRNA-1273 COVID Vaccine Booster. Cureus 14(2): e22148. DOI 10.7759/cureus.22148 Reference #2: Hajjo R., Sabbah D.A., Bardaweel S.K., Tropsha A. Shedding the Light on Post-Vaccine Myocarditis and Pericarditis in COVID-19 and Non-COVID-19 Vaccine Recipients. Vaccines. 2021;9:1186. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9101186. Reference #3: Diaz GA, Parsons GT, Gering SK, Meier AR, Hutchinson IV, Robicsek A. Myocarditis and Pericarditis After Vaccination for COVID-19. JAMA. 2021 Sep 28;326(12):1210-1212. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.13443. PMID: 34347001;PMCID: PMC8340007. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Zachary Banbury No relevant relationships by Michael Basir No relevant relationships by Alexandra Gottdiener No relevant relationships by Janeen Grant-Sittol No relevant relationships by Srikant Kondapaneni No relevant relationships by Ross Lavine No relevant relationships by Anesha White

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A1265, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060791

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Diagnosis of Lung Disease through Pathology Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a histological term used to describe a pattern of interstitial fibrosis with alternating areas of the normal lung with temporal fibrosis and architectural alteration due to chronic scarring or honeycomb change. It is a subset of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IPF) that usually presents in the sixth and seventh decades of life with progressive dyspnea on exertion and productive cough. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 46 y/o man with a history of thyroid disease, hypertension and a former smoker of 20 pack-year smoking. Presented to ED complaining of low oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry at home with readings between 60-80%. Accompanied with progressive dyspnea on exertion and unintentional weight loss of 80 pounds in the last year. Also referred productive cough of white sputum that was worse in the morning. Home nebulized Albuterol therapy did not provide improvement. Denied recent viral respiratory infections, night sweats, environmental exposures nor family history of lung disease. DISCUSSION: Physical exam demonstrated bilateral expiratory dry crackles and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation at room air of 78%. RBBB evidenced on EKG. Bloodwork showed polycythemia with hemoglobin of 17.8;ABG's with pH: 7.40, Pco2: 42.2, PO2: 59.8, HCO3: 26, O2 sat: 90.8 and ideal PO2: 85.6 consistent with metabolic alkalosis with BMP CO2 of 30, A/a gradient: 43.0. Mycoplasma IgM, Influenza A & B and COVID-19 antigen test were negative. CXR with increased vascular markings, chest CT demonstrated small pericardial effusion, bilateral coarse interstitial pulmonary markings and bronchiectasis suggestive of chronic interstitial lung disease with no specific pattern. Left heart catheterization revealed right ventricular hypertrophy, normal EF >55%, and no evidence of coronary disease. Alpha-1 antitrypsin: 158, EPO: 6.5, HIV, and hepatitis panel were all negative. Rheumatology work up with only an ANA antibody positive, with titer 1:160. Patient underwent VATS procedure with wedge biopsy of the right upper and middle lobe that revealed usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Patient improved and was discharged on home oxygen 3L. At follow-up, treatment was started with Nintedanib and Sildenafil Citrate. He had clinical improvement and oxygen requirements decreased to intermittent oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis experience slow progressive decline with typical clinical presentation over 60 years of age. This case remarks the importance of the need for stratification of interstitial lung disease classification, when pattern and history are non specific, with the use of VATS procedure for early start of treatment. Our patient with no environmental exposure or connective tissue disease had an uncommon early presentation of usual interstitial pneumonia. Reference #1: Tibana, R.C.C., Soares, M.R., Storrer, K.M. et al. Clinical diagnosis of patients subjected to surgical lung biopsy with a probable usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on high-resolution computed tomography. BMC Pulm Med 20, 299 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01339-9 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jesse Aleman No relevant relationships by Carlos Martinez Crespí no disclosure submitted for Jean Ramos;No relevant relationships by Alexandra Rodriguez Perez No relevant relationships by Paola Vazquez No relevant relationships by Nahomie Veguilla Rivera

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A950, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060738

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in millions of deaths worldwide. Many cases involved a primary pulmonary process, yet myocarditis associated with COVID-19 has been observed.1 We present a novel case of rapidly progressive fulminant peri-myocarditis with minimal lung involvement in acute COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old female with no medical history presented with chest pain and dyspnea with an acute COVID-19 infection. She had a brief cardiac arrest with rapid ROSC and no intubation. Chest CT angiogram showed essentially normal pulmonary parenchyma and moderate pericardial effusion. EKG showed sinus tachycardia with global ST segment elevation. An echocardiogram showed an ejection fraction (EF) of 25% with a moderate sized pericardial effusion and right ventricle collapse. She was transferred for emergent drainage of the effusion to our institution. Her circulatory shock initially improved following pericardial drainage, yet she declined warranting increasing vasopressor and inotropic support. An emergent echo showed an EF of less than 10% and no re-accumulation of pericardial fluid. It was clear that the patient required mechanical circulatory support (MCS) and was transferred to the catheterization lab. While in the lab, the patient suffered cardiac arrest and an Impella device was placed during prolonged ACLS without achieving ROSC. Venoarterial ECMO cannulation was then performed. She was transferred to a cardiac transplant center where she later developed multi-organ failure leading to death. DISCUSSION: While COVID-19 has been shown to affect multiple organs apart from the lungs, this case was notable due to minimal pulmonary involvement. The patient's manifestation of her infection was almost entirely cardiac in nature. MCS was discussed in the catheterization lab at the time of pericardial drain insertion. The decision was made to not pursue MCS as the patient's shock had improved. Additionally, the patient did not undergo pulmonary arterial catheter (PAC) placement. Prompt placement of a PAC has been associated with early access to MCS and reduced in-hospital mortality.2 Perhaps we would have obtained MCS earlier if PAC data supported this intervention before the patient deteriorated. It will be important to consider primary cardiac manifestations of COVID-19 infection and early consideration of invasive hemodynamic monitoring to identify a need for timely MCS. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first reported case of fulminant peri-myocarditis in the absence of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure or radiographic pulmonary parenchymal lung abnormality. Isolated rapidly progressive cardiogenic shock secondary to COVID-19 associated peri-myocarditis is a phenomenon important for critical care clinicians to be aware of during this pandemic. One should have a low threshold to establish invasive hemodynamic monitoring and consideration for early MCS in these cases. Reference #1: Siripanthong B, Nazarian S, Muser D, et al. Recognizing COVID-19-related myocarditis: The possible pathophysiology and proposed guideline for diagnosis and management. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.05.001 Reference #2: Osman M, Syed M, Patel B, et al. Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring in Cardiogenic Shock Is Associated With Lower In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of the American Heart Association J Am Heart Assoc. 2021;10:21808. doi:10.1161/JAHA.121.021808 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Samuel Bullick No relevant relationships by Jonathan Greenberg No relevant relationships by Scott Slusarenko

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A751, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060682

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Cardiovascular Complications in Patients with COVID-19 SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Previous case reports have shown a number of cardiac complications associated with, and attributed to COVID-19 infection including acute myocardial injury and infarction, dysrhythmias, acute heart failure, pericarditis, and venous thromboembolic events, among others. Up until this point, these cases have all been documented in unvaccinated individuals 1. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a unique case of a 40-year-old previously vaccinated woman who presented with generalized weakness, chest pain, dyspnea, and vomiting. She was found to be septic and positive for COVID-19. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a small pericardial effusion on admission and the patient was diagnosed with acute myopericarditis secondary to COVID-19. Within the first 24 hours following admission, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated and she developed worsening pericardial effusion, with subsequent cardiac tamponade, and cardiogenic shock. Following attempted pericardiocentesis and surgical drainage, cardiac function did not improve and she expired soon after. DISCUSSION: Despite most of the clinical attention being focused on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the respiratory system and the pneumonia it causes, there have been more reported complications involving other organ systems, particularly the heart and kidneys. Studies have shown three main categories of cardiac involvement and complications related to COVID-19: myocardial injury, acute heart failure, and arrhythmia. Focusing on myocardial injuries, there have been some reports attempting to elucidate the frequency of myo- and pericarditis as complications of COVID-19. Yet still to this date, little is known about pericarditis as a COVID-19 complication. Of the case reports published thus far regarding COVID-19 pericarditis, the majority of them do not exhibit cardiac tamponade. In one systematic review published in September, 2021, a total of 33 studies including 32 case reports and one case series were included and pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade were reported in 76% and 35% of the cases, respectively 2. To our knowledge, our case is the first of its kind, illustrating cardiac tamponade in a fully vaccinated individual. Although, there have been no clear mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of cardiac involvement in patients suffering from COVID-19, multiple possibilities have been hypothesized. Similar to other cardiotoxic viruses, an inflammatory response is likely triggered resulting in pericarditis and pericardial effusion 3. When left unabated, cardiac tamponade can occur. CONCLUSIONS: Our case documents a reminder of the critical nature of SARS-CoV-2, even in vaccinated patients. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cardiac tamponade in a previously vaccinated individual. This case highlights the importance of quick diagnosis and treatment in patients suffering from potential lethal complications of COVID-19. Reference #1: Long B, Brady WJ, Koyfman A, Gottlieb M. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19. Am J Emerg Med. 2020;38(7):1504-1507 Reference #2: Diaz-Arocutipa C, Saucedo-Chinchay J, Imazio M. Pericarditis in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2021 Sep 1;22(9):693-700 Reference #3: Inciardi RM, Lupi L, Zaccone G, et al. Cardiac Involvement in a Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol. 2020;5(7):819–24 DISCLOSURES: no disclosure on file for Thomas Bumbalo;no disclosure on file for Thaddeus Golden;No relevant relationships by Omar Kandah

19.
Chest ; 162(4):A750, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060681

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: There is a growing volume of evidence of extrapulmonary manifestations of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly within the cardiovascular and hematological systems. In this case, we describe a unique manifestation of a COVID-19 presenting with a hemorrhagic pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade physiology with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old male with coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation on warfarin presented to the emergency department with acutely worsening shortness of breath. Upon arrival, he was hypotensive, tachypneic, and hypoxic. Physical exam findings included jugular venous distention and muffled heart sounds. A transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated a large concentric pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology (Figure 1). Pertinent initial laboratory values included an elevated INR of 6.1, a prolonged prothrombin time of 61.2 seconds, and an elevated D-dimer level of 5.34 mg/L (Table 1). The prolonged INR was reversed with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). Emergent pericardiocentesis yielded 1.7L of dark-bloody appearing fluid. Pericardial fluid analysis (Table 1) demonstrated over 2.4 million red blood cells and 3,650 total nucleated cells with 94% lymphocytes. Cultures and cytology were unrevealing. Given the profound lymphocytic component, a COVID-19 nasal swab was obtained and resulted positive. Prior to contracting COVID-19, the patient's weekly INR levels were consistently at goal. DISCUSSION: The global pandemic of the COVID-19 continues to identify extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease. A rising number of publications have implicated COVID-19 with causing myocarditis, pericardial effusions, and hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade(1). Hemorrhagic cardiac effusions are typically seen with malignancy, tuberculosis, trauma, recent cardiac procedures, post-myocardial infarction, and are also seen in Coxsackie viral infections. Multiple studies implicate COVID-19 interactions with oral-vitamin K antagonists as the cause of unpredictable INR's which can lead to spontaneous bleeding2. There are fewer than 10 reported instances of hemorrhagic pericardial effusions with tamponade physiology in COVID-19 patients;however, none of the other cases presented with a super-therapeutic INR. We are also the first to demonstrate a primary lymphocytic component of the pericardial fluid suggesting viral etiology. Profound coagulopathies in COVID-19 result in an increased mortality(3). CONCLUSIONS: We propose that based on the increase in publications of case-reports describing COVID-19 viral infections and hemorrhagic pericardial effusions, that SARS-CoV-2 should be added to the list of known viral etiologies. Further, COVID-19 patients who are systemic anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists should be monitored closely for abrupt changes in their INR. Reference #1: 1. Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sehgal K, et al. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nature Medicine. 2020;26(7):1017-1032. Reference #2: 2. Camilleri E, Van Rein N, Van Der Meer FJM, Nierman MC, Lijfering WM, Cannegieter SC. Stability of vitamin K antagonist anticoagulation after COVID-19 diagnosis. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2021;5(7) Reference #3: 3. Tang N, Li D, Wang X, Sun Z. Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2020;18(4):844-847. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Gregory Hicks No relevant relationships by Daniel Kissau No relevant relationships by Andrew Labelle No relevant relationships by Scott Mayer No relevant relationships by Dmitriy Scherbak

20.
Chest ; 162(4):A553, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060629

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Critical Care Presentations of TB SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: We present a case of tuberculous pericarditis and cardiac tamponade due to suspected sequela of SARS-Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) infection. It is important for clinicians to include tuberculosis (TB) in the differential diagnoses for patients presenting with presumptive viral pericarditis and tamponade. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Hispanic man with chronic kidney disease not on hemodialysis was admitted with shortness of breath, fluid overload, hypoxemia and concern for uremic pericarditis. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 to which the symptoms were initially attributed, and he was treated with steroids, remdesevir, tocilizumab and hemodialysis. The patient incidentally had a positive QuantiFERON gold test obtained before initiating hemodialysis. On day 60 of hospitalization, the clinical exam abruptly deteriorated with stuporous mentation, hypotension, and cool skin. Bedside point of care echocardiography revealed a new large circumferential pericardial effusion with right ventricular diastolic collapse and increased respiratory variation in peak E-wave mitral inflow velocity consistent with tamponade physiology. Emergent pericardiocentesis was performed, and hemodynamic instability resolved immediately after aspiration of 750 milliliters of frank pus. Empiric antibiotics were initially given for pyogenic pericarditis. When the pericardial fluid later tested positive for acid-fast bacilli and adenosine deaminase, anti-TB therapy was started. The hospitalization was further complicated by septic shock and cardiac arrest. Though found to have a re-accumulated pericardial effusion on bedside ultrasound peri-arrest, there was no tamponade physiology (suggestive of at least a partial response to the TB treatment in the setting of overall poor underlying reserve). DISCUSSION: The coexistence of COVID-19 and tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade has been reported to date in one other case to our knowledge. COVID-19 with massive pericardial tamponade is rare and a careful diagnostic approach involving multi-modality imaging with bedside echocardiogram is invaluable in the evaluation and treatment of obstructive shock. In this case, we hypothesize that the COVID-19 infection may have led to re-activation of latent TB despite treatment of COVID-19 with corticosteroids (which are an adjunct tuberculostatic treatment in patients with tuberculous pericarditis). Tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade is a relatively uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary TB and is a major cause of cardiovascular death and morbidity. Even with aggressive antituberculosis therapy, 30-60% of patients may need surgical pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the need to consider possibility of concomitant viral and TB pericarditis in the diagnostic differential for tamponade. More histopathologic or post-mortem examinations of COVID-19 pericarditis cases are needed. Reference #1: Asif T, Kassab K, Iskander F, Alyousef T. Acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade in a patient with COVID19: a therapeutic challenge. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2020 May 6;7(6):001701. Reference #2: Barrett et al. Increase in disseminated TB during the COVID19 pandemic. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2021 Feb 1;25(2):160-166. Reference #3: Wong SW, Ng J. K.X., Chia YW. Tuberculous pericarditis with tamponade diagnosed concomittantly with COVID19: a case report. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2020 Dec 28;5(1):ytaa491. eCollection 2021 Jan. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Jaskiran Khosa No relevant relationships by Walter Klein No relevant relationships by Amy Tran No relevant relationships by Michael Ulrich

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