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1.
AIDS Behav ; 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128775

ABSTRACT

Alcohol use is especially problematic for people living with HIV (PLWH) and was likely to be impacted by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its restrictions. In a study of PLWH with latent tuberculosis infection, we measured unhealthy alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and bar attendance. We analyzed data collected before and after COVID-19 restrictions, and used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression models to evaluate changes in unhealthy alcohol use. While bar attendance declined from 57.0% before to 38.3% after the restrictions started, multivariable analysis controlling for bar use showed a significant increase in unhealthy alcohol use; the adjusted odds ratio for unhealthy drinking before versus after the restrictions started was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.89-2.12) which increased to 1.64 (95% CI: 1.08-2.50) when bar attendance was added to the model. Decline in bar attendance did not decrease unhealthy alcohol use.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(9): ofac479, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051517

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a patient with AIDS who had persistent infection with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant for >80 days. The variant contained mutations that were not present in other Delta viruses in our hospital. Prolonged infection in immunosuppressed individuals may lead to evolution of SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV-patients about COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering questionnaires to 160 patients followed by Amedeo di Savoia Hospital in Turin. Statistical analyses were performed in order to identify predictors of infection and severity of COVID-19 disease risk perception. RESULTS: The 86.2% of patients were vaccinated for COVID-19, while 7.6% do not intend to be vaccinated; 50.7% thought that there is a minimal risk to get COVID-19; 85.8% thought that COVID-19 is a serious illness. The 56% and the 36.5 thought that seropositivity carries a greater risk to develop respectively COVID-19-related complications or vaccine complications. At the multivariate analysis having a job, proactive research of vaccine information and being HIV+ for several years are related to a lower risk perception of infection. The perception of COVID-19 severity is influenced by age, by being LGB and by believing that HIV+ status correlates with a higher risk of developing complications from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: as the pandemic can adversely impact the HIV care with increasing loss to follow-up, vaccination is essential to contrast infection in HIV+ patients. Our findings suggested that some HIV+ patients refuse vaccination against COVID-19.

5.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(4): 296-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines have had a fundamental impact in containing the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are few efficacy data relating to frail patients, including the HIV-positive patient. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) serum neutralization in People Living with HIV (PLWH) compared to a cohort of healthy volunteers both vaccinated with BNT162b2. METHODS: A serum sample was then withdrawn 14-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine and a serum neutralization assay was performed on Vero E6 cells. The experiments were performed using two strains of SARS-CoV-2 as 20A.EU1 and B.1.617.2. RESULTS: PLWH on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) showed a vaccine response comparable to the healthy subjects. No correlation between CD4 count or CD4/CD8 and neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) has been found. No differences in NT-Abs between patients with CD4 nadir above or under 200 cells/µl have been found. In both cohorts, vaccine-elicited serum better neutralized 20A.EU1 than B.1.617.2 strain. CONCLUSION: PLWH in ART and with good immuno-virological recovery showed a vaccine response comparable to that of healthy subjects and regardless of their immunological status at HIV infection diagnosis. However, larger studies are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the vaccine response even in patients with low CD4 counts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing
6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969552

ABSTRACT

Data on COVID-19 boosting vaccination in people living with HIV (PLWH) are scant. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of the BNT162b2 homologous boosting vaccination. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG test, DiaSorin®), CD4+, CD8+ and viraemia were monitored at T0 (pre-vaccination), T1 (4 weeks after the second dose), T2 (pre-booster) and T3 (4 weeks after the booster dose). Humoral responses were evaluated according to sex, age, BMI, nadir and baseline CD4+ counts, as well as type of cART regimen. Forty-two subjects were included: the median age was 53 years (IQR: 48-61); the median time since HIV was 12.4 years (IQR: 6.5-18.3); the median nadir and baseline CD4+ counts were 165 (IQR: 104-291) and 687 cells/mm3 (IQR: 488-929), respectively. The booster dose was administered at a median of 5.5 months after the second dose. Median anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentration had significantly decreased at T2 compared to T1 (107 vs. 377, p < 0.0001). Antibody levels elicited by the booster dose (median: 1580 AU/mL) were significantly higher compared with those of all the other time points (p < 0.0001). None of the investigated variables significantly affected antibody response induced by the booster dose. Local and systemic side-effects were referred by 23.8% and 14.3% of the subjects, respectively. One patient developed sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) 24 h after boosting. He recovered auditory function upon endothympanic administration of corticosteroids. The BNT162b2 boosting vaccination in PLWH is safe and greatly increased the immune response with respect to the primary vaccination.

7.
Life (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928605

ABSTRACT

Italy was dramatically hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the province of Brescia was one of the epicenters of the outbreak. Furthermore, Brescia has one of the highest incidences of people living with HIV (PLWH) and a substantial presence of migrants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving all citizens connected to the Brescia Health Protection Agency, assessing the SARS-CoV-2 burden, COVID-19 prevalence, and vaccination coverage. A total of 1,004,210 persons were included, 3817 PLWH and 134,492 foreigners. SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalizations and death were more frequent among Italians than foreigners. SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths were more frequent in HIV-uninfected people than in PLWH. PLWH and foreigners were less likely to have a SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis compared to HIV-negative patients. Migrants were more likely to be hospitalized but had a lower risk of death compared to HIV-negative patients. Regarding vaccination, 89.1% of the population received at least one dose of vaccine, while 70.4% of the Italian citizens and 36.3% of the foreigner subjects received three doses of vaccine. Foreigners showed a lower risk of being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 but a higher risk of complications. HIV infection was not associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 severe manifestations compared to the general population. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was not different between PLWH and HIV uninfected people, but foreigners were more hesitant.

8.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 33, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multi-types COVID-19 vaccines have shown safety and efficacy against COVID-19 in adults. Although current guidelines encourage people living with HIV (PLWH) to take COVID-19 vaccines, whether their immune response to COVID-19 vaccines is distinct from HIV-free individuals is still unclear. METHODS: Between March to June 2021, 48 PLWH and 40 HNC, aged 18 to 59 years, were enrolled in the study in Wuchang district of Wuhan city. All of them received inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Sinopharm, WIBP-CorV, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co. Ltd) at day 0 and the second dose at day 28. The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions within 7 days after each injection. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) responses by chemiluminescence and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and colloidal gold at baseline (day 0), day 14, day 28, day 42, and day 70. RESULTS: In total, the study included 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who finished 70 days' follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions to the first and second dose was not different between PLWH (30% and 11%) vs. HNC (32% and 24%). NAbs responses among PLWH peaked at day 70, while among HNC peaked at day 42. At day 42, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) and seroconversion rate of nAbs among PLWH were 4.46 binding antibody units (BAU)/mL (95% CI 3.18-5.87) and 26% (95% CI 14-41), which were lower than that among HNC [GMC (18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33), seroconversion rate (63%, 95% CI 44-79)]. IgG responses among both PLWH and HNC peaked at day 70. At day 70, the geometric mean ELISA units (GMEU) and seroconversion rate of IgG among PLWH were 0.193 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 0.119-0.313) and 51% (95% CI 34-69), which was lower than that among HNC [GMEU (0.379 EU/mL, 95% CI 0.224-0.653), seroconversion rate (86%, 95% CI 64-97)]. There were no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early humoral immune response to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was weaker and delayed among the PLWH population than that among HNC. This observation remained consistent regardless of a high CD4 count with effective antiretroviral therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
9.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884380

ABSTRACT

In South Africa, high exposure to SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily in densely populated, low-income communities, which are additionally burdened by highly prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). With the aim to assess SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and its association with HIV-related clinical parameters in non-hospitalized patients likely to be highly exposed to SARS-CoV-2, this observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the Gugulethu Community Health Centre Antiretroviral clinic between October 2020 and June 2021, after the first COVID-19 wave in South Africa and during the second and beginning of the third wave. A total of 150 adult (median age 39 years [range 20-65 years]) HIV-infected patients (69% female; 31% male) were recruited. 95.3% of the cohort was on antiretroviral therapy (ART), had a median CD4 count of 220 cells/µL (range 17-604 cells/µL) and a median HIV viral load (VL) of 49 copies/mL (range 1-1,050,867 copies/mL). Furthermore, 106 patients (70.7%) were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive, and 0% were vaccinated. When stratified for HIV VL, patients with uncontrolled HIV viremia (HIV VL > 1000 copies/mL) had significantly higher odds of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity than patients with HIV VL < 1000 copies/mL, after adjusting for age, sex and ART status (p = 0.035, adjusted OR 2.961 [95% CI: 1.078-8.133]). Although the cause-effect relationship could not be determined due to the cross-sectional study design, these results point towards a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility among viremic HIV patients, or impaired HIV viral control due to previous co-infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Viral Load , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869881

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the immunogenicity and immune persistence of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in PLWH in the real world. We collected blood samples from 132 PLWH aged 18-59 years who were vaccinated with two doses of BBIBP-CorV vaccine (Sinopharm) or CoronaVac vaccine (SinoVac) at 28 ± 7 days and 180 ± 20 days the after second dose, to detect the level of Spike receptor binding domain-protein specific IgG (S-RBD-IgG) by using chemiluminescence. We found that the BBIBP-CorV vaccine or the CoronaVac vaccine induced lower S-RBD-IgG antibody seropositivity rates and levels in PLWH than in healthy controls (HCs). The BBIBP-CorV vaccine or the CoronaVac vaccine induced lower humoral immune responses in PLWH, having lower CD4+T cell counts (<350 cells/µL) compared to PLWH, and having higher CD4+T cell counts (≥350 cells/µL) after a second dose of vaccination. The BBIBP-CorV vaccine or the CoronaVac vaccine induced lower S-RBD-IgG antibody levels in PLWH, having CD4+T cell counts ≥350 cells/µL compared to HCs. No negative effects were observed in terms of the CD4+T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load (VL) of PLWH after vaccination. Ninety-nine PLWH and eighty-three HCs completed a second blood collection for testing; we found a statistically significant decrease in the humoral immune response both in PLWH and HCs from 28 days to 180 days after a second dose of BBIBP-CorV vaccine or CoronaVac vaccine. The S-RBD-IgG antibody induced by the BBIBP-CorV vaccine or the CoronaVac vaccine declined faster in the PLWH population than in the healthy population, and two doses of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine or the CoronaVac vaccine may not be enough to provide PLWH with persistent immunity against SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary for PLWH to be prioritized for a third dose over the healthy population, but the immunogenicity of the third dose of the homologous or heterologous vaccine requires further study.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 883453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865474

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is essential to controlling the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). People living with HIV (PLWH) were considered more vulnerable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection compared with the general population. Therefore, it is urgent to protect PLWH from SARS-CoV-2 infection. For PLWH, vaccine hesitancy could be more common and may compromise vaccine coverage. Our study aimed to investigate the willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH and associated factors. A cross-sectional online survey was performed among PLWH and the general population from 4 April to 18 April 2021 in Wuhan, China. The multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze associated factors for COVID-19 vaccination willingness among PLWH. A total of 556 PLWH and 570 individuals from the general population were enrolled. The COVID-19 vaccine willingness among PLWH was 60.8%, which was relatively lower than that in the general population (80.9%) (P < 0.001). The results of multivariable analysis indicated that PLWH with comorbidities (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.25-3.45), those who had idea about PLWH would be more serious if they were infected with SARS-CoV-2 (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.11-2.51) and those who thought their antiretroviral therapy (ART) would be affected by COVID-19 epidemic (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.22-3.42) had higher willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination. PLWH who had a monthly income over 5,000 RMB (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92) and had a sex orientation as non-homosexual (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47-0.96) were associated with lower willingness for COVID-19 vaccination. Our findings showed that the PLWH had a lower willingness for COVID-19 vaccination compared with the general population in Wuhan. Targeted interventions such as health education should be conducted to increase the willingness for COVID-19 vaccination among PLWH, thus enhancing COVID-19 vaccine uptake among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 833783, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847235

ABSTRACT

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Methods: From 1 to 30 May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey that enrolled 857 PLWH and 1,048 HIV-negative individuals from the Wuchang district in Wuhan, China. Our data analysis compared the rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH and HIV-negative participants, and the proportions of symptomatic patients and asymptomatic infectors between the two groups. We also assessed the risk factors associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Results: Overall, 14/857 (1.6%) PLWH and 68/1,048 (6.5%) HIV-negative participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Among the SARS-CoV-2-infected PLWH participants, 6/14 (42.8%) were symptomatic patients, 4/14 (28.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-positive asymptomatic infectors, and 4/14 (28.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. Among the infected HIV-negative participants, 5/68 (7.4%) patients were symptomatic and 63/68 (92.6%) were serology-positive asymptomatic infectors. The rate of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among the PLWH than in the HIV-negative group (1.96% vs. 5.74%, p = 0.001) and the rate of morbidity among the symptomatic patients was similar between the two groups (p = 0.107). However, there were more serology-positive asymptomatic infectors among the infected HIV-negative participants than among the infected PLWH (0.54% vs. 5.46%, p = 0.001). Furthermore, being 50 years or older (aOR = 4.50, 95% CI: 1.34-15.13, p = 0.015) and having opportunistic infections (aOR = 9.59, 95% CI: 1.54-59.92, p = 0.016) were associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH. Conclusions: PLWH has more varied forms of the SARS-CoV-2 infection than the HIV-negative population and should, therefore, undertake routine screening to avoid late diagnosis. Also, older age (≥50 years) and having opportunistic infections increase the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Opportunistic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805971

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has disrupted routine medical care and increased psychosocial and economic stressors on a global scale, yet the full impact on people living with HIV (PLWH) and the HIV continuum of care remains unknown. As the pandemic continues to pose a significant threat to PLWH and their care, this research qualitatively aimed to elicit COVID-19-related challenges and perspectives of PLWH during the early phase of the pandemic and to identify lessons learned and impactful strategies for facilitating HIV care. We recruited 32 PLWH who receive care at a large academic medical center for semi-structured remote interviews to assess psychological/structural stressors experienced during the pandemic and to discern strategies for improving care. Most participants identified as Black (91%) and heterosexual (56%). Overall, PLWH reported exacerbated mental health stressors (e.g., anxiety, depression, substance use). Most participants cited no issues with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence or retention in care, yet five participants reported appointment cancellations or physician inaccessibility. Participants provided specific feedback for facilitating continued engagement in care during the pandemic, including telemedicine and education/patient empowerment. By seeking participant-provided solutions, this study centered on PLWH's experiences and emphasized proactive HIV care strategies for prioritizing patient empowerment and healthcare adaptability during a rapidly evolving pandemic.

14.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2230-2236, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777592

ABSTRACT

In March, people living with HIV infection (PLWH) were included in the risk category of fragile people for severe COVID-19 receiving priority access to vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the two doses regimen. The antibodies titer for severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated after 21 days since the first administration (Time 1), 1 (Time 2), and 3 (Time 3) months post-vaccination. Information regarding virological and immunological conditions at baseline, previous SARS-CoV-2 state of infection, other immunodeficiencies, current antiretroviral therapy (ART), comorbidities, and severe adverse events (SAE) to vaccination was collected. Six hundred and ninety-seven patients were tested for quantitative anti-spike antibodies at Time 1, 577 patients had a second detection at Time 2, and 491 patients had the third detection. Baseline characteristics of the study population are reported in Table 1. At the time of vaccine administration, all patients were on ART (except one long-term nonprogressor); 632 (90.7%) patients had undetectable HIV-RNA; 12 (1.7%) patients were immunosuppressed due to chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive drugs; 345 (49.5%) patients had at least one COVID-19 related comorbidity and 155 (22.2%) had two or more comorbidities. No SAEs were reported. Final serological results are available for 694 patients after the first dose, 577 and 491 after the second and third ones, respectively; positive titer (values ≥ 50 AU/ml) was demonstrated in 653 (94.1%), 576 (99.8%), 484 (98.6%) patients, respectively. Only one patient was a nonresponder after completing vaccination, who was a newly diagnosed one for HIV infection. All vaccinations were well tolerated, with no SAEs. BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was immunogenic and safe in PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1126-1134, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774287

ABSTRACT

It is important to know the safety and efficacy of vaccination in immunocompromised people living with HIV (PLWH), but currently, there is limited data on the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' safety and immune responses in PLWH. In this prospective observational study, 139 PLWH and 120 healthy controls were enrolled and monitored for 21-105 days after a two-dose vaccination. The safety, anti-receptor binding domain IgG (anti-RBD-IgG) and anti-spike-IgG responses, and RBD-specific memory B cell (MBC) responses were evaluated. The overall adverse events within seven days were reported in 12.9% (18/139) of PLWH and 13.3% (16/120) of healthy controls. No serious adverse events occurred in both groups. Overall, the seroprevalence of anti-RBD-IgG in PLWH was significantly decreased (87.1% vs. 99.2%; p<0.001). The geometric mean end-point titer (GMT) of anti-RBD-IgG in PLWH was also reduced, especially in patients with CD4 counts <200 cells/µL, regardless of age, gender, or HIV viral load. GMTs of anti-RBD-IgG in both PLWH and healthy controls declined gradually over time. Similar results were also observed in the anti-spike-IgG response. The frequency of RBD-specific MBCs in PLWH decreased (p<0.05), and then remained stable over time. Lastly, through multivariate analysis, we found the factors that predicted a less robust response to inactivated vaccines in PLWH were a low CD4 count and long time interval after vaccination. In conclusion, inactivated vaccines are well-tolerated in PLWH but with low immunogenicity. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and booster doses should be given priority in PLWH, especially in patients with low CD4 counts.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT05043129..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects
16.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the driving force among this group of individuals is still not clear. METHODS: We investigated 1,709 PLWH through a telephone interview and identified 11 COVID-19 patients in four districts of Wuhan, China. The demographic features and major clinical characteristics of these patients were retrieved from the information management systems for COVID-19 patients of the four districts' CDC. Statistical analysis was performed to find out the driving force of COVID-19 among PLWH. RESULTS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in PLWH is 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2% - 1.0%), which is comparable to the overall population prevalence in Wuhan city (0.6%). Nine out of the 11 COVID-19 patients had relatively high CD4+ T lymphocyte count (>200/µl) and undetectable HIV viral load (<20 copies/ml), and ten of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Older PLWH with low CD4 + count, got HIV infected through homosexual activity, and had been diagnosed with HIV for a long time, were more likely to develop COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 related morbidity rates were comparable between PLWH and the general population. Older age with low CD4 count, an extended period of HIV diagnosis, and treatment-naivety were potential driving forces of COVID-19 prevalence among PLWH. Strategies for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection among PLWH with weak immune responses are required.

17.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can produce both severe clinical conditions and long-term sequelae, but data describing post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) are lacking for people living with HIV (PLWH). We aimed at assessing the prevalence and factors associated with severe COVID-19 and PACS in our cohort. We included all unvaccinated adult PLWH on antiretroviral treatment and plasma HIV-RNA < 40 cp/mL since at least six months before SARS-CoV-2 infection at the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit of Padua (Italy), from 20 February 2020 to 31 March 2021. COVID-19 severity was defined by WHO criteria; PACS was defined as the persistence of symptoms or development of sequelae beyond four weeks from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic and clinical variables were collected, and data were analyzed by non-parametric tests. 123 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria among 1800 (6.8%) PLWH in care at the Infectious and Tropical diseases Unit in Padua were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 during the study period. The median age was 51 years (40-58), 79.7% were males, and 77.2% of Caucasian ethnicity. The median CD4+ T-cell count and length of HIV infection were 560 cells/mmc (444-780) and 11 years, respectively. Of the patients, 35.0% had asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, 48% developed mild COVID-19, 17.1% presented moderate or severe COVID-19 requiring hospitalization and 4.1% died. Polypharmacy was the single independent factor associated with severe COVID-19. As for PACS, among 75 patients who survived SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic infection, 20 (26.7%) reported PACS at a median follow-up of six months: asthenia (80.0%), shortness of breath (50.0%) and recurrent headache (25.0%) were the three most common complaints. Only the severity of the COVID-19 episode predicted PACS after adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical variables. In our study, PLWH with sustained viral suppression and good immunological response showed that the risk of hospital admission for COVID-19 was low, even though the severity of the disease was associated with high mortality. In addition, the likelihood of developing severe COVID-19 and PACS was mainly driven by similar risk factors to those faced by the general population, such as polypharmacy and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 820126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715000

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the immunological response and impact on virological control of the mRNA vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among people living with HIV (PLWH). In this single-center observational study, all PLWH were offered vaccination with mRNA1273 or BNT162b2. Both anti-N and anti-S1-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies were measured together with HIV-1 RNA levels after the first dose (M0) and then at 1 (M1), 2 (M2) and 6 (M6) months later. A total of 131 individuals (median age: 54 years [IQR: 47.0-60.5]; male: 70.2%; median baseline CD4 T-cell: 602/µl [IQR 445.0-825.5]; median nadir CD4 T-cells 223/µl [IQR 111.0-330.0]) were included. All participants were positive for anti-RBD antibodies at 30 days, 60 days and 6 months after the first dose, with no statistical difference between those with HIV-1 RNA below or >20 copies/ml. HIV-1 RNA data were collected for 128 patients at baseline and 30 days after the first dose; for 124 individuals, 30 days after the second dose; and for 83 patients, 6 months after the first dose. Nineteen (14.8%) of 128 had detectable HIV-1 RNA (>20 copies/ml) at M0, 13/128 (10.2%) at M1 (among which 5 were newly detectable), 15/124 (12.1%) at M2 (among which 5 were newly detectable), and 8/83 (9.6%) at M6. No serious adverse effects were reported. All participants elicited antibodies after two doses of mRNA vaccines, with only a minor impact on HIV-1 RNA levels over a 6-month period.


Subject(s)
/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/physiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Heterologous , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1268-1270, 2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699639

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that certain vaccines induce suboptimal responses in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, PLWH). However, responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have not been fully characterized in these patients. Here we show that the BNT162b2 vaccine induces robust immune responses comparable to responses in healthy donors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(1): 1-13, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682186

ABSTRACT

The HIV pandemic has led to close to 40 million people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. To date, SARS-CoV2 has affected > 220 million people, and unprecedented global efforts have resulted in almost 6000 million doses of SARS-CoV2 vaccines being administered. Although several specific COVID-19 antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments and SARS-CoV2 vaccines have been approved, the data available to support their use in specific populations such as PLWH remain limited. PLWH includes a range of individuals from practically unaffected immunity to severely immunocompromised individuals, and preventive and therapeutic interventions should be tailored for these subgroups . However, in most randomized clinical trials regarding antivirals, immunomodulators and vaccines for COVID-19, PLWH have been excluded or only enrolled in small numbers leading to a paucity of data. We briefly discuss the current evidence for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in PLWH and identify key areas where more information is required.

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