Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 174
Filter
Add filters

Year range
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 644, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to remain in asymptomatic individuals facilitates its dissemination and makes its control difficult. OBJECTIVE: To establish a cohort of asymptomatic individuals, change to the symptomatic status, and determine the most frequent clinical manifestations.  METHODS: Between April 9 and August 9, 2020, molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 154 asymptomatic people in contact with subjects diagnosed with COVID-19. Nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on these people in different hospitals in Córdoba, the Caribbean area of Colombia. The genes E, RdRp, and N were amplified with RT-qPCR. Based on the molecular results and the Cq values, the patients were subsequently followed up through telephone calls to verify their health conditions. RESULTS: Overall, of 154 asymptomatic individuals, 103 (66.9%) remained asymptomatic, and 51 (33.1%) changed to symptomatic. The most frequent clinical manifestations in young people were anosmia and arthralgia. Adults showed cough, ageusia, and odynophagia; in the elderly were epigastralgia, dyspnea, and headache. Mortality was 8%. CONCLUSIONS: A proportion of 33% of presymptomatic individuals was found, of which four of them died. This high rate could indicate a silent transmission, contributing significantly to the epidemic associated with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Cough , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Fam Med Community Health ; 10(3)2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Because of their increased interaction with patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) face greater vulnerability to COVID-19 exposure than the general population. We examined prevalence and correlates of ever COVID-19 diagnosis and vaccine uncertainty among HCWs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the Household Pulse Survey (HPS) conducted during July to October 2021. SETTING: HPS is designed to yield representative estimates of the US population aged ≥18 years nationally, by state and across selected metropolitan areas. PARTICIPANTS: Our primary analytical sample was adult HCWs in the New York Metropolitan area (n=555), with HCWs defined as individuals who reported working in a 'Hospital'; 'Nursing and residential healthcare facility'; 'Pharmacy' or 'Ambulatory healthcare setting'. In the entire national sample, n=25 909 HCWs completed the survey. Descriptive analyses were performed with HCW data from the New York Metropolitan area, the original epicentre of the pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on pooled national HCW data to explore how HCW COVID-19-related experiences, perceptions and behaviours varied as a function of broader geographic, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of HCWs surveyed in the New York Metropolitan area, 92.3% reported being fully vaccinated, and 20.9% had ever been diagnosed of COVID-19. Of the subset of HCWs in the New York Metropolitan area not yet fully vaccinated, 41.8% were vaccine unsure, 4.5% planned to get vaccinated for the first time soon, 1.6% had got their first dose but were not planning to receive the remaining dose, while 52.1% had got their first dose and planned to receive the remaining dose. Within pooled multivariable analysis of the national HCW sample, personnel in nursing/residential facilities were less likely to be fully vaccinated (adjusted OR, AOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98) and more likely to report ever COVID-19 diagnosis (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.62), than those working in hospitals. Of HCWs not yet vaccinated nationally, vaccine-unsure individuals were more likely to be White and work in pharmacies, whereas vaccine-accepting individuals were more likely to be employed by non-profit organisations and work in ambulatory care facilities. Virtually no HCW was outrightly vaccine-averse, only unsure. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in vaccination coverage existed by individual HCW characteristics and healthcare operational settings. Targeted efforts are needed to increase vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , New York/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e059464, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The first COVID-19 lockdown led to a significantly reduced access to healthcare, which may have increased decompensations in frail patients with chronic diseases, especially older patients living with a chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) or a mental health disorder (MHD). The objective of COVIQuest was to evaluate whether a general practitioner (GP)-initiated phone call to patients with CVD and MHD during the COVID-19 lockdown could reduce the number of hospitalisation(s) over a 1-month period. DESIGN: This is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters were GPs from eight French regions. PARTICIPANTS: Patients ≥70 years old with chronic CVD (COVIQuest_CV subtrial) or ≥18 years old with MHD (COVIQuest_MH subtrial). INTERVENTIONS: A standardised GP-initiated phone call aiming to evaluate patients' need for urgent healthcare, with a control group benefiting from usual care (ie, the contact with the GP was by the patient's initiative). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hospital admission within 1 month after the phone call. RESULTS: In the COVIQuest_CV subtrial, 131 GPs and 1834 patients were included in the intervention group and 136 GPs and 1510 patients were allocated to the control group. Overall, 65 (3.54%) patients were hospitalised in the intervention group vs 69 (4.57%) in the control group (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.20; risk difference -0.77, 95% CI -2.28 to 0.74). In the COVIQuest_MH subtrial, 136 GPs and 832 patients were included in the intervention group and 131 GPs and 548 patients were allocated to the control group. Overall, 27 (3.25%) patients were hospitalised in the intervention group vs 12 (2.19%) in the control group (OR 1.52, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.81; risk difference 1.38, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.70). CONCLUSION: A GP-initiated phone call may have been associated with more hospitalisations within 1 month for patients with MHD, but results lack robustness and significance depending on the statistical approach used. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04359875.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , General Practitioners , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Morbidity , Treatment Outcome
4.
Health and Human Rights ; 24(1):117, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958099

ABSTRACT

Knight et al argue that pandemic treaty should include reporting in prisons. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic it was not hard to anticipate that transmission would be exacerbated in places where individuals were in close contact, ventilation systems were inadequate, and the availability of health care and prevention measures were limited. These conditions are all found in locations such as cruise ships, college dormitories, and prisons. Yet, while great effort was taken to prevent transmission in the first two of these settings, one was often overlooked: prisons. Despite overcrowding, communal meals, and frequent turn-over in detainees and staff, responses to COVID-19 in detention facilities--including jails, prisons, and immigration detention centers--were often limited, and actions taken to reduce risk and cases and deaths in detention were often unreported.

5.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 25(1):111-119, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1957616

ABSTRACT

The article is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Department of Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine of the of F.F. Erisman Public Health Institute of the Sechenov University. The main milestones of the Department development are described. It is shown that throughout its history, the Department played a leading role in defining the methodology of teaching epidemiology, and the formation of epidemiology as a science, its structure, and content. In recent years the work of the Department has undergone several major transformations aimed at introducing new technologies and the latest advances in the teaching of epidemiology into the educational process. Today, the Department staff uses the latest evidence-based data and teaches the discipline based on current standards. Training of students, specialists in residency, and scientific personnel in postgraduate study is conduct-ed following the approved working program, using state-of-the-art teaching materials and interactive technologies. The pandemic of a new coronavirus infection contributed to the rapid development of telecommunication and online education. The student research group and school of excellence «Epidemiologist of the Future» are working, and the student volunteer project «Prophylaxis Forefront» is being implemented, aimed at training specialists with current technologies of preventive medicine. The Department staff is actively involved in scientific projects of F. F. Erisman Public Health Institute. The research results are published in national and foreign publications.

6.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 78:S62-S63, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955960

ABSTRACT

Background: Further understanding on the safety profile of vaccines in a real-world still need to be elucidated, such as the comparative tolerability and reactogenicity of mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and MRNA- 1273) beyond the controlled context of clinical trials. An active pharmacovigilance study was designed to capture a complete short-term safety profile of two mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA- 1273, targeting incidence rates of adverse reactions within a pre-defined denominator of vaccinated healthcare professionals. Methods: A prospective active surveillance study was implemented during the vaccination campaign at Hospital Clínic by a multidisciplinary team, involving the Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee, the Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology and the Department of Occupational Health Care of the Hospital. Target population of the program included vaccinated professionals from Hospital Clínic and affiliated institutions, who were vaccinated with BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. The program was based on the delivery of a structured questionnaire by telephonic interview after each vaccine dose. A total of 64% of vaccinated professionals completed the questionnaire (n=5088). Results: A total of 85% subjects suffered at least 1 AR reaction with the vaccine. The proportion of professionals developing any AR was 2878 (81.2%) after vaccination with BNT162b2 and 1463 (92.9%) after vaccination with mRNA-1273. Severe ARs (VAS scoring ≥ 7) were reported in 1184 (33.7%) professionals after vaccination with BNT162b2 and 886 (56.4%) after mRNA-1273. In the multivariate analysis, mRNA-1273 showed a greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2 (OR=3.04 (95% CI 2.48 - 3.73;p-value: <0.0001)). Conclusions: Our study shows that mRNA-1273 has greater reactogenicity than BNT162b2. Overall, both mRNA vaccines had a reasonable tolerability profile, compared in a real-world scenario. This can be understood as a reassuring message for the medical and scientific community.

7.
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM ; 65(4):40-46, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1955292

ABSTRACT

Throughout history, Mexico has been affected by major epidemics and pandemics, for this reason the health system of each era has had to develop, adopt and perpetuate multiple actions and health security measures, in which the following measures stand out: vaccination, adequate personal hygiene, a balanced diet, water chlorination, suspension of some activities, adequate disinfection of public places, preventive and disinfection measures in homes, quarantine, isolation or confinement, correct use of face masks, avoid crowded places, prohibit or avoid collective meetings, this just to mention the most relevant. The aforementioned cares have been implemented with the intention of mitigating and eradicating its spread, as well as reducing its morbidity and mortality from it. The COVID-19 pandemic, like other pandemics that have arisen over time in México, have affected various aspects such as economic, social, political and especially sanitary health. As time has passed, the crisis that the health sector is going through has become evident, which has forced the corresponding health authorities to make multiple efforts to face it and try to cope with these epidemics and pandemics. In this article we make a brief account of the epidemics and pandemics that have affected Mexico from the year 1450 to 2020, as well as the historical evolution of the pertinent health authorities and the general aspects of health law. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] A lo largo de su historia, México ha sido afectado por diversas epidemias, así como pandemias, y el sistema de salud de cada época ha tenido que desarrollar, adoptar y perpetuar múltiples acciones y medidas de seguridad sanitarias, entre las que destacan las siguientes: vacunación, higiene personal, sana alimentación, cloración del agua, suspensión de actividades, desinfección de lugares públicos y casas, cuarentena, confinamiento o aislamiento, uso de cubrebocas, evitar lugares concurridos, prohibición de reuniones colectivas, por mencionar las más relevantes. Todo lo anterior se ha implementado con la intención de mitigar y erradicar su propagación;así como disminuir su morbilidad y mortalidad. La pandemia por COVID-19, al igual que todas las epidemias y pandemias que se han presentado en México, ha trastocado diversos aspectos como el económico, social, político y sanitario. En cada época se ha hecho evidente la crisis por la que atraviesa el sector salud, lo cual ha implicado que las autoridades sanitarias realicen múltiples esfuerzos para hacerles frente y tratar de sobrellevarlas. En este escrito hacemos un breve recuento de las epidemias y pandemias que han afectado a México, desde el año 1450 hasta el 2020, la evolución histórica de las autoridades sanitarias y los aspectos generales del Derecho Sanitario. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Revista de la Facultad de Medicina de la UNAM is the property of UNAM, Facultad de Medicina and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Smart Homecare Technology and TeleHealth ; 9:1-9, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1951847

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a shift towards increased use of telemedicine applications for healthcare service provision and delivery. Thus, awareness among healthcare practitioners of telemedicine policies is critical for proper implementation and utilization of telemedicine technology. Objective: This study assesses the level of computer access and literacy, knowledge of telemedicine policies and technology, perceptions, and willingness to use telemedicine among healthcare practitioners working in ambulatory care clinics. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital in Jeddah. Data were collected between February and March 2021 using a self-completed online survey. Results: Of 136 healthcare practitioners surveyed, we found that over half had average to high knowledge about telemedicine technology, tools, guidelines, security, and privacy policies within the hospital. 95% were willing to use telemedicine to consult with large centers in their medical or clinical specialty and support further implementation of telemedicine technology in the hospital. 90% expressed a need for continuous training in the use of telemedicine. Conclusion: The current study shows that there is inadequate computer access and knowledge of telemedicine, but there were very positive perceptions and willingness related to telemedicine among healthcare practitioners working in the ambulatory care clinics. There is an urgent need for orientation and training programs that focus on the technology and applications of telemedicine, as well as current policies.

9.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e059091, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 among Bangladeshi mothers with children aged 2 years or less and adult males. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the knowledge and practices using a multistage cluster sampling technique. SETTINGS: Six districts with high COVID-19 infection rates in Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: 2185 mothers of under-2 children and 657 adult males were surveyed in December 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We constructed weighted composite knowledge and practice scores and examined associations between composite scores and background characteristics using linear regression models. RESULTS: Knowledge on possible routes of transmission of the novel coronavirus and the critical handwashing and mask-wearing etiquettes was poor. On a scale of 100, the mean composite knowledge scores of mothers and adult males were respectively 33.5 (SD=15; 95% CI 32.9 to 34.1) and 38.2 (SD=14.8; 95% CI 37.1 to 39.4). In contrast to knowledge, adult males obtained lower practice scores than mothers, primarily due to poor physical distancing practices. The mean practice scores of mothers and adult males were 63.0 (SD=18.1; 95% CI 62.3 to 63.8) and 53.4 (SD=17.5; 95% CI 52.0 to 54.7). Moreover, education, household income and access to television and the internet are significantly associated with knowledge. People residing proximal to a city revealed higher knowledge than the relatively distant ones. This was also the case for practice scores; however, the other factors associated with knowledge did not have a significant association with practices. CONCLUSIONS: In general, both mothers and adult males presented with poor knowledge and practices related to COVID-19. While local, national and international institutions should design and implement educational interventions to help improve knowledge, our research shows that mere knowledge may not be enough to ensure practice. Hence, authorities could reinforce positive social norms by setting benchmarks and introducing rewards or sanctions to improve practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male
10.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e47, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931256

ABSTRACT

Common carotid intima-media thickness (ccIMT) progression is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD), whereas healthy lifestyle habits are associated with lower ccIMT. The objective of the present study was to test whether a healthy lifestyle intervention can beneficially affect ccIMT progression. A community-based non-randomised, controlled lifestyle intervention was conducted, focusing on a predominantly plant-based diet (strongest emphasis), physical activity, stress management and social health. Assessments of ccIMT were made at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Participants had an average age of 57 years and were recruited from the general population in rural northwest Germany (intervention: n 114; control: n 87). From baseline to 1 year, mean ccIMT significantly increased in both the intervention (0⋅026 [95 % CI 0⋅012, 0⋅039] mm) and control group (0⋅045 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅056] mm). The 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was lower in the intervention group (P = 0⋅022; adjusted for baseline). In a subgroup analysis with participants with high baseline mean ccIMT (≥0⋅800 mm), mean ccIMT non-significantly decreased in the intervention group (-0⋅016 [95 % CI -0⋅050, 0⋅017] mm; n 18) and significantly increased in the control group (0⋅065 [95 % CI 0⋅033, 0⋅096] mm; n 12). In the subgroup, the 1-year trajectory of mean ccIMT was significantly lower in the intervention group (between-group difference: -0⋅051 [95 % CI -0⋅075, -0⋅027] mm; P < 0⋅001; adjusted for baseline). The results indicate that healthy lifestyle changes may beneficially affect ccIMT within 1 year, particularly if baseline ccIMT is high.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cohort Studies , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
11.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 34(1):7-11, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1924843

ABSTRACT

Shanghai is a super-large metropolis with a highly developed globalization. Since the 21st century, Shanghai has experienced several threats of emerging and imported infectious diseases. Infectious disease surveillance has been established and developed from single-disease surveillances to a comprehensive surveillance network. Integration of clinical and preventive medicine has been gradually extended, which facilitates the improvement in the monitoring and early warning system. In 2020, when the COVID-19 epidemic spread, Shanghai quickly established a prevention and control expert team and a clinical medical expert team to effectively and shortly control local COVID-19 epidemic. In order to improve Shanghai's capacity to respond to major epidemics of infectious diseases and public health emergencies, the metropolis will build and improve a three-level diagnosis and treatment system for emerging, imported, rare, and unknown infectious diseases in the next five years. Based on the big data monitoring platform of medical institutions, Shanghai will achieve the intelligence-supported diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, and consolidate the cooperation to implement the integration of clinical and preventive medicine.

12.
Gac Sanit ; 36 Suppl 1: S4-S12, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920881

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The World Health Organization declared the global SARS-CoV-2 infection a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The objective of this paper is to present its impact in terms of physical and mental health 22 months later. METHOD: We have reviewed results from published meta-analysis and systematic reviews, and some individual articles on specific aspects of special interest. National information on infection comes for the Red Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica (RENAVE). RESULTS: Up to the end of October, more than 250 million infections and 5 million deaths had been reported globally. In Spain, 4.7 million infections have been documented although the real figure might be above 7 million. The pandemic has reduced life expectancy, and its effects have been especially dramatic in people with comorbidities and the elderly. There is a worsening of mental health in the general population. It is foreseeable that some groups, such as health professionals, mostly women, and front-line workers, may have a greater risk of developing mental health pathologies. The pandemic and the control measures have had other undesirable consequences such as a decrease in healthcare utilization, an increase in sedentary lifestyle or an increase in gender violence. In addition to its immediate effect on morbidity and mortality, the control measures have damaged the overall health status of the global population. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the mid and long consequences of the pandemic and the control measures, and to identify and evaluate effective health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
14.
Medical Science ; 26(123):9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918411

ABSTRACT

Introduction: When the COVID-19 emerged, and lockdowns were imposed, e-learning was adopted as an alternative teaching method. Our study aimed to assess e-learning acceptance facilitators and barriers among trainees of the Saudi Board of Preventive Medicine (SBPM) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A Cross-sectional study used an electronic questionnaire as Google Form, which included the E-learning acceptance measure (ElAM) with its three constructs and inquired about attitude, barriers, advantages, and disadvantages of e-Leaming. Data analysis was done with descriptive statistics, the student's t-test and multiple linear regressions. Results: The studies showed an 83% response rate, and most (75%) of the trainees were satisfied with the e-learning experience. Around 65.6% of the trainees did not report any challenges securing the internet during the online learning period. The ElAM mean score was 111.97 +/- 23.04. Trainees with difficulty securing the internet for learning had a significantly reduced total ElAM score and its three constructs (p<0.001). Of respondents, 72.6% preferred a combination of e-learning with traditional classrooms as unsuitability for some courses to be online was reported. Conclusion: Three-quarters of trainees welcomed the new learning method because of its flexibility and cost reduction. Around a half preferred the e-leaming coupled with physical training because of limitations line internet issues.

15.
Acad Pediatr ; 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914088

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the influence of a novel infectious disease epidemic on parent general attitudes about childhood vaccines. METHODS: We conducted a natural experiment utilizing cross-sectional survey data from parents of infants in Washington and Colorado participating in a larger trial that began on September 27, 2019. At enrollment, parents completed the short version of the Parental Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV-SF), a validated survey scored from 0 to 4, with higher scores representing more negative attitudes. The exposure variable was onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States, with the before-period defined as September 27, 2019 to February 28, 2020 and the after-period defined as April 1, 2020-December 10, 2020, with the after-period further separated into proximate (April 1, 2020-July 31, 2020) and distant periods (August 1, 2020-December 10, 2020). The outcome variable was parent negative attitudes about childhood vaccines, defined as a score of ≥2 on the PACV-SF. We estimated the probability of the outcome after (vs before) the exposure using log-binomial regression with generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic confounding variables. RESULTS: Among 4562 parents, the risk of negative attitudes was lower immediately after (vs before) SARS-CoV-2 onset (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36, 0.94; P = .027), but by August-December 2020, the average rate of negative attitudes was 35% higher than during April-July 2020 (aRR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.61; P = .0009). CONCLUSIONS: A reduced risk of negative general vaccine attitudes observed immediately after SARS-CoV-2 onset was quickly attenuated.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059661, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nasal sprays could be a promising approach to preventing respiratory tract infections (RTIs). This study explored lay people's perceptions and experiences of using nasal sprays to prevent RTIs to identify barriers and facilitators to their adoption and continued use. DESIGN: Qualitative research. Study 1 thematically analysed online consumer reviews of an RTI prevention nasal spray. Study 2 interviewed patients about their reactions to and experiences of a digital intervention that promotes and supports nasal spray use for RTI prevention (reactively: at 'first signs' of infection and preventatively: following possible/probable exposure to infection). Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. SETTING: Primary care, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 407 online customer reviews. 13 purposively recruited primary care patients who had experienced recurrent infections and/or had risk factors for severe infections. RESULTS: Both studies identified various factors that might influence nasal spray use including: high motivation to avoid RTIs, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic; fatalistic views about RTIs; beliefs about alternative prevention methods; the importance of personal recommendation; perceived complexity and familiarity of nasal sprays; personal experiences of spray success or failure; tolerable and off-putting side effects; concerns about medicines; and the nose as unpleasant and unhygienic. CONCLUSIONS: People who suffer disruptive, frequent or severe RTIs or who are vulnerable to RTIs are interested in using a nasal spray for prevention. They also have doubts and concerns and may encounter problems. Some of these may be reduced or eliminated by providing nasal spray users with information and advice that addresses these concerns or helps people overcome difficulties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Nasal Sprays , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Qualitative Research , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
17.
J Clin Med ; 11(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896894

ABSTRACT

Preventive screening is a highly cost-effective public health intervention. The COVID-19 pandemic may impact preventive healthcare services. This study aimed to assess the frequency of preventive health screening, as well as to identify the factors associated with compliance with health screening guidelines among adults in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional survey was carried out between October and December 2021, among Internet users in Poland. Respondents were asked about the last date that they performed seven different screening tests. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 102,928 adults aged 18-99 years, and 57.2% were female. The most common screening tests performed in the past 12 months were blood pressure measurement (83%), blood count (66.2%), and blood sugar (63.3%). Moreover, more than half of respondents had a urinalysis (53.1%) and lipid panel (55.1%) in the past 12 months. Out of 58,904 females, 69.2% had a cervical cytology in the past 3 years. Older age, having higher education, living in urban areas, being occupationally active, having at least one chronic disease, and visiting a doctor in the past 12 months were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with a higher level of compliance with screening guidelines. This study revealed a significant gap in the performance of preventive health screening.

18.
Russian Journal of Cardiology ; 27(3):18-25, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897228

ABSTRACT

Aim. To study the efficacy and tolerability of Sputnik V vaccination in patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) compared with healthy individuals. Material and methods. The retrospective analysis included data from 800 men and women aged 18 to 90 who were vaccinated from February to May 2021 at the National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine. Sputnik V (Gam-COVID-Vac, Russia), consisting of two doses, was used as a vaccine. The mean age of the patients was 50,46±13,16 years. Patients were questioned in two stages: Before vaccination and after the first dose of vaccination. The following clinical and paraclinical investigations were carried out: Saturation assessment, measurement of temperature, blood pressure and heart rate at rest, pharynx examination, auscultation of the heart and respiratory organs. The blood concentration of antibodies (IgM and IgG) was determined after 21 days and 42 days. For analysis, patients were divided into three groups. The first group included healthy individuals (n=238, 29,8%), the second group — patients with one NCD (n=385, 48,1%), and the third group — patients with two or more NCDs (n=177, 22,1%). Results. The sex composition was comparable in all three groups, while the mean age differed. In the first group, the mean age was 43,93±10,80 years, while in the second and third groups — 50,51±12,55 and 59,12±12,37 years, respectively (p<0,001). Statistical analysis was performed with adjustment for age and sex. The median blood concentration of immunoglobulin G of vaccinated individuals of the cohort after 21 days was within 4,60 [2,00;8,40]. A comparative analysis of the groups did not reveal significant differences. After 42 days, the median concentration of immunoglobulin G increased by 4 times, which is significant (p<0,001) and amounted to 16,20 [15,80;16,40]. In the group of healthy individuals, the concentration of immunoglobulin G was significantly higher compared to groups of individuals with one, as well as two or more NCDs. Forty-two days after vaccination, the concentration of immunoglobulin M both in the cohort and in individual groups did not change significantly compared to the level after 21 days. In addition, 47%, 38% and 40% of participants from the first, second and third groups, respectively, reported some symptoms. A temperature increase on average was detected in 13% of vaccinated individuals. The largest number of persons with fever was registered in the group of healthy individuals — 19%, in the group of patients with one NCD — 14%, and in the group with two or more diseases, the temperature increase was the lowest and amounted to 3% (p<0,001). After the first dose, 18,6% of patients reported taking additional drugs as follows: First group — 23,9%, second group — 15,1%, third group — 19,2%. These are mainly analgesic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antihistamine drugs. Conclusion. Vaccination with Sputnik V increases the immunoglobulin G level in the blood after 42 days by four times compared to after 21 days. This pattern is observed both in the group of healthy individuals and in patients with one, two or more chronic NCDs. Tolerability of vaccination in all groups was comparable and did not lead to visits to healthcare facilities.

19.
Marmara Medical Journal ; 35(2):196-201, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897059

ABSTRACT

Objective: Ozone therapy has been shown to be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of various viral infections. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of ozone therapy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and Methods: A total of 71 individuals who completed at least ten sessions of ozone therapy applied by the method of major autohemotherapy within the last six months were included and telephone call surveys were made. Results: Two out of 71 participants were confirmed to have COVID-19. They both had mild symptoms and were discharged from the hospital in five days. None of the participants with contact or travel history was infected. Conclusion: Ozone therapy could be preventive against COVID-19. It could be considered as an alternative, easy-to-apply, safe, and inexpensive method in the fight against COVID-19.

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054837, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with the infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and identify the factors influencing this compliance using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework. DESIGN: Quantitative data from an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study were employed in this research. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: From 17 May to 30 August 2020, 604 physicians and nurses working at six randomly selected tertiary care facilities in Dhaka City in Bangladesh took part in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with the WHO's guidance on IPC measures, as well as the associated factors, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A mean compliance score of 0.49 (±0.25) was observed on a 0-1 scale. HCWs were most compliant with the medical mask wearing guidelines (81%) and were least compliant with the high-touch surface decontamination regulations (23%). Compliance with the IPC guidance was significantly associated with increasing age, female sex, working as a nurse, having non-communicable diseases and history of exposure to patients with COVID-19. Perceived benefits (B=0.039, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.076), self-efficacy (B=0.101, 95% CI 0.060 to 0.142) and cues to action (B=0.045, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.088) were positively associated with compliance. Compliance with IPC guidance was 0.061 times greater among participants who reported low perceived barriers compared with those with high perceived barriers. CONCLUSION: Overall, compliance with IPC guidance among HCWs was unsatisfactory. As self-efficacy exerted the greatest contribution to compliance, it should be emphasised in any endeavour to improve HCWs' IPC adherence. Such interventions should also focus on perceived barriers, including unreliability of the information sources, unsafe working places and unavailability of protective equipment and cues to action, including trust in the administration and availability of adequate IPC guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL