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J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(4): 1114-1123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751088


Background: The most dreaded pandemic grappling world now, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), chiefly involves the respiratory system; nevertheless, it is a multisystem disorder. Its involvement of the hepatic system is considerable; however, still emerging are its clinical implications and the effects on morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of this study is to report on the various aspects of its hepatic involvement by describing the alterations in tests of liver function and its significance in the disease outcome in a cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients at a tertiary center in northern India. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary-care hospital in northern India. All confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 cases aged 15 and above from Apr to Oct 2020 with no pre-existing liver disease were included. The primary endpoint was death at 28 days. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, sensitivity-specificity, and univariable and multivariable regression analysis as well as survival analysis. Results: A total of 708 patients with COVID-19 fulfilled the inclusion criteria included 561 (79.2%) males and 147 (20.8%) females. The median age was 49 (IQR = 25) years. Mild and moderate/severe disease were seen in 508 (71.8%) and 200 (28.2) patients, respectively. Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were elevated in 6.92%, 69.91%, and 80.22% of patients, respectively. In univariable logistic regression, AST [odds ratio; OR 1.008 95% CI (1.005-1.012) per 1 IU/L increase] and ALT [OR 1.005 95% CI (1.002-1.007) per 1 IU/L increase] were significantly associated with the odds of moderate to severe disease but only AST was significant after adjustment to age, sex, and comorbidity [adjusted odds ratio; aOR 1.007 95% CI (1.003-1.011) per 1 IU/L increase]. Serum albumin was negatively associated with the odds of moderate to severe disease and remained significant in the adjusted model [aOR 0.217 95%CI (0.149-0.316) per 1 g/dL increase].Ninety-six patients succumbed to illness [case fatality rate; CFR 13.6%). In adjusted Cox Proportional-Hazards Model for mortality, AST [adjusted hazard ratio; aHR 1.002 95% CI (1.000-1.003) per 1 IU/L increase] and serum albumin [aHR 0.396 95% CI (0.285-0.549) per 1 g/dL increase] showed significant association with mortality. Conclusion: Liver function abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19. In particular, AST and serum albumin levels are effective predictors of disease severity and mortality and can be used as markers of fatal disease in the management as well as prognostication of COVID-19.

Brain Hemorrhages ; 2(2): 76-83, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597171


COVID-19 patients have presented with a wide range of neurological disorders, among which stroke is the most devastating. We have reviewed current studies, case series, and case reports with a focus on COVID-19 patients complicated with stroke, and presented the current understanding of stroke in this patient population. As evidenced by increased D-dimer, fibrinogen, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces coagulopathy, disrupts endothelial function, and promotes hypercoagulative state. Collectively, it predisposes patients to cerebrovascular events. Additionally, due to the unprecedented strain on the healthcare system, stroke care has been inevitably compromised. The underlying mechanism between COVID-19 and stroke warrants further study, so does the development of an effective therapeutic or preventive intervention.

Metabol Open ; 11: 100101, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275587


The recognition of the rare but serious and potentially lethal complication of vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) raised concerns regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines and led to the reconsideration of vaccination strategies in many countries. Following the description of VITT among recipients of adenoviral vector ChAdOx1 vaccine, a review of similar cases after Ad26.COV2·S vaccination gave rise to the question whether this entity may constitute a potential class effect of all adenoviral vector vaccines. Most cases are females, typically younger than 60 years who present shortly (range: 5-30 days) following vaccination with thrombocytopenia and thrombotic manifestations, occasionally in multiple sites. Following initial incertitude, concrete recommendations to guide the diagnosis (clinical suspicion, initial laboratory screening, PF4-polyanion-antibody ELISA) and management of VITT (non-heparin anticoagulants, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin) have been issued. The mechanisms behind this rare syndrome are currently a subject of active research and include the following: 1) production of PF4-polyanion autoantibodies; 2) adenoviral vector entry in megacaryocytes and subsequent expression of spike protein on platelet surface; 3) direct platelet and endothelial cell binding and activation by the adenoviral vector; 4) activation of endothelial and inflammatory cells by the PF4-polyanion autoantibodies; 5) the presence of an inflammatory co-signal; and 6) the abundance of circulating soluble spike protein variants following vaccination. Apart from the analysis of potential underlying mechanisms, this review aims to synopsize the clinical and epidemiologic features of VITT, to present the current evidence-based recommendations on diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of VITT and to discuss new dilemmas and perspectives that emerged after the description of this entity.

Prog Pediatr Cardiol ; 62: 101407, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253485


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome of children (MIS-C) continues to be a highly concerning diagnosis in those recently infected with SARS-CoV-2. The diagnosis of MIS-C cases will likely become even more challenging as vaccine uptake and natural immunity in previously infected persons leads to lower circulating rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and will make cases sporadic. Febrile children presenting with cardiac dysfunction, symptoms overlapping Kawasaki disease or significant gastrointestinal complaints warrant a thorough screen in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and outpatient pediatric or family medicine practices. An increased index of suspicion and discussion regarding higher level of care (transferring to pediatric tertiary care centers or to intensive care) continues to be recommended. Herein we outline a broad approach with a multidisciplinary team for those meeting the case definition and believe such an approach is crucial for successful outcomes.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 19: 1863-1873, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171610


Metabolic profiling in COVID-19 patients has been associated with disease severity, but there is no report on sex-specific metabolic changes in discharged survivors. Herein we used an integrated approach of LC-MS-and GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics to analyze plasma metabolic characteristics in men and women with non-severe COVID-19 at both acute period and 30 days after discharge. The results demonstrate that metabolic alterations in plasma of COVID-19 patients during the recovery and rehabilitation process were presented in a sex specific manner. Overall, the levels of most metabolites were increased in COVID-19 patients after the cure relative to acute period. The major plasma metabolic changes were identified including fatty acids in men and glycerophosphocholines and carbohydrates in women. In addition, we found that women had shorter length of hospitalization than men and metabolic characteristics may contribute to predict the duration from positive to negative in non-severe COVID-19 patients. Collectively, this study shed light on sex-specific metabolic shifts in non-severe COVID-19 patients during the recovery process, suggesting a sex bias in prognostic and therapeutic evaluations based on metabolic profiling.

Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(7): 324-331, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164195


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate hyperferritinemia could be a predicting factor of mortality in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A total of 100 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in intensive care unit (ICU) were enrolled and classified into moderate (n = 17), severe (n = 40) and critical groups (n = 43). Clinical information and laboratory results were collected and the concentrations of ferritin were compared among different groups. The association between ferritin and mortality was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Moreover, the efficiency of the predicting value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The amount of ferritin was significantly higher in critical group compared with moderate and severe groups. The median of ferritin concentration was about three times higher in death group than survival group (1722.25 µg/L vs. 501.90 µg/L, p < 0.01). The concentration of ferritin was positively correlated with other inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that ferritin was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. Especially, high-ferritin group was associated with higher incidence of mortality, with adjusted odds ratio of 104.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.63-4185.89; p = 0.013]. Moreover, ferritin had an advantage of discriminative capacity with the area under ROC (AUC) of 0.822 (95% CI 0.737-0.907) higher than procalcitonin and CRP. CONCLUSION: The ferritin measured at admission may serve as an independent factor for predicting in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19 in ICU.

ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar si la hiperferritinemia podría ser un factor predictivo de la mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 (COVID-19). MÉTODOS: Se incluyó un total de 100 pacientes hospitalizados con COVID-19 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI), clasificándose como grupos moderado (n = 17), grave (n = 40) y crítico (n = 43). Se recopiló la información clínica y de laboratorio, comparándose los niveles de ferritina entre los diferentes grupos. Se evaluó la asociación entre ferritina y mortalidad mediante un análisis de regresión logística. Además, se evaluó la eficacia del valor predictivo utilizando la curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic). RESULTADOS: La cantidad de ferritina fue significativamente superior en el grupo de pacientes críticos en comparación con el grupo de pacientes graves. La media de concentración de ferritina fue cerca de 3 veces superior en el grupo de muerte que en el grupo de supervivientes (1.722,25 µg/L vs. 501,90 µg/L, p < 0,01). La concentración de ferritina guardó una correlación positiva con otras citoquinas inflamatorias tales como interleucina (IL)-8, IL-10, proteína C reactiva (PRC) y factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF)-α. El análisis de regresión logística demostró que la ferritina era un factor predictivo independiente de la mortalidad intrahospitalaria. En especial, el grupo de ferritina alta estuvo asociado a una mayor incidencia de la mortalidad, con un valor de odds ratio ajustado de 104,97 [intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% 2,63-4.185,89; p = 0,013]. Además, el valor de ferritina tuvo una ventaja de capacidad discriminativa en el área bajo la curva ROC (AUC) de 0,822 (IC 95% 0,737-0,907] superior al de procalcitonina y PRC. CONCLUSIÓN: El valor de ferritina medido durante el ingreso puede servir de factor independiente para prevenir la mortalidad intrahospitalaria en los pacientes de COVID-19 en la UCI.