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1.
Processes ; 10(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071692

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in public health measures concerning food quality and drug safety in supply chains and logistics operations. Against this backdrop, this study systematically reviewed the extant literature to identify gaps in studying food quality and drug safety, the proposed solutions to these issues, and potential future research directions. This study utilized content analysis. The objectives of the review were to (1) identify the factors affecting food quality and possible solutions to improve results, (2) analyze the factors that affect drug safety and identify ways to mitigate them through proper management;and (3) establish integrated supply chains for food and drugs by implementing modern technologies, followed by one another to ensure a multi-layered cross-verification cascade and resource management at the different phases to ensure quality, safety, and sustainability for the benefit of public health. This review investigated and identified the most recent trends and technologies used for successfully integrated supply chains that can guarantee food quality and drug safety. Using appropriate keywords, 298 articles were identified, and 205 were shortlisted for the analysis. All analysis and conclusions are based on the available literature. The outcomes of this paper identify new research directions in public health and supply chain management.

2.
Future Foods ; 6: 100198, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068999

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic COVID-19 has led to an increase in the number of people purchasing food online, which has brought to a higher demand on the food supply chain. Such as the need to collect more information related to food safety and quality in real-time. Strengthening management of food logistics information flow can reduce food loss and waste and bring better quality and safety of food to consumers. In this review, the importance and applicability of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology to smart food packaging are described. This study emphasizes the recent advancement of the RFID tags in humidity, temperature, gas, pH, integrity, and traceability sensor applications in connection with food packaging. RFID sensors are more suitable for smart packaging both in terms of sensing ability and data transmission. A simpler, low-cost, more robust and less power-demanding sensors network is the development direction of smart packaging in the future. Chipless RFID sensors have the potential to achieve these functions. But it still faces many challenges to be overcome. For example, biocompatible, cost, reading range, multi-tag collision, multi-parameter sensors, recycling issues, security and privacy of RFID system should be solved.

3.
Energies ; 15(19):7351, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065782

ABSTRACT

The production of municipal waste is increasing all over the world. Although a significant part of the waste is collected as commingled waste, much of it is recyclable if disposed of properly. Thus, separate deposition and collection plays an extremely important role today, more than ever, not only in terms of preventing pollution but also from the point of view of recycling as a driver of circular economy and of efficient use of resources. This work is focused on the development of compaction equipment to be applied to containers, which allows a more efficient approach to the process of collecting waste for recycling. As a management option, recycling depends on collective behavior which is based on individual acts. Therefore, individual use of plastic/metal compaction systems can help meet recycling targets, even as a complement to conventional bins. Thus, herein a proposal is presented for a plastic/metal collection station with a built-in compaction element that allows for the compacting of the separated waste, individually, in an easily accessible drawer. Sorting and compacting waste before collection will result in a reduction of the number of collection/transport stops, which will also translate into higher energy efficiency, cost savings, optimization of the transported tons/km ratio, and profitability.

4.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 15(1): 60, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the emergence of the global Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) have been extensively used as one of the effective methods of preventing its transmission. The products are dispensed over the counter and used by the general population. Growing concerns have been reported, however, regarding the quality, efficacy and compliance to regulatory requirements calling for objective evidence that can facilitate proactive regulatory measures. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the level of compliance to packaging and labeling regulatory requirements of selected locally manufactured ABHS products marketed in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was employed to randomly collect 25 locally manufactured ABHS products from retail outlets located in Addis Ababa. The manufacturers were grouped under four categories considering their experience in manufacturing, resources and technical capacities. The collected samples were evaluated for compliance to packaging and labeling information regulatory requirements and the results subjected to descriptive analysis. RESULTS: Majority of the products were found to meet most of the packaging, general product description and manufacturer-related information requirements. However, concerning gaps were observed in storage, precaution and warning-related labeling information requirements. The overall compliance of the selected products (to a total of 29 requirements under 5 categories) was 56.9%. The highest level of compliance was for general product information requirements (80.2%) followed by packaging and manufacturer-related requirements accounting for 76.8% and 75.0%, respectively. Low level of compliance was observed for storage condition and precautions (10.2% and 42.4%, respectively). Better overall compliance to packaging and labeling requirements (62.9%) were observed by large pharmaceutical and cosmetics manufacturers, while the lowest compliance level was recorded for medium level pharmaceuticals and cosmetics manufacturers. CONCLUSIONS: Even though most of the selected products were able to comply with the majority of packaging, product description and manufacturer-related requirements, gaps were observed in essential labeling information requirements. Considering the extensive use of ABHS products among diverse population groups and the potential risks associated with inappropriate use of the products, improving regulatory law enforcement practices, strengthening continuing education of manufacturing personnel and raising public awareness is very timely.

5.
29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing, INTERCON 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063267

ABSTRACT

This paper evaluates the integration of the UV ray applied to disinfection in food industry with an automatic packaging machine, instead of traditional methods. This systematic review allows to evaluate the most appropriate solution to the selection of the automatic process and devices involved, in order to reduce the bacterial and virus with UV treatment by a schematic development and its verification through modeling and simulation software. The results obtained demonstrate the ability to control the intensity of UV rays emitted by an OSRAM TYPE UVC lamp with a range between 200-280 nm. It is appropriated for a complete disinfection of food products. And also, that the Proportional-Integrative Control system regulates the set-point in a rise time of 24 ms, settlement of 87.8 ms and overshoot of 13.8%. Our findings are the the control time, efficiency, accuracy and uniformity to be integrated into the packaging process;compared to thermal disinfection methods;with a settlement error of ± 1.48 and its ability to counteract Covid-19. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
Rev Socionetwork Strateg ; 16(2): 615-622, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060082

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2020 has led the changes of many business models, including rapid growth in e-commerce that had made the change of consumers' shopping behavior from physical to online shopping. This study takes Taiwan's cultural and creative industry as an example to understand the relationship between the development of e-commerce and the design of commodity packaging during COVID-19, as well as the changes in consumer consumption patterns during the epidemic period. After exploring more than a dozen cultural and creative brand operators in the target research area using qualitative research methods, this study found that the epidemic has indeed affected the sales of some cultural and creative brands, but through the change of packaging design, consumers' visual perception stimulates the sales of goods and re-established pay attention to the cultural and creative brands when add some new packaging designs, and bring positive effects on e-commerce sales to the brand. Also, the good packaging design brought some more attention and procurement of goods, and also brings the effect of quality improvement.

7.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition ; 75(Supplement 1):S251-S252, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057929

ABSTRACT

Background: In Colorado, food insecurity affects about 10% of patients with celiac disease and is associated with decreased adherence to gluten-free diet. With the COVID-19 pandemic, demand for gluten-free foods from food banks increased. We sought to assess the availability of gluten-free foods at food banks in Colorado during the pandemic. Method(s): Food banks in Colorado were asked to complete a survey about general understanding of celiac disease and identifying perceived barriers to providing gluten-free foods to people with celiac disease and food insecurity. In-person visits with additional predefined questions for the director were planned. Result(s): Of the 63 food banks contacted, 27 (43%) responded and 15 (24%) completed questionnaires (Table). Some in the Denver Metro area reported no barriers as they felt well equipped with resources and information related to celiac disease. The most common barrier reported was access to gluten-free foods from both donors and from mass suppliers. The next most common barriers were volunteer training and lack of celiac community advocacy about need. Of 16 providing written responses, 8 requested written resources and 3 indicated a separate area for those with food restrictions and adequate supply of gluten-free foods. Only one food bank was visited. The others were inaccessible due to lack of resources or capacity due to the pandemic or lack of communication. The food bank visited was Integrated Family Community Services, a social service whose mission is to alleviate hunger and empower people to make health adjustments. This food bank works with hospitals and the community to support low-income families in Englewood CO, an area with population at high risk of food insecurity. The director at this food bank reported knowing what celiac disease and gluten-free are, as well as trying to provide food for those with specific food restrictions. Prior to COVID, recipients could select the food items they wanted, and gluten-free pastas, flours, breads were separated, as were low glycemic foods for those with diabetes and low sodium foods for those with hypertension. However, due to COVID restrictions, this was no longer possible;volunteers put together pre-made boxes, but not gluten-free boxes. Conclusion(s): During the COVID-19 pandemic, demand for gluten-free food items increased;however, not only was there diminished supply of gluten-free foods to food banks by large and small donors, food banks also were reduced in their capacity to sort and deliver the gluten-free foods to those in need. In addition, there was little awareness of the need for gluten-free donations and the need for volunteers at the food banks. Food insecurity is a contributing factor in adverse health outcomes for celiac disease. Discussion(s): Food insecurity is common, impacting 10%-20% of families with celiac disease and is associated with rural communities, reduced adherence to the gluten-free diet, and the burden of the higher cost of gluten-free foods on low income families. Recognizing the impact on social determinants of health, the US Preventive Services Task Force is developing a research agenda for food insecurity. Strategies celiac centers could adapt to improve access include 1) focused advocacy to increase donations to food banks by gluten-free food producers, 2) creation of areas within food pantries for special dietary needs, 3) provide expert dietitian support to food banks, 4) develop written resources about gluten-free foods, labelling and recipes for food banks, and 5) improve staffing by promoting volunteering. Limitations of this study include low participation rate by food pantries, inability to visit more than one pantry during this study, and extrapolation of findings to other areas outside Colorado. Future directions could include studies to increase health care systems awareness of and screening for food insecurity (demand side), as well as partnering with food banks and gluten free food manufacturers and suppliers to enhance the availability of these foods (supply side) and then assess any impact on health outcomes. (Table Presented).

8.
Transnational Marketing Journal ; 10(2):443-457, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2057047

ABSTRACT

Sustainable development is the path of the present and the economic and productive future. The pandemic has transformed the purchasing habits of goods, especially food products, its packaging and consequently the packaging sector as a whole is directly involved. Together with this remarkable transformation, sustainability represents another challenge of equal impact. Two surveys carried out by Nomisma Observatory in 2019 and 2020 targeting 1,000 and 1,008 consumers respectively on consumer packaged goods together with some direct qualitative interviews with packaging companies helped understand how consumer sensitization to issues of sustainability can change the packaging products, the materials used and the production methods and technologies. Manufacturing and packaging companies are facing a difficult challenge to better communicate the issue of sustainability through their products and the challenge of their clients in finding adequate margins to accelerate change in a market of consumers who are in part sensitive to sustainable development but not so willing to change their consumer spending behaviour. This study examines the possible obstacles in the value chain starting from the companies that produce packaging machinery, which must be able to process new materials, up to the production companies which in turn use such machinery for packaging their product to be offered to the final consumer. It is a team game that must involve government, industry, retailers and consumers. Enabling technologies, properly used, may provide a solution to this difficult balance in the future. © 2022 Transnational Press London

9.
AAPS J ; 24(6): 101, 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054053

ABSTRACT

This publication provides some industry reflections on experiences from the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) development and manufacture and supply of vaccines and therapies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It integrates these experiences with the outcomes from the collaborative work between industry and regulators in recent years on innovative science- and risk-based CMC strategies to the development of new, high-quality products for unmet medical needs. The challenges for rapid development are discussed and various approaches to facilitate accelerated development and global supply are collated for consideration. Relevant regulatory aspects are reviewed, including the role of Emergency Use/Conditional Marketing Authorizations, the dialogue between sponsors and agencies to facilitate early decision-making and alignment, and the value of improving reliance/collaborative assessment and increased collaboration between regulatory authorities to reduce differences in global regulatory requirements. Five areas are highlighted for particular consideration in the implementation of strategies for the quality-related aspects of accelerated development and supply: (1) the substantial need to advance reliance or collaborative assessment; (2) the need for early decision making and streamlined engagement between industry and regulatory authorities on CMC matters; (3) the need to further facilitate 'post-approval' changes; (4) fully exploiting prior and platform knowledge; and (5) review and potential revision of legal frameworks. The recommendations in this publication are intended to contribute to the discussion on approaches that can result in earlier and greater access to high-quality pandemic vaccines and therapies for patients worldwide but could also be useful in general for innovative medicines addressing unmet medical needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics ; 122(10):A109-A109, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2047212
11.
Food Research ; 6(4):407-412, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044349

ABSTRACT

Nutritional labelling is the nutritional description of the food on the label to help the consumer in food selection. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices adopted by the subjects and correlate them to have a better understanding of their nutritional background. Nutrition labels are a prominent first-glance article that needs to be very catchy and easy to interpret. The organizations responsible for formulating the rules and regulations must keep them updated and devise new formats of the display to enhance the usage of food labels up to the maximum possible level. A cross-sectional research study on 100 working women of Varanasi, aged between 20-50 years was conducted through a self-structured questionnaire to evaluate their KAP level. In view of the COVID-19 pandemic, the questionnaire was administered to the respondents through the online medium using Google forms. It can be inferred from the study that 58 % of the total respondents surveyed were aware of the labels, 61% of them had a positive attitude towards its usage but only 52% practised healthy shopping more often. About 70% of the participants preferred back-of-pack labelling rather than front-of-pack because the former provides elaborative information. The factors like qualification and occupation of women participants had negative associations with the satisfaction of the display format. The women having knowledge regarding traffic light labelling showed a positive association with the usefulness of the same. The average practice percentage adopted by the consumers had a negative association with factors like qualification, income, and occupation. The need for simplifying the display format and providing basic nutrition information to the population is highlighted in this study.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043912

ABSTRACT

Consumers are now more concerned about food safety and hygiene following the COVID-19 pandemic. Antimicrobial packaging has attracted increased interest by reducing contamination of food surfaces to deliver quality and safe food while maintaining shelf life. Active packaging materials to reduce contamination or inhibit viral activity in packaged foods and on packaging surfaces are mostly prepared using solvent casting, but very few materials demonstrate antiviral activity on foods of animal origin, which are important in the human diet. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles, essential oils and natural plant extracts as antimicrobial agents in/on polymeric matrices provides improved antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties. This paper reviews recent developments in antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral packaging incorporating natural or synthetic compounds using preparation methods including extrusion, solvent casting and surface modification treatment for surface coating and their applications in several foods (i.e., bakery products, fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products, fish and seafood and milk and dairy foods). Findings showed that antimicrobial material as films, coated films, coating and pouches exhibited efficient antimicrobial activity in vitro but lower activity in real food systems. Antimicrobial activity depends on (i) polar or non-polar food components, (ii) interactions between antimicrobial compounds and the polymer materials and (iii) interactions between environmental conditions and active films (i.e., relative humidity, oxygen and water vapor permeability and temperature) that impact the migration or diffusion of active compounds in foods. Knowledge gained from the plethora of existing studies on antimicrobial polymers can be effectively utilized to develop multifunctional antimicrobial materials that can protect food products and packaging surfaces from SARS-CoV-2 contamination.

13.
Surf Interfaces ; 34: 102349, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042150

ABSTRACT

Following the global corona virus pandemic and environmental contamination caused by chemical plastic packaging, awareness of the need for environmentally friendly biofilms and antibacterial coatings is increasing. In this study, a biodegradable hybrid film, comprising of green-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with a chitosan (CS) matrix, was fabricated using a simple casting procedure. The ZnO NPs were synthesized using wild Mentha pulegium extract, and the synthesized NPs and films were characterized using different approaches. The structural, morphological, mechanical, antibacterial, and optical properties, as well as the hydrophilicity, of the prepared samples were investigated using various techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed the presence of phenolic compounds in the M. pulegium extract. In addition, a strong coordination connection between Zn2+ and the chitosan matrix was confirmed, which resulted in a good dispersion of ZnO in the chitosan film. The surface of the composite films was transparent, smooth, and uniform, and the flexible bio-based hybrid films exhibited significant antibacterial and antioxidant characteristics, strong visible emission in the 480 nm region, and UV-blocking properties. The ZnO/CS films displayed a potential to extend the shelf life of fruits by up to eight days when stored at 23°C, and also acted as an acceptable barrier against oxygen and water. The biodegradable ZnO/CS film is expected to keep fruit fresher than general chemical plastic films and be used for the packaging of active ingredients.

14.
Reference Module in Food Science ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041388

ABSTRACT

Concerns over whether people can be infected with SARS-CoV-2 from food and packaging have caused significant disruption to global food trade. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can remain infectious and detectable on packaging or some foods under certain cold-chain conditions. However, there is minimal evidence that people have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 from packaging or from foodborne transmission. Cooking of food will inactivate the virus. Any infectious SARS-CoV-2 present in consumed food would likely be inactivated by stomach acid. Nonetheless, good food hygiene practices are sensible precautions to minimize any possibility of food or packaging acting as a vector for SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Revista de Gestão Social e Ambiental ; 16(1):1-15, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040619

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O artigo buscou analisar os impactos e reflexos da pandemia de COVID-19 na gestão dos resíduos plásticos. Referencial teórico: A preocupação com a COVID-19 resultou em diversas medidas protetivas, como a determinação do uso de EPIs e restrições de circulação nos centros urbanos. Essas mudanças também impactaram padrões de geração e gestão de resíduos sólidos, especialmente de resíduos plásticos, cujos reflexos negativos nos aspectos socioambientais podem emergir, dado seu descarte inadequado. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de literatura, nas bases de dados Scopus, Sage e Web of Science, com utilização do Methodi Ordinatio. Ao total, 22 estudos foram selecionados, compondo o portfólio de pesquisa. Resultados e conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram uma maior concentração de estudos que relacionam os resíduos plásticos nas regiões costeiras, especialmente provenientes de EPIs, e a poluição por microplásticos. Além disso, há uma preocupação com a geração de resíduos de embalagens pela alteração nos padrões de consumo, com o aumento da procura por serviços de e-commerce e delivery. Além de uma preocupação ambiental, destaca-se um problema de ordem social à longo prazo, devido à quebra de padrões de comportamentos sustentáveis na utilização de plástico descartável. Implicações da pesquisa: Soluções são propostas no sentido de utilização de plásticos biodegradáveis, reutilização de EPIs e novas tecnologias de tratamento de resíduos, além da mudança no comportamento social. Originalidade/valor: De um modo geral, o estudo fornece insights e promove reflexões sobre os desafios enfrentados no gerenciamento de resíduos plásticos durante a pandemia de COVID-19.Alternate :Purpose: The article aims to analyze the impacts and reflections of the COVID-19 pandemic on plastic waste management. Theoretical Framework: The concern with COVID-19 resulted in several protective measures, such as the use of PPE and movement restrictions in urban centers. These changes also affected patterns of generation and management of solid waste, especially plastic waste, whose negative effects on socio-environmental aspects may emerge due to its inadequate disposal. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review in the databases Scopus, Sage and Web of Science, employing the Methodi Ordinatio. The review selected 22 studies to compose the research portfolio. Results and conclusion: The results showed a higher concentration of studies on plastic waste in coastal regions, especially from PPE and microplastic pollution. Moreover, there is a concern with the generation of packaging waste by shifting consumption patterns with the increased demand for e-commerce and delivery services. Besides an environmental concern, a long-term social problem stands out regarding the breaking of sustainable behavior patterns in using disposable plastic. Research implications: We propose solutions involving the use of biodegradable plastics, reuse of PPE, and new waste treatment technologies, besides changes in social behavior. Originality/Value: Overall, the study provides insights and promotes reflections on the challenges faced in managing plastic waste during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Amfiteatru Economic ; 24(61):797-816, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2030566

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the proportion of the obese population has increased significantly in recent decades. Using FOPL (front-of-pack labelling) with clear nutritional information could also be helpful in eliminating this problem. The main aim of this contribution is to analyse the effects of using nutritional FOPL on consumers choices. The analysis was based on the research, while 1000 respondents were asked to choose the desired product variant in three categories - cereals, yoghurts and protein bars without FOPL and with FOPL on their package. Two of the most discussed FOPL systems in the EU (Nutri-Score and Nutrinform) were analysed. Changes in consumer choice were analysed using non-parametric statistics, multiple correspondences, and correlation analysis. The results showed that both FOPLs affect the consumer in all products. The effects of FOPL resulted in choosing the best product (for cereals from 47% to 49%;for yoghurts from 28% to 31%;for bars from 28% to 42%) and improved consumers' choice. There are differences in effects between Nutri-Score (NS) and Nutrinform (NI). NS seems to be a more effective system because it has a stronger positive impact on consumers' choices. For cereals, the selection improved by 18% (NS) vs. 15% (NI), for yoghurts by 17% (NS) vs. 13% (NI), and for bars 28% (NS) vs. 20% (Nl). The results among different product categories were not consistent. Consumers' attitudes toward a healthier diet can be improved using nutritional FOPL.

17.
Journal of Current Science and Technology ; 12(2):297-305, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030371

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has damaged global public health. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is the major viral RNA-binding protein that recognizes and binds to a specific sequence in the viral RNA genome, designated as a packaging signal (PS), and initiates viral genome packaging. However, the molecular details of the packaging mechanism and consensus on the PS sequence in the SARS-CoV-2 genome remain elusive. This study aims at development of a bacteria-based inhibition assay for measuring the interaction of N protein with viral RNA fragments in order to identify PS from SARS-CoV-2 genome. We initially conducted an unbiased bioinformatic analysis based on the conserved regions in both RNA sequence and secondary structure, and made predictions for three highly plausible packaging signal candidates (PSCs), referred to as PSC1, PSC2, and PSC3, within nucleotides 20,080 to 21,171 in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. These PSC cDNAs were fused with the downstream luciferase gene and introduced, along with the N protein expression plasmid, into the Lemo21 (DE3) Escherichia coli system. We carried out extensive optimization of the bacteria-based inhibition system and assessed the N–PS interaction through the translational suppression of luciferase expression. The results showed over 70% inhibition of luciferase expression for PSC1 and PSC2 with both N proteins from SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, supporting our bioinformatic prediction. Our results provide a useful tool for further elucidating of the mechanism of viral genome packaging and for studying other RNA–protein interactions. © 2022, Rangsit University. All rights reserved.

18.
Energies ; 15(16):5894, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023305

ABSTRACT

The study concerns the preparation of post-consumer food packaging for selective collection that takes place in households. The previously reported results suggested that the economic cost of washing the packaging exceeded the value of recyclable materials. A shortage of up-to-date papers on the economic balance of packaging washing, taking into account current trends in the increase of prices of materials and energy carriers, has been identified. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of the application of particular heat sources on the total cost of preparing the glass and plastic packaging for selective collection, as well as to compare the cost with the economic value of recyclables. Over the last ten years, a drop in the purchase price of glass cullet and post-consumer plastic, as well as an increase in the cost of cold and hot water, have been reported. Accordingly, the profit of packaging cleaning, defined as the difference between the value of recyclable materials and the cost of washing them, has decreased. The energy consumed for water heating was identified as the most relevant factor affecting the entire economic balance. Even assuming the most efficient water heating solutions, the pre-treatment of the post-consumer food packaging turned out to be unprofitable. The conclusion reached in the previously published study has been confirmed.

19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0186222, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019795

ABSTRACT

In 2020 and 2021, many meat processing plants faced temporary closures due to outbreaks of COVID-19 cases among the workers. There are several factors that could potentially contribute to the increased numbers of COVID-19 cases in meat processing plants: the survival of viable SARS-CoV-2 on meat and meat packaging materials, difficulties in maintaining workplace physical distancing, personal hygiene, and crowded living and transportation conditions. In this study, we used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 to determine viral survival on the surface of meat, namely, stew-cut beef and ground beef, and commonly used meat packaging materials, such as plastic wrap, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam. From our studies, we observed the infectivity of MHV inoculated on ground beef and stew-cut beef for 48 h and saw no significant loss in infectivity for MHV from 0 to 6 h postinoculation (hpi) (unpaired t test). However, beginning at 9 hpi, viral infectivity steadily decreased, resulting in a 1.12-log reduction for ground beef and a 0.46-log reduction for stew-cut beef by 48 hpi. We also observed a significant persistence of MHV on meat packaging materials, with Styrofoam supporting the highest viability (3.25 × 103 ± 9.57 × 102 PFU/mL, a 0.91-log reduction after 48 hpi), followed by meat-absorbent material (75 ± 50 PFU/mL, a 1.10-log reduction after 48 hpi), and lastly, plastic wrap (no detectable PFU after 3 hpi, a 3.12-log reduction). Despite a notable reduction in infectivity, the virus was able to survive and remain infectious for up to 48 h at 7°C on four of the five test surfaces. Our results provide evidence that coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, could potentially survive on meat, meat-absorbent materials. and Styrofoam for up to 2 days, and potentially longer. IMPORTANCE The meat industry has been faced with astronomical challenges with the rampant spread of COVID-19 among meat processing plant workers. This has resulted in meat processing and packaging plant closures, creating bottlenecks everywhere in the chain, from farms to consumers, subsequently leading to much smaller production outputs and higher prices for all parties involved. This study tested the viability of meat and meat packaging materials as potential reservoirs for SARS-CoV-2, allowing the virus to survive and potentially spread among the workers. We used murine hepatitis virus (MHV) as a biosafety level 2 (BSL2) surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Our results suggest that ground beef, stew-cut beef, meat-absorbent material, and Styrofoam can harbor coronavirus particles, which can remain viable for at least 48 h. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that the environmental and physical conditions within meat processing facilities can facilitate the survival of viable virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Viruses , Mice , Cattle , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Containment of Biohazards , Polystyrenes , Meat
20.
Weishengwuxue Tongbao = Microbiology ; 49(8):3220, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012955

ABSTRACT

[Background] The epidemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019 brought challenges to food safety. 【Objective】To evaluate the contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork sold in the post-epidemic era. [Methods] During the epidemic period from 2020 to 2021, fresh pork from different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons were selected to analyze the contamination rate and contamination level of Listeria monocytogenes, and the epidemiological characteristics of the isolated strains were analyzed. [Results] The contamination rate of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh pork was 15.28% (77/504), and the contamination rate in pork direct-sale stores and farmers' markets was higher than that in supermarkets. Among different packaging methods, the contamination rates of pre-packaging and simple packaging were higher than those of bulk samples, and there were significant differences in the contamination rates in different quarters, with the highest contamination rate in the third quarter, which was 27.78%. Quantitative results found that 40.26% exceeded 10 MPN/g (MPN: most probable number), and 3 samples had contamination levels over 100 MPN/g. The results of serotype analysis showed that 1/2a-3a (48.05%) and 1/2c-3c (44.16%) were the main serotypes. The results of drug resistance test showed that 19.50% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant, 2 (2.60%) were sensitive to all antibiotics, 68 (88.30%) were resistant to oxacillin, and 46 (59.70%) were resistant to oxacillin. Ampicillin-resistant, 45 strains (58.40%) were resistant to cefotaxime. 【Conclusion】In the post-epidemic era, there are different degrees of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the marketed fresh pork in different locations, different packaging methods and different seasons. The contamination level of individual products is high, and the serum distribution and drug resistance characteristics are diverse. It is necessary to strengthen food safety supervision to reduce the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

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