Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 663
Filter
1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1046780, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109889

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to evaluate public awareness about COVID with aimed to check public strategies against COVID-19. A semi structured questionnaire was collected and the data was analyzed using some statistical tools (PLS-SEM) and artificial neural networks (ANN). We started by looking at the known causal linkages between the different variables to see if they matched up with the hypotheses that had been proposed. Next, for this reason, we ran a 5,000-sample bootstrapping test to assess how strongly our findings corroborated the null hypothesis. PLS-SEM direct path analysis revealed HRP -> PA-COVID, HI -> PA-COVID, MU -> PA-COVID, PM -> PA-COVID, SD -> PA-COVID. These findings provide credence to the acceptance of hypotheses H1, H3, and H5, but reject hypothesis H2. We have also examined control factors such as respondents' age, gender, and level of education. Age was found to have a positive correlation with PA-COVID, while mean gender and education level were found to not correlate at all with PA-COVID. However, age can be a useful control variable, as a more seasoned individual is likely to have a better understanding of COVID and its effects on independent variables. Study results revealed a small moderation effect in the relationships between understudy independent and dependent variables. Education significantly moderates the relationship of PA-COVID associated with MU, PH, SD, RP, PM, PA-COVID, depicts the moderation role of education on the relationship between MU*Education->PA-COVID, HI*Education->PA.COVID, SD*Education->PA.COVID, HRP*Education->PA.COVID, PM*Education -> PA.COVID. The artificial neural network (ANN) model we've developed for spreading information about COVID-19 (PA-COVID) follows in the footsteps of previous studies. The root means the square of the errors (RMSE). Validity measures how well a model can predict a certain result. With RMSE values of 0.424 for training and 0.394 for testing, we observed that our ANN model for public awareness of COVID-19 (PA-COVID) had a strong predictive ability. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, we determined that PA. COVID had the highest relative normalized relevance for our sample (100%). These factors were then followed by MU (54.6%), HI (11.1%), SD (100.0%), HRP (28.5%), and PM (64.6%) were likewise shown to be the least important factors for consumers in developing countries struggling with diseases caused by contaminated water. In addition, a specific approach was used to construct a goodness-of-fit coefficient to evaluate the performance of the ANN models. The study will aid in the implementation of effective monitoring and public policies to promote the health of local people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sustainable Development , Neural Networks, Computer
2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 955145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099227

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the importance of information technology for logistics Small Medium Entreprise (SMEs) in Pakistan. It is the time of technological rapidness; especially after COVID-19, the word business has majorly transformed into a digital business. If an organization did not shift toward technology, it would be hard for it to even sustain in this rapid era. This study adopts the questionnaire after extensive literature review. A quantitative study was conducted among logistics SMEs in Pakistan to empirically verify what competitive advantages they are leading and gaining from information technology and how much information technology is important for their sustainability. The literature lacks information about the ways in which information technology has been integrated into logistics SMEs operating model, and more specifically, there is no information about IT valence, IT resource commitment, IT managerial commitment, and IT competency. The research is primarily quantitative in nature, where the data were collected via a close-ended questionnaire from 340 logistics SMEs in Pakistan. The independent variable of this research was information technology (i.e., IT valence, IT resource commitment, IT managerial commitment, and IT competency), whereas the dependent variable was competitive advantage. The study found that IT had a significant impact on the competitive advantage of logistics SMEs operating in Pakistan. All the variables related to IT had a significant impact on competitive advantage, which included IT valence, IT resource commitment, IT managerial commitment, and IT competency. This study helps managers and owners of logistics SMEs in decision-making, who can understand how much IT can enhance their performance and reduce their risks. This study has been specifically conducted with logistics SMEs operating in Pakistan, which means that there is much scope to be worked upon, i.e., by selecting companies operating in other countries and comparing them with current findings. This study observes the impact of information technology (i.e., IT valence, IT resource commitment, IT managerial commitment, and IT competency) on competitive advantage, and other independent variables can be studied to find the impact on competitive advantage.

3.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099129

ABSTRACT

Amid rising industrialization and economic progress, China has shown exponential growth in energy and fossil fuel consumption;therefore, it faces great global concern and widespread criticism for energy and fuel conservation to reduce fuel-related emissions. In addition, the recent spread of COVID-19 instigates the impact of environmental pollution, exaggerates the virus intensity, and lowers people's immunity due to poor air quality. Therefore, this study explored the role of green energy efficiency and climate technologies in achieving carbon neutrality in China using an advanced quantile autoregressive distributed lag (QARDL) framework. The results indicated that green energy efficiency and climate technologies significantly reduce environmental pollution across all quantiles in the long run. In contrast, urbanization enhances environmental degradation at lower and higher emissions quantiles, while trade only promotes environmental pollution at lower quantiles. These findings suggested using alternative energy sources and carbon-reducing technologies to ensure a sustainable environment.

4.
Annals of Financial Economics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098019

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on Pakistan's traditional (KSE-100) and Islamic (KMI-30) stock market returns. Methodology: This study uses daily data of total cases and deaths of COVID-19 from February 25, 2020 to May 26, 2021. We utilize continuous wavelet transform (CWT), partial wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence transform (WCT) approaches to inspect the impact of COVID-19 on the stock return of KSE-100 and KMI-30 from March 13, 2020 to May 26, 2021. Findings: Contrary to European and several Asian stock markets, these both indexes behave the opposite during COVID-19. This study indicates that COVID-19 influences both these indexes and has a significant impact on both KSE-100 and KMI-30 index in the longer time frame. This study also discloses that with the increasing number of total cases, total death stock market daily return. Practical implications: Investors diversify their portfolio in the desire to achieve maximum return on minimum risk so they diversify across different countries and certain emerging market indexes might provide them a big edge to maximize their return. This diversified strategy can financially support different well-performing emerging markets and save emerging economies. This study enhances the investors trust and confidence to invest in both KSE-100 and KMI-30 due to favorable return of stocks. Originality/value: This examines the co-movement between COVID-19 and the traditional and Islamic stock index of Pakistan whereas, the previous paper only examined the volatility of these indexes during COVID-19. This study also extends the literature that examines how COVID-19 affected the traditional and Islamic stock market indexes.

5.
J Popul Res (Canberra) ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094796

ABSTRACT

An aspect of the Covid-19 pandemic that merits attention is its effects on marriage and childbirth. Although the direct fertility effects of people getting the virus may be minor, the impact of delayed marriages due to the first preventive lockdown, such as that imposed in Pakistan from March 14 to May 8 2020, and the closure of marriage halls that lasted till September 14 may be non-negligible. These demographic consequences are of particular import to developing countries such as Pakistan where birth rates remain high, marriage is nearly universal, and almost all child-bearing takes place within marriage. Based on historic marriage patterns, we estimate that the delay in nuptiality during the first wave of the coronavirus outbreak may affect about half of the marriages that were to take place during the year. In Pakistan, childbearing begins soon after marriage, and about 37% of Pakistani married women give birth to their first child within twelve months of marriage. A sizeable number out of these, around 400,000 annual births that occur within twelve months of the marriage, may consequently be delayed. Postponement of marriages due to the accompanying difficult economic situation and employment precariousness will accentuate this fertility effect. The net fertility impact of the Covid-19 outbreak will ultimately depend not only on the delay in marriages but also on the reproductive behavior of existing couples.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090348

ABSTRACT

Self-medication (SM) is characterized by the procurement and use of medicines by bypassing primary healthcare services and without consulting a physician, usually to manage acute symptoms of self-diagnosed illnesses. Due to the limited availability of primary healthcare services and the anxiety associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, the compulsion to SM by the public has increased considerably. The study aimed to assess the characteristics, practices, and associated factors of SM by the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sargodha, Pakistan. χ2-tests and univariable analyses were conducted to explore the identification of characteristics and the potential contributing factors for SM during COVID-19, while multivariable logistic regression models were run to study the effect of variables that maintained a significant association. The study was performed during July-September 2021, with n = 460 questionnaires returned overall (response rate: 99.5%). The majority of respondents were males (58.7%, n = 270) who live in the periphery of the town (63.9%, n = 294), and most of the respondents belonged to the age group of 18-28 years (73.3%, n = 339). A large number, 46.1% (n = 212), of the participants were tested for COVID-19 during the pandemic, and among them, 34.3% (n = 158) practiced SM during the pandemic; the most common source of obtaining medicines was requesting them directly from a pharmacy (25.0%; n = 127). The chances of practicing SM for medical health professionals were 1.482 (p-value = 0.046) times greater than for non-medical health personnel. The likelihood of practicing SM in participants whose COVID-19 test was positive was 7.688 (p-value < 0.001) times more than who did not test for COVID-19. Allopathic medicines, acetaminophen (23.6%), azithromycin (14,9%), and cough syrups (13%), and over the counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals, vitamin oral supplements, such as Vitamin C (39.1%), folic acid (23.5%), and calcium (22.6%), were the most commonly consumed medicines and supplements, respectively; being a healthcare professional or having a COVID-test prior showed a significant association with the usage of Vitamin C (p < 0.05 in all cases). Respondents who mentioned unavailability of the physician and difficulty in travelling/reaching healthcare professionals were found 2.062-times (p-value = 0.004) and 1.862-times (p-value = 0.021) more likely to practice SM, respectively; SM due to fear of COVID was more common in individuals who had received COVID-tests prior (p = 0.004). Practices of SM were observed at alarming levels among our participants. Consciousness and understanding about the possible adverse effects of SM must be established and validated on a continuous level; in addition, on a commercial level, collaboration from pharmacists not to sell products (especially prescription-only medicines) without a certified prescription must be developed and implemented.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 987452, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080295

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected Pakistan with 1,557,134 cases as of August 4, 2022. However, the data regarding breakthrough infections in Pakistan is scant. Hence, the objective was to analyze SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with respect to vaccines and variants during the fifth wave in Pakistan. Therefore, the Department of Virology (NIH, Pakistan) genotyped 2,467 randomly selected individuals between November 2021 and February 2022 using the SNPsig® SARS-CoV-2 (EscapePLEX) kit (PrimerDesign, UK). P681R and K417N mutations were used to distinguish delta and omicron. Data on the patient's age, gender, date of collection, variant, and vaccination status were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Among 2,467 genotyped samples, Omicron was detected in 58.6% (n = 1445), Delta in 40.4% (n = 998) and undetermined/wildtype variant in 24 samples. The vaccination status of omicron-positive patients showed (49.7%; n = 718/1445) and Delta-positive patients (39.67%; n = 396/998) to be fully vaccinated. Of note, a high percentage 85% of breakthrough cases (n = 947) were identified among fully vaccinated individuals (n = 1114). Among them, 85.9% (n = 617/718) belonged to omicron and 83.3% (n = 330/396) to delta. Moreover, 76.7% (n = 855) of vaccinated individuals (n = 1114) received Sinopharm (n = 432) and Sinovac (n = 423) vaccines. The majority of breakthrough subjects who contracted Omicron were vaccinated with Sinopharm (93.0%, n = 256) and delta with Cansino (100%, n = 44). Individuals vaccinated with Sinovac showed the most frequent breakthrough cases for both Omicron and Delta variant between the 4th and 6th months (n = 278) after primary vaccination as compared to the 7th to 9th months (n = 24) category. While in case of Sinopharm, maximum breakthrough cases occurred between 7th to 9th months (n = 234) as compared to the 4th to 6th months (n = 120) after primary vaccination. Omicron and Delta breakthrough cases in men (n = 364 and 193) are more frequently seen than women (n = 253 and 138) respectively and breakthrough majority cases (n = 392) occurred in individuals aged 18-33 years. Breakthrough cases limiting monitoring in Pakistan impose a substantial constraint on policymakers' ability to take timely effective decisions. Since the current study consists of only a 2,467-genotyped sample, comprehensive data should be analyzed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(5): 65-70, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081654

ABSTRACT

This survey aimed to evaluate the levels of trust and satisfaction among healthcare workers towards the national healthcare delivery system and whether it has been affected by the global disruption created by COVID-19. This was an analytical cross-sectional study that took place from January to October 2021 at a tertiary level health care facility in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, using an online data collection tool. Our sample included 10, 133 healthcare workers of all cadres. Our study found a significant level of distrust of healthcare workers towards multiple aspects of the healthcare delivery system, particularly towards government agencies and other members of healthcare delivery. We noted a significant gender disparity between male and female respondents with males showing more trust than female healthcare workers. We conclude that significant efforts need to be made by policymakers in the government to alleviate this trust deficit before it worsens.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The waning vaccine immunity and emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 led health authorities across the globe to administer booster doses (BDs) of the COVID-19 vaccine. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the COVID-19 vaccine booster hesitancy (VBH) amongst Pakistani healthcare professionals (HCPs). METHODS: A nationwide survey-based study was carried out from April 2022 to May 2022. The online self-administered questionnaire was utilized to collect data regarding demographics (age, gender, marital status, profession, residential area, and province), COVID-19 infection history (infection history, onset, and clinical severity of disease), previous COVID-19 vaccination (type of vaccination and the number of doses), attitudes towards BDs (acceptance, rejection, and hesitancy), and psychological drivers of VBH (perceived effectiveness, vaccine safety, risk/benefit ratio, and vaccine type preference). We assessed the association between the dependent variable attitudes of study participants, regarding BDs and independent variables (demographics, COVID-19 infection history, previous COVID-19 vaccination, and psychological drivers of VBH), by using the Chi-square test/Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Among the 1164 study participants, 51.4% were male, and 80.4% were medical professionals. The half of study participants (52.1%) agreed to take the COVID-19 vaccine BD or had already taken it, while the rest of them refused (34.7%) or hesitated (24.2%) to take it. These attitudes of the participants were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with psychological divers about the COVID-19 vaccine BD. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Pakistani HCPs hesitant to take the COVID-19 vaccine BD had concerns about the safety, efficacy, and risk/benefits ratio of the vaccine's BD. To eliminate the hesitancy, regarding BD in HCPs, certain educational strategies should be implemented by health authorities to address the concerns of HCPs.

10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066605

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy is widespread in many parts of the globe, particularly in low-middle-income countries. Therefore, we surveyed a sample of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy in a low-middle-income country. A cross-sectional sample of 385 confirmed reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 patients treated at secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan, were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake and vaccine hesitancy. The construct validity and reliability of the 11-item vaccine hesitancy questionnaire were also examined. In addition, multivariate logistic regression was used. The majority of the COVID-19 patients admitted to hospitals were not vaccinated (84%). Of those who were willing to receive vaccination, the majority (55%) considered vaccines an effective way to protect people from COVID-19. However, those who were not willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine had significantly higher hesitancy than those willing to receive their COVID-19 vaccine. In addition, older hospitalized COVID-19 patients aged 60 years or above (20-29 years: OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.72, p = 0.001) and patients from urban areas (OR 3.16 95% CI 1.27-7.87, p = 0.013) were more likely to receive the COVID-19 vaccine than younger patients and patients from rural areas. Patients with no formal education had significantly higher hesitancy (OR 5.26; 96% CI 1.85-14.97, p = 0.002) than participants with graduation and above education. More than half of the study's participants did not trust information shared on social media about COVID-19 vaccines and cited newspapers/news channels as their main source of information. The study provides important insights into COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and the impact of vaccination campaigns. Many unvaccinated COVID-19 patients in hospitals highlight the need for an effective vaccination drive to protect people from acquiring infection and subsequent hospitalization.

11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066547

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by viral infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Where upregulation of several important biomarkers and multiple organ dysfunction occurs, this study aimed to evaluate the association of cardiac biomarkers and CS induced acute lung damage with disease severity and mortality in survival of COVID-19 patients. A total of 500 COVID-19 patients with elevated cardiac biomarkers were studied for the analysis of myocardial abnormality through cardiac enzymes, inflammatory biomarkers, and the expression analysis of various cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-25 genes. The elevation of various cardiac enzymes including LDH (87%), CK (78.4%), TNI (80.4%), CK-MB (83%), and D-dimer (80.8%) were found correlated (p < 0.001) with COVID-19 infection. Cardiac enzyme elevation was highly associated with an increased level of inflammatory biomarkers such as CRP (14.2%), SAA (11.4%) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (7.8%) (p = 0.001 for all). The quantitative expression analysis of IL-10, 1L-17, and 1L-25 were found to be high, while those of IL-1 and IL-6 were moderately elevated. The death-to-live ratio of COVID-19 patients was 457:43 indicating that the patients having elevated levels of both CKMB, D-dimer, CK and IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer, Troponin, CK and IL-1, IL-10 had high fatality rate (73% and 12% respectively). The current finding concludes that the evaluation of cardiac biomarkers with cytokine storm plays a significant role in COVID-19-associated anatomical organ damage, myocardial injury, and mortality. Physicians should pay special attention to cardiac biomarkers in patients with old age, inflammation, and comorbidities among COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17/genetics , Pakistan , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Troponin , Interleukin-1
12.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):403-406, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of individuals globally over the last three years and is spreading continuously. In view of different studies and clinical findings, patients suffering with COVID-19 frequently have deranged liver function tests (LFTs), but the clinical significance of this finding is debatable. Objective(s): The present study was aimed to estimate the prevalence, features, and clinical significance of deranged LFTs in COVID-19 infected individuals, who were hospitalized but were not critically ill. Method(s): We conducted a cross sectional from May 2021 to December 2021 at The Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital Islamabd. A total of 250 COVID-19 patients were included in the current study. The patient's blood samples were collected to get laboratory results, which included LFTs. LFTs were performed at the time of admission and every 5 +/- 2 day throughout the stay. The outcome measure was either death or transfer of the patients to an intensive care unit. Result(s): At the time of admission, 160 patients (64%) showed deranged LFTs. Individuals with deranged LFTs experienced more severe inflammation, swelling, and organ damage than those who didn't. Patients with deranged LFTs had a greater proportion of transfer to the ICU (81 vs 17), hospital stay (17 vs 7 days), and death (17 vs 5) than those with normal LFTs. Conclusion(s): The results of the current investigation demonstrated that LFTs data might forecast the degree of illness in patients with COVID-19 infections at the time of admission and during their hospital stay. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

13.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):333-334, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067751

ABSTRACT

Background: During Covid pandemic the teaching/learning shifted from face to face to online. All institutions around the world developed learning environment for the students to facilitate distant learning. Subsequently assessments also followed online. After opening of the institutions on campus learning and assessments were carried out as usual. Objective(s): To see the effectiveness of teaching methods (online versus on campus) and to suggest improvement in both methods of teaching. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study Place and Duration of Study: Hitec-IMS, Taxila Pakistan from 1st September 2021 to 29th February 2022. Methodology: One hundred and ninety six academic performances of students in both the methods of learning were enrolled. Using purposive sampling technique, the EOB results of online and on campus were analyzed. Result(s): The better performance of student in term of summative assessments during online learning. Conclusion(s): Students found online environment better for learning and performing during examinations. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):136-139, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067747

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of smart phones inside hospitals especially in clinically sensitive areas is a subject of debate because it may improve the quality of healthcare but can also be a vehicle of hospital acquired infections. Aim: To determine dentist's knowledge and behavior related to the use of smart phones in clinical environment and to determine the presence of microbial growth on these devices. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which validated survey tool was used to collect data about knowledge and behavior of 397 dental graduates from 8 dental colleges of Pakistan, regarding their usage of smart phones in clinical environment. Bacterial isolates were collected from the smart phones of 45 participants from Fatima Memorial Dental Hospital, Lahore. Results: The SPTC Scale was used to divide the participants into 3 categories;low, moderate and high users. The behavior related to smart phone usage in clinical environment was significantly different among the participants. Moderate users had significantly higher average behavior score of 3.7 (p-value = 0.034). The growth of pathogenic bacterial flora was greater on high users of smart phones (95%,) whereas those participants who were low users the percentage was 37%. Conclusion: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are increasing significantly in number of patients and these can be prevented by adhering to proper hand hygiene practices and if hand hygiene is improved the amount of bacterial load will be less and disinfection of smart phone devices will not be required.

15.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):119-121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067746

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the concerns of university students regarding COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: A Cross-Sectional online survey was conducted among student population living in different socio-economical areas of Karachi. Information was gathered on their age, gender, education level, occupation status, area of residence, and knowledge about lockdown due to Covid-19. These variables were examined according to the socio-economic status of the area where students reside. Results: A total of 200 subjects above 20 years were interviewed out of which data was analyzed for 160 subjects. The majority of students were between the ages of 20-25 years, females, Muslims, and unemployed. According to 86.9% of students COVID- 19 can be prevented by avoiding contact and almost 74.4% students were in favor of lockdown further 37.5% students wanted no gaps between lockdowns. In this study, 31.3% spent time using phones while 15% spent time reading while 22% of the students spent their time in physical activity. Almost 66.3% of students did not develop any psychological problems. About 77.5% did not face any financial problems. Conclusion: Most of the respondents were in favor of lockdown as COVID-19 spread can be prevented by avoiding contact. Study highlighted COVID-19 lockdown had no effect on mental health of the respondents. This study will help in creating awareness regarding lockdown. It will enlighten new arenas for public health experts and stakeholders to develop new strategies, and interventions and predict a preparedness program plan for future Pandemic.

16.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):24-26, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067738

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate the potential use of ivermectin with standard therapy among mild to moderate covid-19 illness. Methods: This is a single-centered, prospective observational, randomized, parallel group (1:1 ratio), standard versus controlled ivermectin study recruited 210 confirmed COVID-19 positive patients who were admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan from 1st November 2020 to 30th May 2021. Data were analyzed using SPSS version Results: Total of 210 patients were enrolled in the study and aged matched patients were divided in two groups 105 patients received ivermectin 6 mg twice a day for five days along with standard therapy while remaining 105 patients received standard therapy as per local and international guidelines. Male were 140(66.7%) and female 70(33.3%);age ranges between 26 to 77 years and majority 140( 66.7%) were more than 50 years of age. Fever, dry cough and dyspnea were the major symptoms seen;112(53.3%) patients had DM as a comorbid illness . Total of 21(20%) of 105 patients of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 on day seven while the other group had positive covid test in all of 105 patients . On day 10 total of 49 more patients from ivermectin group found COVID negative along with 21 previously negative had second PCR was found negative in this way total of 70( 66.7%) of ivermectin group had negative PCR for COVID 19 while 21(20%) patients from non ivermectin got negative PCR for COVID 19 on day 10 . Conclusion: Use of ivermectin with standard therapy clear the virus earlier than standard therapy in mild to moderate COVID-19 infected patients admitted in COVID treatment center of Dr Ruth Kum Pafu Civil Hospital Karachi.

17.
Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research ; 37(3):381-397, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067643

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the contagion corona virus disease has engrossed worldwide attention. The nature of the disease and its spread has put excessive burden on service providers leading to burn out. In the face of health threats and work pressure during pandemic, the current study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 stress on Burnout among health care providers. Following a convenient sampling technique, a sample of 153 healthcare providers with an age ranged from 24 to 60 years were assessed with COVID Stress Scale (Taylor, et al., 2020) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI;Maslach et al., 1997). SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis of data. Findings revealed that Sub-Scales of COVID stress collectively explained 48% of variance in predicting emotional exhaustion and 39% variance in producing depersonalization among healthcare providers. However, COVID stress negatively predicted personal accomplishment among healthcare providers. Moreover, t-test revealed that female healthcare providers showed higher level of COVID stress i.e. danger, socio-economic consequence, xenophobia and compulsive checking as compared to males while non-significant gender differences were observed for contamination and traumatic stress. The study also found a higher level of personal accomplishment among male healthcare providers whereas female healthcare providers demonstrated higher level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in comparison to male health care providers.

18.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12936, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066485

ABSTRACT

Mobile food order applications have become a phenomenal disruption in the food delivery industry. Customers demand better and more consistent experiences when making most purchases, including in food choices. Food delivery platforms have also been seen as the most convenient feature for customers during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although food delivery applications have been widely used, there is only a scarce literature that focuses on the factors that optimize user experience and repurchase intention. The current study attempted to explore customer repurchase intention, driven through cognitive and affective experience, towards food delivery applications. In the current study, we conceptualized and empirically confirmed an integrated model of antecedents for cognitive and affective experience and its influence on application satisfaction and repurchase intention. The model also incorporated situational factors (distance to restaurant and availability of time to visit restaurant) as a moderating variable. To test the proposed model, data were collected from 350 regular users of different food delivery applications. Subsequently, the data were analyzed using partial least square-structural equation modeling where the findings substantially supported the significance of cognitive and affective experience on application satisfaction and repurchase intention towards food delivery applications. In addition, the results of multigroup analysis (MGA) also confirmed the positive impact of situational factors as a moderator between application satisfactions and repurchase intention. The findings of the study provide important insights into how food delivery applications can accelerate cognitive and affective experience and use application satisfaction to encourage repeat buying intention. The results also offer guidance in designing and implementing effective approaches and strategies for food delivery retailers.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066003

ABSTRACT

The world faces a once-in-a-century transformation due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adversely affecting farmers' employment, production practices, and livelihood resilience. Meanwhile, climate change (CC) is a crucial issue limiting agricultural production worldwide. Farmers' lives, severely affected by extreme weather conditions, are resulting in the reduced production of major economic crops. The CC has drastically influenced the major agricultural sectors of Pakistan, leading to a significant decline in farmers' living standards and the overall economy. Climate-smart and eco-friendly agricultural practices can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and ameliorate agricultural productivity under extreme environmental conditions. This paper highlights farmers' autonomous CC adaptation strategies and their influence on cash crop (maize for this study) yield under prevailing circumstances. The current study used a simultaneous equation model to examine the different adaptation impacts on adapters and non-adapters. The survey results of 498 maize farmers in rural Pakistan revealed that growers were aware of the recent CC and had taken adequate adaptive measures to acclimatize to CC. Farmers' arable land area, awareness level, and information accessibility to CC are the most crucial factors that impart a significant role in their adaptation judgments. However, most growers have inadequate adaptation strategies, including improved irrigation and the utilization of extensive fertilizers and pesticides. Using a simultaneous equation model of endogenous switching regression, the study found that farmers not adapted to CC were negatively affecting maize productivity. Therefore, this study suggests that policymakers pay attention to the countermeasures farmers have not taken to mitigate the impact of CC. In addition, policymakers should deliver appropriate adaptation strategies to assist growers in coping with climate-related natural hazards and ensure farmers' livelihood security, rural revitalization, and sustainable agricultural development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Gases , Pesticides , Agriculture/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate Change , Cognition , Farmers , Fertilizers , Humans , Pandemics
20.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 52(3): 240-246, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pakistan has vaccinated over 122 million people. The two vaccines in widespread use are inactivated (BBIBP-CorV & Sinovac) and mRNA forms (BNT162b2 & mRNA-1273). The primary aim of this study was to compare these two forms of vaccines against unvaccinated individuals collectively and then to see which one is more efficacious. METHODS: Case-control study design was used to compare the efficacy of inactivated and mRNA vaccines against symptomatic infection, hospitalisations and mortality due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. We derived recovery time from illness for both vaccines. Furthermore, we also compared the vaccines against similar parameters (symptomatic disease, hospitalisations and mortality). We calculated crude odds ratios for each dependent variable. p value of 0.05 or below was considered significant. RESULTS: Vaccinated individuals were significantly protected from hospitalisations and mortality compared to unvaccinated individuals (p < 0.001). There was no difference in protection from symptomatic disease (p = 0.28), hospitalisations (p = 0.59) and mortality (p = 0.53) between two forms of vaccines. mRNA vaccine had better recovery time than all other vaccines (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our study showed that vaccinated individuals are at low risk of hospitalisations and mortality even without a booster and both vaccine forms are equally effective at preventing hospitalisations and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Case-Control Studies , RNA, Messenger , BNT162 Vaccine , Pakistan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL