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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S98, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2327310

ABSTRACT

Intro: The spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus targets the human cell receptor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2), including the myocardium and heart's conduction system. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 have also been found to exhibit cardiac arrhythmia. Here, a whole-genome sequencing analysis using long-read sequencing was proposed to evaluate the virus genome in a patient who presented with AVNRT as a main presentation of COVID-19. Method(s): The sample was recovered from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens of a 46-year-old female with no comorbidities who presented with palpitation, and ECG showed typical AVNRT features. The RT-qPCR of SARS- CoV-2 was confirmed positive with a CT-value of 15.82. The total RNAs were extracted and proceeded for RT-qPCR and proceeded with Oxford Nanopore Flongle sequencing. The genomics data of the virus was deposited in GISAID (EPI_ISL_3241561) and further analysed using online bioinformatics tools such as Nextclade CLI 2.3.0. Ethical approval (IREC 2021-080) for the study was obtained from IIUM Research Ethics Committee. Finding(s): Here, we reported a total of 29,775 bp near-complete whole-genome belonging to clade 21J (Delta) of AY.79 lineage (also known as B.1.617.2.79), which formed a dominant variant in Malaysia during the time of sampling. Discussion(s): While a previous study showed an association between Delta variant infection with fulminant myocarditis, the present study reported the benign AVNRT as the main presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we observed the presence of the C3037T mutation previously described in the endomyocardial biopsy of a patient with persistent arrhythmia. Conclusion(s): Even though SARS-CoV-2 targets the respiratory tract, the present study supports the evidence that the ACE2 receptors are present in the heart. In addition, COVID19 is causing more and more damage to heart tissue, and viral transcription has been confirmed on cardiomyocytes. Further functional studies are needed to explore the associated mutations and their relation to cardiac manifestation.Copyright © 2023

2.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 62(Supplement 2):ii135-ii136, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326665

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims Through the COVID pandemic there have emerged reports of autoimmunity or new rheumatic diseases presenting in patients after they had COVID-19. This is thought to be caused by cross-reactivity of the COVID-19 spike protein to human antigens. Given the use of mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations which express the spike protein we might expect to see presentation of new rheumatic diseases following their use. We discuss a case where this appears to have occurred. Methods Our patient is a 24-year-old male with mixed phenotype acute leukaemia who had been treated with allogenic stem cell transplant and was currently in remission. He presented with fevers, palpitations, myalgia and bilateral arm and leg swelling. Symptoms began the day after receiving the first dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer/BioNTech.) There were no other symptoms or recent change in medications. Physical examination revealed tender oedema in his forearms, biceps and thighs bilaterally with sparring of the hands. He had reduced power with shoulder (MRC 3/5), elbow (4), wrist (4+) and hip (4) movements. Observations revealed tachycardia and fevers up to 40C. Results Laboratory studies showed markedly elevated C-reactive protein (202), creatinine kinase (6697) and troponin (593) whilst investigations for infection were negative. An autoimmune panel was positive for anti- PM-SCL-75-Ab. An electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia. Echocardiogram was normal. Bilateral upper limb dopplers revealed no deep vein thrombus. An MRI of his thighs showed diffuse symmetrical oedema within the muscles, in keeping with an inflammatory myositis. A quadricep muscle biopsy showed evidence of MHC class 1 up-regulation, suggesting an inflammatory process. In addition, there were numerous macrophages evident in the endomysium. While this can be seen in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), they would usually be found in the perimysium. After discussion between haematology, rheumatology and neurology, this was felt to be a case of vaccine induced myositis and myocarditis. Autoimmune myositis was thought to be less likely due to the relative sparing of the hands and the absence of Raynaud's phenomenon. 1 gram of intravenous methylprednisolone was then given for 3 days. The patient had a marked response with defervescence, improving laboratory markers, improved myalgia and decreased limb swelling. The patient was stepped down to a reducing regime of prednisolone and discharged. Due to relapse whilst weaning he has started on mycophenalate mofetil and rituximab and now continues to improve. Conclusion There are case reports of myositis following COVID-19 vaccination but our patient's case is complicated by the differential diagnosis of GVHD and concurrent myocarditis. Ongoing work is needed to clarify the exact link between vaccination and the presentation of a new inflammatory myositis, but it is important to recognise and start treatment early in order to preserve muscle bulk and ensure recovery.

3.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S682-S683, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2324391

ABSTRACT

Background: The infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 continues affecting millions of people worldwide and vaccines to prevent the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are considered the most promising approach for curbing the pandemic. Otherwise, cardiovascular and neurological complications associated with the vaccines were speculated and some few case reports were published. Objective(s): We describe a case of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) after viral vector COVID-19 vaccination and the possible autoimmune process of the syndrome. Method(s): A 35-year-old female, without previous symptoms or comorbidities, developed intermittent palpitation, intense fatigue and dyspnea, compromising her daily activities, triggered by upright position, seven days following the second dose of the Oxford vaccine. Physical examination was normal, except for a heart rate (HR) increase of 33 beats/min from supine to standing position, with no significant change in blood pressure and reproduction of symptoms. Result(s): A 24-hour Holter monitoring revealed episodes of spontaneous sinus tachycardia correlated with palpitation and fatigue. Extensive diagnostic investigations excluded primary cardiac, endocrine, infectious and rheumatologic etiologies. The patient underwent an autonomic function test which demonstrated normal baroreflex sensitivity, as well as normal cardiovagal and adrenergic scores. Head-up tilt test showed persistent orthostatic tachycardia (HR increase from a medium of 84 beats/min in supine position to 126 beats/min during upright tilt), without hypotension, consistent with the diagnostic criteria for POTS. According to the current guidelines, general behavior recommendations, pharmacotherapy with low dose of propranolol associated with the autonomic rehabilitation were oriented. Along three months of follow-up, the patient reported a gradually improvement in her symptoms. Conclusion(s): POTS is a heterogeneous disorder of the autonomic nervous system characterized by orthostatic tachycardia associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Although the physiopathology of COVID-19 vaccine and autonomic disorders remains speculative, autoimmune response is one of the possible mechanisms. Based on clinic presentation, the time frame of symptom onset is consistent with other well-known post-vaccination syndromes, which may be an indicator of an autoimmune process induced by immunization. Further studies are needed to assess causal relationship between immunization and autonomic dysfunction.Copyright © 2023

4.
Heart Rhythm ; 20(5 Supplement):S673, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2323468

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistence of orthostatic tachycardia, palpitations, and fatigue beyond 4 weeks of an acute COVID-19 infection has been termed Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) POTS. We have previously reported 6-month outcomes of PASC POTS. Long-term management and outcomes of these patients is unknown. Objective(s): To examine the long-term management and outcomes of PASC POTS patients. Method(s): We conducted a retrospective study of all patients who were diagnosed with POTS at Cardiology, Neurology, and Rehabilitation Post-COVID clinic after a COVID-19 infection between March 1, 2020, and November 1, 2022, at the University of Texas Health San Antonio. We examined COVID history, POTS diagnosis, management, and one-year outcomes of post-COVID POTS patients. Result(s): In 42 patients that were diagnosed with PASC POTS, 33 had a one-year follow-up. 100% were female, 60.6% were Caucasian. Average age was 40.6 + 11 years while the average BMI was 31.9 + 10.4 kg/m2. The most common symptoms were fatigue (87.9%), palpitations (75.7%), brain fog (72.7%), orthostatic tachycardia, exercise intolerance, and dyspnea (70%). The mean heart rate change with 10-minute standing test was 42.68 + 26.73 beats per minute. At 12-months follow-up, the most common symptom was still fatigue (66.7%), palpitations (45.5%), orthostatic tachycardia, and orthostatic intolerance (42.4%). All patients were managed with increased salt and fluid intake, lower compression stockings and rehabilitation. Fifty five percent of patients were treated with Enhanced External Counter Pulsation (EECP), 42% were treated with beta blockers, 18% with fludrocortisone, 15% with midodrine, and 15% with Pyridostigmine. At 1 year follow-up, 33% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms, 33% reported worsening of symptoms, 24% reported stable symptoms, and 9% had resolution. Conclusion(s): PASC POTS patients continue to experience adverse symptoms even at one year. Physical therapy and rehabilitation and pharmacological therapy appear improve symptoms in a minority of patients.Copyright © 2023

5.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):283, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320946
6.
Endocrine Practice ; 29(5 Supplement):S104-S105, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2320253
7.
Endocrine Practice ; 29(5 Supplement):S102, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2319114
8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 31(2):39, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2318098
9.
European Respiratory Journal ; 60(Supplement 66):403, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2301028
11.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry ; 93(9):24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2299498
16.
Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Conference: 55th Annual Meeting of the German Society for Pediatric Cardiology, DGPK Hamburg Germany ; 71(Supplement 2), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2292397
17.
Neuroimmunology Reports ; 2 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2290562
18.
International Journal of Cardiology ; 373(Supplement):7, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2264112
19.
Iranian Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; 31(1):88-93, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2262574
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