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1.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(5):734-735, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843227

ABSTRACT

[...]in many instances, state or local health officials have become the scapegoats for many of the COVID-19 restrictions society has experienced.3 The distaste for mask requirements and stay-at-home orders as well as other limits on individual liberty have been used as reasons to threaten health officials with violence, attack them on social media, and stage protests at their homes and workplaces. The authors reviewed and cataloged media reports of the harassment of US public health officials and linked these data with health official turnover records. Recent Health Resources and Services Administration guidance for the Regional Public Health Training Center Program requires that each training region have a leadership institute, which may eventually provide similar trainings and networking among local health officials.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843225

ABSTRACT

IntroductionApproximately 20% of serious safety incidents involving palliative patients relate to medication. These are disproportionately reported when patients are in their usual residence when compared with hospital or hospice. While patient safety incident reporting systems can support professional learning, it is unclear whether these reports encompass patient and carer concerns with palliative medications or interpersonal safety.AimTo explore and compare perceptions of (un)safe palliative medication management from patient, carer and professional perspectives in community, hospital and hospice settings.Methods and analysisWe will use an innovative mixed-methods study design combining systematic review searching techniques with cross-sectional quantitative descriptive analysis and interpretative qualitative metasynthesis to integrate three elements: (1) Scoping review: multiple database searches for empirical studies and first-hand experiences in English (no other restrictions) to establish how patients and informal carers conceptualise safety in palliative medication management. (2)Medication incidents from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System: identifying and characterising reports to understand professional perspectives on suboptimal palliative medication management. (3) Comparison of 1 and 2: contextualising with stakeholder perspectives.Patient and public involvementOur team includes a funded patient and public involvement (PPI) collaborator, with experience of promoting patient-centred approaches in patient safety research. Funded discussion and dissemination events with PPI and healthcare (clinical and policy) professionals are planned.Ethics and disseminationProspective ethical approval granted: Cardiff University School of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (Ref 19/28). Our study will synthesise multivoiced constructions of patient safety in palliative care to identify implications for professional learning and actions that are relevant across health and social care. It will also identify changing or escalating patterns in palliative medication incidents due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Peer-reviewed publications, academic presentations, plain English summaries, press releases and social media will be used to disseminate to the public, researchers, clinicians and policy-makers.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843224

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo determine the association of general practitioner (GP) contact with depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown in China.DesignIn April 2020, a follow-up survey was conducted on the basis of a baseline survey conducted between October 2018 and May 2019.SettingThe survey was embedded in the Stanford Wellness Living Laboratory-China (WELL China) study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study during 2018–2019.ParticipantsThe survey was conducted by telephone interview among 4144 adult urban residents participating in the WELL China study at baseline. We collected information on sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms and GP contact during the lockdown period (February to March 2020).Primary and secondary outcome measuresDepressive symptoms were measured using the WHO-Five Well-being Index, comprising five questionnaire items that briefly indicate psychological well-being. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between GP contact and depressive symptoms.ResultsIn total, 3356 participants responded to the survey;203 were excluded owing to missing data on depressive symptoms, leaving 3153 participants in the present study. During lockdown, 449 participants had GP contact. GP contact was significantly negatively associated with prevalent depressive symptoms (OR, 0.67;95% CI 0.51 to 0.89;p<0.01) and incident depressive symptoms (OR 0.68;95% CI 0.51 to 0.93;p<0.05). Stratified analysis showed a significant negative association between depressive symptoms and GP contact in individuals who were 45–64 years old (p<0.01), had a middle or high education (p<0.01) and had self-reported non-communicable diseases (p<0.05).ConclusionsContact with GPs during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns may have a negative association with depressive symptoms in community-dwelling populations. Given the possibility of further surges in COVID-19 infections, GPs’ contact in the community should be enhanced.

4.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843205

ABSTRACT

Background:Studies examining the role of geographic factors in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology among rural populations are lacking.Methods:Our study is a population-based longitudinal study based on rural residents in four southeast Minnesota counties from March through October 2020. We used a kernel density estimation approach to identify hotspots for COVID-19 cases. Temporal trends of cases and testing were examined by generating a series of hotspot maps during the study period. Household/individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) was measured using the HOUSES index and examined for association between identified hotspots and SES.Results:During the study period, 24,243 of 90,975 residents (26.6%) were tested for COVID-19 at least once;1498 (6.2%) of these tested positive. Compared to other rural residents, hotspot residents were overall younger (median age: 40.5 vs 43.2), more likely to be minorities (10.7% vs 9.7%), and of higher SES (lowest HOUSES [SES] quadrant: 14.6% vs 18.7%). Hotspots accounted for 30.1% of cases (14.5% of population) for rural cities and 60.8% of cases (27.1% of population) for townships. Lower SES and minority households were primarily affected early in the pandemic and higher SES and non-minority households affected later.Conclusion:In rural areas of these four counties in Minnesota, geographic factors (hotspots) play a significant role in the overall burden of COVID-19 with associated racial/ethnic and SES disparities, of which pattern differed by the timing of the pandemic (earlier in pandemic vs later). The study results could more precisely guide community outreach efforts (e.g., public health education, testing/tracing, and vaccine roll out) to those residing in hotspots.

5.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(5):736-746, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843197

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To characterize the experience and impact of pandemic-related workplace violence in the form of harassment and threats against public health officials. Methods. We used a mixed methods approach, combining media content and a national survey of local health departments (LHDs) in the United States, to identify harassment against public health officials from March 2020 to January 2021. We compared media-portrayed experiences, survey-reported experiences, and publicly reported position departures. Results. At least 1499 harassment experiences were identified by LHD survey respondents, representing 57% of responding departments. We also identified 222 position departures by public health officials nationally, 36% alongside reports of harassment. Public health officials described experiencing structural and political undermining of their professional duties, marginalization of their expertise, social villainization, and disillusionment. Many affected leaders remain in their positions. Conclusions. Interventions to reduce undermining, ostracizing, and intimidating acts against health officials are needed for a sustainable public health system. We recommend training leaders to respond to political conflict, improving colleague support networks, providing trauma-informed worker support, investing in long-term public health staffing and infrastructure, and establishing workplace violence reporting systems and legal protections.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(9):4891, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843196

ABSTRACT

The Chinese government regards the night-time economy as one of the essential means to expand domestic demand and enhance sustainable economic development. Scientifically choosing the night-time economic development path of the suburban counties of the Chinese metropolis (SCCM) and proposing a reasonable spatial matching planning strategy is an urgent problem for Chinese local governments. This study takes Anning county, a suburban Kunming metropolitan area, as the research area. Using Python to capture multi-spatial data, such as POI and Baidu heatmap, we use ArcGIS spatial analysis and statistical tools to show the spatial distribution characteristics of the night-time economic formats in Anning County. At the same time, the spatial coupling coordination model is used to calculate the coupling coordination degree of the night-time economic formats distribution and comprehensive traffic distribution (D1), night-time economic formats distribution and night-crowd vitality (D2), and the spatial coupling coordination of the three (D3). It is divided into five spatial matching levels and analyzes the shortage of night-time economic development in each subdistrict. The research results show that the spatial development of the night-time economy in Anning county is unbalanced at the current stage. The northern part of the county has a good development trend, and the Lianran subdistrict has the highest coupling coordination degree (0.995). In contrast, the southern part of the county has the lowest coupling coordination degree due to a lack of economic formats and traffic restrictions (0.115). According to the subdistricts’ differences, the sustainable development strategy of the county’s night-time economy should be formulated from the perspective of the long-term development of metropolitan areas. We hope that this research can provide valuable inspiration and a development reference for relevant countries and regions to stimulate the sustainable power of the night-time economy.

7.
Science and Children ; 59(5):43-47, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843188

ABSTRACT

Access to drinking water is becoming more limited as drought persists across continents. While relevant to everyone, this topic is highly visible to students who live on reservations or rural settings and can see the daily and direct impact of water on agriculture and livestock. Here, Vo et al highlight a particularly impacted group of students due to increasing drought conditions and upstream river pollution near their reservation.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843166

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo assess the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19 in the general population.Design, setting and participantsSwedish population-based cohort including 29 955 participants.ExposuresCardiometabolic risk factors assessed between 2014 and 2018.Main outcome measuresHospitalisation or death due to COVID-19, as registered in nationwide registers from 31 January 2020 through 12 September 2020. Associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with the outcome were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, birthplace and education.ResultsMean (SD) age was 61.2 (4.5) and 51.5% were women. 69 participants experienced hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19. Examples of statistically significant associations between baseline factors and subsequent hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19 included overweight (adjusted OR (aOR) vs normal weight 2.73 (95% CI 1.25 to 5.94)), obesity (aOR vs normal weight 4.09 (95% CI 1.82 to 9.18)), pre-diabetes (aOR vs normoglycaemia 2.56 (95% CI 1.44 to 4.55)), diabetes (aOR vs normoglycaemia 3.96 (95% CI 2.13 to 7.36)), sedentary time (aOR per hour/day increase 1.10 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.17)), grade 2 hypertension (aOR vs normotension 2.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 5.44)) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.33 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.65)). Statistically significant associations were not observed for grade 1 hypertension (aOR vs normotension 1.03 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.96)), current smoking (aOR 0.56 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.30)), total cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.90 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.13)), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.90 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.15)) and coronary artery calcium score (aOR per 10 units increase 1.00 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.01)).ConclusionsIn a large population-based sample from the general population, several cardiometabolic risk factors were associated with hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19.

9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843161

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe WHO declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. Since then, the world has been firmly in the grip of the COVID-19. To date, more than 211 730 035 million confirmed cases and more than 4 430 697 million people have died. While controlling the virus and implementing vaccines are the main priorities, the population mental health impacts of the pandemic are expected to be longer term and are less obvious than the physical health ones. Lockdown restrictions, physical distancing, social isolation, as well as the loss of a loved one, working in a frontline capacity and loss of economic security may have negative effects on and increase the mental health challenges in populations around the world. There is a major demand for long-term research examining the mental health experiences and needs of people in order to design adequate policies and interventions for sustained action to respond to individual and population mental health needs both during and after the pandemic.Methods and analysisThis repeated cross-sectional mixed-method study conducts regular self-administered representative surveys, and targeted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with adults in the UK, as well as validation of gathered evidence through citizens’ juries for contextualisation (for the UK as a whole and for its four devolved nations) to ensure that emerging mental health problems are identified early on and are properly understood, and that appropriate policies and interventions are developed and implemented across the UK and within devolved contexts. STATA and NVIVO will be used to carry out quantitative and qualitative analysis, respectively.Ethics and disseminationEthics approval for this study has been granted by the Cambridge Psychology Research Ethics Committee of the University of Cambridge, UK (PRE 2020.050) and by the Health and Life Sciences Research Ethics Committee of De Montfort University, UK (REF 422991). While unlikely, participants completing the self-administered surveys or participating in the virtual focus groups, semi-structured interviews and citizens’ juries might experience distress triggered by questions or conversations. However, appropriate mitigating measures have been adopted and signposting to services and helplines will be available at all times. Furthermore, a dedicated member of staff will also be at hand to debrief following participation in the research and personalised thank-you notes will be sent to everyone taking part in the qualitative research.Study findings will be disseminated in scientific journals, at research conferences, local research symposia and seminars. Evidence-based open access briefings, articles and reports will be available on our study website for everyone to access. Rapid policy briefings targeting issues emerging from the data will also be disseminated to inform policy and practice. These briefings will position the findings within UK public policy and devolved nations policy and socioeconomic contexts in order to develop specific, timely policy recommendations. Additional dissemination will be done through traditional and social media. Our data will be contextualised in view of existing policies, and changes over time as-and-when policies change.

10.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(5):703-705, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843159

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional survey of 828 participants, they report that insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE);experiences of discrimination, violence, and harassment;not receiving family support;experiencing financial strain;and having to isolate because of COVID-19 were each associated with an increased prevalence ratio of probable depression cases. [...]working on COVID-1 9 or intensive care wards is a particular risk factor,1,2 whereas concerns have been raised about differential access to PPE based on one's role, sex, and ethnicity.3 One postulation from Silva et al. is that community health care workers were no longer able to visit community homes, potentially alleviating some work demands and reducing their exposure risk or vulnerability to violence and discrimination. Because ill mental health is a factor in the global challenge to retain health care workers, we need better research, policies, and support to understand, capture, and model these differences. [...]building support is an important resource for health care workers to draw on and to mitigate the detrimental impact that demanding work environments can have on their mental health.5,6 A SYSTEMS PN1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/UhuwM?_a=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%2BgIBToIDA1dlYooDHENJRDoyMDIyMDUxODEyNDIwMTMwMDo5OTI2MzY%3D&_s=%2BTB5DoMLaFgpkVf8XhHojdnxVis%3D ERSPECTIVE ON HEALTH CARE WORKERS' MENTAL HEALTH The six potential pandemic-related contributing factors shift the narrative of health care worker well-being away from only the individual, emphasizing the responsibility of governments and health care leaders. Too often, research on health care workers' well-being has focused on individual factors (such as psychological states and traits) as antecedents to their well-being, neglecting the various other organizational and societal factors they are exposed to.7 Although the lack of PPE and job type are work-related contributing factors to probable cases of depression, the contributing role of family support and financial strain highlights how nonwork factors are also important. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been evident that we can no longer clearly delineate work from our nonwork lives.

11.
Language Arts ; 99(5):326-338, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843145

ABSTRACT

Using the frameworks of literary understanding and difficult knowledge, this study examines sixth graders' responses to mixed-genre books about Japanese incarceration camps. Anti-Asian hate crimes can be documented back to the 1800s but have been recently exacerbated and increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Kelly Yang, the Chinese American author of Front Desk, recently tweeted about two public incidents of racism related to the pandemic. On Apr 14, 2020, Yang noted that a couple of teenagers called her "Chinese virus" multiple times during her free online writing class through Instagram Live.

12.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5620, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843144

ABSTRACT

Amid global disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, entrepreneurship is more important than ever before, believed to be a key driver of economic development and recovery as well as poverty alleviation. However, although research on entrepreneurial benefits is becoming well-established, our understanding of the effects of specific social processes on entrepreneurial orientation is fairly limited. The research gap is even larger in an ethnic entrepreneurship setting. This study, therefore, aims to understand the impact of social capital on entrepreneurial orientation through self-efficacy in Dayak, the indigenous ethnic, non-Malay people of Borneo. Utilizing a survey, we found that social capital is positively related to entrepreneurial orientation, and self-efficacy was found to mediate this relationship. Kinship or regional ties among Dayak group members foster social capital in the form of trust, solidarity, and reciprocal obligations. However, although Dayaks are willing to learn and participate in economic activities, including becoming entrepreneurs, they are unlikely to take initiative due to both financial and non-financial obstacles. For these reasons, we suggest an institutional economic approach, designing a specific educational program to help improve the Dayak’s self-efficacy in escalating their entrepreneurship commitment. Local universities and vocational schools can develop an effective curriculum to tap the potential of Dayak in business and entrepreneurship.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5719, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843142

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has caused dramatic impacts and changes in the tourism industry, and job insecurity and emotional exhaustion have created psychological stress and negative emotions. Social support for Taiwan tourism workers (travel agency, transportation industry, lodging industry, tourism and leisure industry, etc.) plays an important role in their career resilience. However, not all of the potential social support moderators have a critical impact. This study used PLS-SEM analysis to survey 373 respondents by using an online questionnaire to investigate the critical influence of social support on the spread of COVID-19 using career motivation theory. In addition to the direct relationship between the individual’s psychological resilience and social support, the strategy of social support (family and friends, national relief policies and workplace support) is also pointed out. The results of the study illustrate the effectiveness of workplace support in combating the epidemic. This study provides information on effective resistance to the epidemic, how to prolong career resilience during unexpected shocks and stresses, and how to understand the mechanisms of adaptation or resilience in adversity and complements the study of factors and literature base in resilience research. It is also used as a study of the impact factors and industry strategy planning in future research.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5678, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843138

ABSTRACT

The study involves a comparative analysis of cultural tourism in Bucharest and Paris to identify the main aspects of sustainable cultural tourism. A set of six characteristics (civil monuments and architectural assemblies, religious monuments and architectural assemblies, festivals, personalities, digitization of tourism, and cultural and educational institutions) was analyzed for both cities. For this purpose, the Benchmarking analysis, the SWOT analysis, and the Pareto analysis were used. The research results highlight the importance of a careful analysis of the categories and sub-categories identified for cultural tourism in the two cities, focusing on the situation in Bucharest to identify ways to improve the promotion and capitalization of cultural tourism and increase sustainability. The obtained results showed that cultural tourism in Bucharest is deficient in aspects such as Monuments and civil architecture and religious, and architectural monuments.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5659, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843136

ABSTRACT

This article aims to create the nexus between sustainable development and the quality of the political regime. The study aims to respond to the following research questions: “how could influence the quality of the democracy the dynamics of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 17)?” and “what are the premises for sustainable development in the new political context, characterized by democratic recession?” The purpose of the study is to underline the fact that democratic regimes are inclined to create both participative and deliberative frames for achieving the SDGs in accordance with UN 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used in this study is based on descriptive and inferential statistics. The research data are collected from secondary sources in the years between 2015 and 2021, from 193 countries covering all the geographical areas. The empirical results suggest two models of development: the Asian model of sustainable development characterized by economic growth and the Western democratic model based on democratic institutions, fair justice and mechanisms for preserving peace. We noticed that the key-variables for explaining the dynamics of sustainability in correlation with democratic index are represented by the functioning of the governments and the political participation. Through civic engagement and political accountability, democracy could be seen as a pre-requisite for achieving an optimal level of the SDGs. All these empirical results could prove valuable for the scholars interested in the relation between democracy and sustainability and for the political decision makers involved in shaping strategies for social, economic and environmental development.

16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843128

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo estimate the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM among Massachusetts residents and to better understand asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 transmission during the summer of 2020.DesignMail-based cross-sectional survey.SettingMassachusetts, USA.ParticipantsPrimary sampling group: sample of undergraduate students at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst (n=548) and a member of their household (n=231).Secondary sampling group: sample of graduate students, faculty, librarians and staff (n=214) and one member of their household (n=78). All participants were residents of Massachusetts without prior COVID-19 diagnosis.Primary and secondary outcome measuresPrevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Association of seroprevalence with variables including age, gender, race, geographic region, occupation and symptoms.ResultsApproximately 27 000 persons were invited via email to assess eligibility. 1001 households were mailed dried blood spot sample kits, 762 returned blood samples for analysis. In the primary sample group, 36 individuals (4.6%) had IgG antibodies detected for an estimated weighted prevalence in this population of 5.3% (95% CI: 3.5 to 8.0). In the secondary sampling group, 10 participants (3.4%) had IgG antibodies detected for an estimated adjusted prevalence of 4.0% (95% CI: 2.2 to 7.4). No samples were IgM positive. No association was found in either group between seropositivity and self-reported work duties or customer-facing hours. In the primary sampling group, self-reported febrile illness since February 2020, male sex and minority race (Black or American Indian/Alaskan Native) were associated with seropositivity. No factors except geographic regions within the state were associated with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in the secondary sampling group.ConclusionsThis study fills a critical gap in estimating the levels of subclinical and asymptomatic infection. Estimates can be used to calibrate models estimating levels of population immunity over time, and these data are critical for informing public health interventions and policy.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843121

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the likelihood of having the seasonal influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic in individuals who were eligible to receive it.DesignWe conducted a cross-sectional online survey in July 2020. We included predictors informed by previous research, in the following categories: sociodemographic variables;uptake of influenza vaccine last winter and beliefs about vaccination.Participants570 participants (mean age: 53.07;56.3% female, 87.0% white) who were eligible for the free seasonal influenza vaccination in the UK.Results59.7% of our sample indicated they were likely to have the seasonal influenza vaccination, 22.1% reported being unlikely to have the vaccination and 18.2% were unsure. We used logistic regression to investigate variables associated with intention to receive a seasonal influenza vaccine in the 2020–2021 season. A positive attitude to vaccination in general predicted intention to have the influenza vaccine in 2020–2021 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.77, p<0.001) but the strongest predictor of intention was previous influenza vaccination behaviour (OR 278.58, 95% CI 78.04 to 994.46, p<0.001).ConclusionsPrevious research suggests that increasing uptake of the influenza vaccination may help contain a COVID-19 outbreak, so steps need to be taken to convert intention into behaviour and to reach those individuals who reported being unlikely or unsure about having the vaccine.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843119

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of UK ex-service personnel (veterans) before and during the pandemic, and to assess associations of COVID-19 experiences and stressors with mental health, alcohol use and loneliness.DesignAn additional wave of data was collected from a longitudinal cohort study of the UK Armed Forces.SettingOnline survey June–September 2020.ParticipantsCohort members were included if they had completed a questionnaire at phase 3 of the King’s Centre for Military Health Research health and well-being study (2014–2016), had left the Armed Forces after regular service, were living in the UK, had consented to follow-up and provided a valid email address. Invitation emails were sent to N=3547 with a 44% response rate (n=1562).Primary outcome measuresCommon mental health disorders (CMDs) (measured using the General Health Questionnaire, 12 items—cut-off ≥4), hazardous alcohol use (measured using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, 10 items—cut off ≥8) and loneliness (University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale— 3 items-cut-off ≥6).ResultsVeterans reported a statistically significant decrease in hazardous drinking of 48.5% to 27.6%, while CMD remained stable (non-statistically significant increase of 24.5% to 26.1%). 27.4% of veterans reported feelings of loneliness. The COVID-19 stressors of reporting difficulties with family/social relationships, boredom and difficulties with health were statistically significantly associated with CMD, hazardous drinking and loneliness, even after adjustment for previous mental health/hazardous alcohol use.ConclusionsOur study suggests a COVID-19 impact on veterans’ mental health, alcohol use and loneliness, particularly for those experiencing difficulties with family relationships. Veterans experienced the pandemic in similar ways to the general population and in some cases may have responded in resilient ways. While stable levels of CMD and reduction in alcohol use are positive, there remains a group of veterans who may need mental health and alcohol treatment services.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843117

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesWhile COVID-19 has a relatively small direct impact on infant mortality, the pandemic is expected to indirectly increase mortality of this vulnerable group in low-income and middle-income countries through its effects on the economy and health system performance. Previous studies projected indirect mortality by modelling how hypothesised disruptions in health services will affect health outcomes. We provide alternative projections, relying on modelling the relationship between aggregate income shocks and mortality.DesignWe construct a sample of 5.2 million births by pooling retrospective birth histories reported by women in Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 83 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2018. We employ regression models with country-specific fixed-effects and flexible time trends to estimate the impact of gross domestic product per capita on infant mortality rate. We then use growth projections by the International Monetary Fund to predict the effect of the economic downturn in 2020 on infant mortality.ResultsWe estimate 267 208 (95% CI 112 000 to 422 415) excess infant deaths in 128 countries, corresponding to a 6.8% (95% CI 2.8% to 10.7%) increase in the total number of infant deaths expected in 2020.ConclusionsThe findings underscore the vulnerability of infants to the negative income shocks such as those imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. While efforts towards prevention and treatment of COVID-19 remain paramount, the global community should also strengthen social safety nets and assure continuity of essential health services.

20.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843109

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe COVID-19 pandemic has forced many people to stay at home and to maintain social distancing. This study aimed to assess the association of reduced physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic with new onset of neck pain (katakori) among a rural Japanese population living in areas damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE).Design, setting and participantsThis prospective cohort study has been conducted continuously since 2011 after the GEJE. This study used longitudinal data from 1608 adults who responded to the self-reported questionnaire before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in physical activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic were categorised into four groups: ‘no change’, ‘decreased by 20%–30%’, ‘decreased by half’ and ‘almost never go out’. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the OR and 95% CI of the association between COVID-19 pandemic-related physical inactivity and new-onset neck pain.ResultsIn total, ‘no change’, ‘decreased by 20%–30%’, ‘decreased by half’, and ‘almost never go out’ were reported by 9.2%, 27.7%, 31.2% and 21.9% of respondents, respectively. Among them, 9.8% reported new-onset neck pain. A significantly higher rate of new-onset neck pain was observed in participants who reported ‘decreased by half’ (adjusted OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.30) and who ‘almost never go out’ (adjusted OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.91), compared with those who reported ‘no change.’ConclusionsDecreased physical activity has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic and was significantly associated with new-onset neck pain among GEJE survivors.

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