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1.
Applied Sciences ; 13(11):6744, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236163

ABSTRACT

Amid concerns over airflow-induced transmission of the COVID-19 virus in buildings frequented by large numbers of people, such as offices, the necessity for radiant ceiling heating panels has increased. This is due to the concern that the airflows emitted from the convection heating systems installed near the ceiling or windows for winter heating may be a major cause of COVID-19 transmission. In this study, we aim to evaluate thermal comfort under various indoor and outdoor environmental conditions of a building and present the thermal output conditions of the radiant ceiling heating panel that can replace the convection heating system while ensuring comfort in the perimeter zone and handling the heating load. As a result, we were able to present, in a chart format, the thermal output conditions that can secure thermal comfort by analyzing the indoor airflow distribution depending on the surface temperature of the radiant ceiling heating panel, the interior surface temperature of the window, and the influence of internal heat generation. Moreover, through derived empirical formulas, we were able to determine the heating conditions of the panel that can secure the necessary heat dissipation while minimizing discomfort, such as downdrafts, even for indoor and outdoor conditions that were not evaluated in this study.

2.
IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science ; 1189(1):011001, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20231601

ABSTRACT

The title of the ConferenceXXII Conference of PhD Students and Young Scientists "Interdisciplinary topics in mining and geology”The location and the date of the conferencevirtual event – online conference, June 29th to July 1st, 2022 in Wrocław, PolandXXIInd Conference of PhD Students and Young Scientists "Interdisciplinary topics in mining and geology” continues a series of events that started in 2000 at Wrocław University of Science and Technology. Scientific programme of the Conference focuses on four thematic panels:1. Mining Engineering: sustainable development, digitalisation in mining, problems of securing, protecting and using remnants of old mining works, underground mining, opencast mining, mineral processing, waste management, mining machinery, mine transport, economics in mining, mining aeronautics, ventilation and air conditioning in mines,2. Earth and Space Sciences: geology, hydrogeology, environmental protection, extraterrestrial resources, groundwater and medicinal waters, engineering and environmental protection, geotourism,3. Geoengineering: environmental protection, applied geotechnics, rock and soil mechanics, geohazards,4. Geoinformation: mining geodesy, GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing, geodata modeling and analysis.The XXII Conference of PhD Students and Young Scientists was held as a virtual event, that is as a virtual, online conference in real-time. The reason why the Organizing Committee decided to change the traditional formula of the event to online formula was related to the concern for the health of the participants due to the COVID-19 epidemic.The XXII Conference of PhD Students and Young Scientists took place from June 29th to July 1st, 2022 in Wroclaw, Poland. That is the organizers worked and managed the event from the Wrocław University of Science and Technology Geocentre building. Because the conference focused on four thematic panels, four different special opening lectures were delivered by wellknown scientists- Professor Jan Zalasiewicz (University of Leicester, England)- Associate Professor Artur Krawczyk (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland)- Professor Biljana Kovacević-Zelić (University of Zagreb, Croatia)- Assistant Professor Eduard Kan (Tashkent Institute of Irrigation and Agricultural Mechanizations Engineers, Uzbekistan).The Conference was divided into 8 oral sessions (with 33 presentations) and 1 poster session (with 33 posters). The amount of time provided to one presentation was 15 minutes, after presentation there was 5 minutes available for discussion. The poster session was available throughout the event, and the posters were available for online viewing on the Conference's website with the possibility of make discussion and ask questions in real time via zoom meeting application as well. Every day of the Conference one "virtual coffee break” was devoted for discussion between participants and question and answer session for the Organizers.There were 96 registered participants from 13 countries. The online XXII Conference of PhD Students and Young Scientists was conducted using the Zoom meeting platform with commemorative screen shots taken. By tradition two competitions, for the best oral presentation and for the best poster were held. The award for the best oral presentation was given ex aequo to Julia Tiganj (TH Georg Agricola University of Applied Sciences, Germany) for the presentation entitled Post-mining goes international: hurdles to climate neutrality using the example of China and Oksana Khomiak, Jörg Benndorf (TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany) for the presentation entitled Spectral analysis of ore hyperspectral images at different stages of the mining value chain, whereas the best poster was awarded to Adam Wróblewski, Jacek Wodecki, Paweł Trybała, Radosław Zimroz (Wrocław University of Science and technology, Poland) for the poster entitled Large underground structures geometry evaluation based on point cloud data analysis.List of Scientific Committee, Organizing Committee, Editorial Team are available i this pdf.

3.
Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management ; 34(4):507-534, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2313321

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis work aims at proposing a novel Internet of Things (IoT)-based and cloud-assisted monitoring architecture for smart manufacturing systems able to evaluate their overall status and detect eventual anomalies occurring into the production. A novel artificial intelligence (AI) based technique, able to identify the specific anomalous event and the related risk classification for possible intervention, is hence proposed.Design/methodology/approachThe proposed solution is a five-layer scalable and modular platform in Industry 5.0 perspective, where the crucial layer is the Cloud Cyber one. This embeds a novel anomaly detection solution, designed by leveraging control charts, autoencoders (AE) long short-term memory (LSTM) and Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The proper combination of these methods allows, not only detecting the products defects, but also recognizing their causalities.FindingsThe proposed architecture, experimentally validated on a manufacturing system involved into the production of a solar thermal high-vacuum flat panel, provides to human operators information about anomalous events, where they occur, and crucial information about their risk levels.Practical implicationsThanks to the abnormal risk panel;human operators and business managers are able, not only of remotely visualizing the real-time status of each production parameter, but also to properly face with the eventual anomalous events, only when necessary. This is especially relevant in an emergency situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic.Originality/valueThe monitoring platform is one of the first attempts in leading modern manufacturing systems toward the Industry 5.0 concept. Indeed, it combines human strengths, IoT technology on machines, cloud-based solutions with AI and zero detect manufacturing strategies in a unified framework so to detect causalities in complex dynamic systems by enabling the possibility of products' waste avoidance.

4.
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools ; 32(2), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2291274

ABSTRACT

This paper shows the added value of using the existing specific domain knowledge to generate new derivated variables to complement a target dataset and the benefits of including these new variables into further data analysis methods. The main contribution of the paper is to propose a methodology to generate these new variables as a part of preprocessing, under a double approach: creating 2nd generation knowledge-driven variables, catching the experts criteria used for reasoning on the field or 3rd generation data-driven indicators, these created by clustering original variables. And Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence techniques like Clustering or Traffic light Panels help to obtain successful results. Some results of the project INSESS-COVID19 are presented, basic descriptive analysis gives simple results that even though they are useful to support basic policy-making, especially in health, a much richer global perspective is acquired after including derivated variables. When 2nd generation variables are available and can be introduced in the method for creating 3rd generation data, added value is obtained from both basic analysis and building new data-driven indicators. © 2023 World Scientific Publishing Company.

5.
8th International Conference on Technology and Energy Management, ICTEM 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2306324

ABSTRACT

This article proposes the best design for a hybrid system that incorporates wind turbines, solar panels, and fuel cells (FC) to satisfy the load requirement. The design's goal is to reduce the system's energy production costs considering the load supply's reliability. System costs include initial investment costs, operation and maintenance, replacement and replacement costs, and load loss costs. The optimal capacity of the hybrid system's equipment has been calculated with the help of the Coronavirus Optimization Algorithm (COVIDOA). The results obtained from the optimization have been compared and analyzed with those obtained from the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. The results have shown that the COVIDOA optimization method, like the DE optimization method, has obtained favourable results. In the COVIDOA method, the system's production costs have increased slightly, but the reliability of the load supply has been improved. Therefore, in the suggested approach, in addition to considering the economic aspect of the design, much attention has been paid to the technical aspect of the design, in other words, the reliability level of the system. © 2023 IEEE.

6.
Prev Med Rep ; 33: 102194, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303541

ABSTRACT

With an escalating popularity of online surveys in behavioral research, it is critical to understand how different sources of participants can yield differing outcomes. While Mturk has been used for online surveys for almost two decades, a recent introduction of online panels allows researchers to choose participants from variety of pools. This study aims to contribute to existing knowledge of how participants from different online platforms differ in their characteristics and behavioral responses which might affect the outcomes. 300 participants were recruited each from Mturk and Prime panels for a 20 mins long survey assessing perceptions and intentions to use Heated tobacco products (HTPs). Participants answered demographic and tobacco-use related questions including their vaccination and masking for COVID-19. They were shown a picture and description of a recently launched HTP. Further, participants answered questions about their awareness of HTPs, risk perception of health conditions from use of different tobacco products (cigarettes, e-cigarettes and HTPs) and perceived severity of COVID-19 infection in smokers, vapers and HTP users. Results showed significant differences in Mturk and Prime panel participants' demographics and tobacco-use. Prime panels showed more racially diverse population (chi-sq = 10.07, p < 0.02) and significantly more current smokers (chi-sq = 44.74, p < 0.01) and current e-cigarette users (chi-sq = 38.04, p < 0.01) compared with Mturk. Mean perception scores for COVID risk in tobacco users were significantly different between Prime panels and Mturk. Study highlights significant differences in sample composition and responses that might be helpful in choosing one online platform over another based on specific study requirements.

7.
International Conference of The Efficiency and Performance Engineering Network, TEPEN 2022 ; 129 MMS:103-111, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2286215

ABSTRACT

Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the global photovoltaic (PV) market grew significantly again in 2021, further enhancing the vital role of solar power in the battle against global climate change. One of the main reasons for the rapid growth of this market is that PV panels are almost maintenance-free after deployment, thereby low Levelized cost of solar power. However, this does not mean that PV panels will not fail in service. In fact, they may suffer from performance degradation, structural failure, or even complete loss of power generation capacity during operation. If these problems cannot be detected and solved in time, they may also bring significant economic losses to the operators. However, a large-scale solar power plant will contain hundreds of thousands of PV panels. How to quickly identify those defective ones from so many PV panels is a quite challenging issue. The research of this paper is to address this issue with the aid of intelligent image processing technology. In this study, an intelligent PV panel condition monitoring technique is developed using machine learning algorithms. It can rapidly process, analyze and classify the thermal images of PV panels collected from solar power plants. Therefore, it not only can quickly identify those defective PV panels but also can accurately diagnose the defect types of the PV panels. It is deemed that the successful development of such a technology will be of great significance to further strengthen the scientific management of solar power assets. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences ; 30(1):73-79, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2280940

ABSTRACT

To keep up with the pace of renewable energy, PV Emulators are encouraged during the design and installation stages. Short circuit current, maximum power point and open circuit voltage are required to analyze the complete characteristic plot of PV panel.This paper focuses on the modeling and control of PV Emulators, as well as the comparison of the results obtained by implementing P,PI, PID and FOPID as conventional controllers with AI-based PSOPI, PSOPID and ANFIS controllers. This work will aid in minimizing time, cost and on-site constraints, allowing timely installation of PV panels after covid. Another distinguishing feature of this paper is the comparative analysis of designed models with various control strategies and their associated performance indices over complete range of PV characteristics. © 2023, National Institute of Science Communication and Policy Research. All rights reserved.

9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 32(4): 471-477, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278870

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examined the gender composition of career development award applicants and grant review panels during the pandemic compared with that beforehand. Methods: Data were collected from 14 Health Research Alliance (HRA) organizations, which fund biomedical research and training. HRA members provided the gender of grant applicants and grant reviewers during the pandemic (April 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021) and prepandemic (April 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020). The signed-rank test compared medians and the chi square test compared the overall gender distribution. Results: The total number of applicants was similar during the pandemic (N = 3,724) and prepandemic (N = 3,882) periods, as was the percentage of women applicants (45.2% pandemic vs. 44.9% prepandemic, p = 0.78). The total number of men and women grant reviewers declined during the pandemic (N = 856) compared with that pre-pandemic (N = 1,689); this decrease was driven by a change for the largest funder. Also driven by changes for this one funder, the percentage of total grant reviewers who were women increased significantly during the pandemic (45.9%) compared with that during prepandemic (38.8%; p = 0.001), but the median percentage of women grant reviewers across organizations remained similar during the pandemic (43.6%) and prepandemic periods (38.2%; p = 0.53). Conclusions: In a sample of research organizations, the gender composition of grant applicants and grant review panels remained similar, except for the review panel composition for one large funder. Given evidence from other studies that have revealed gender differences in other career and life experiences of scientists during the pandemic, ongoing evaluation of women's representation in grant submission and review mechanisms is essential.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , Pandemics , Financing, Organized , Longitudinal Studies
10.
MedEdPublish (2016) ; 13: 19, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275562

ABSTRACT

Patient panels are an inspiring, highly rated educational tool to complement course goals and objectives for students in medical education programs. The COVID-19 pandemic brought challenges on the ability to successfully host in-person patient panels. These challenges resulted in the need to pivot in-person patient panels to online platforms, while still ensuring the quality and intimacy of patient narratives. In this 12 tips article, we share lessons learned in transitioning patient panels in our health systems science curriculum to an online experience for students enrolled in a pre-clinical medical education program.

11.
9th IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy, PECon 2022 ; : 499-504, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2213359

ABSTRACT

Among thorny challenges, During the COVID-19, there has been a great deal of attention paid on electric demand for hospitals and critical devices. Beside given unplanned power outages during peak load of summer season nowadays made system so stressful for seamless operation and therefore vulnerable to possible damages. As a remedy, many utilities tend to adapt further renewable energy in the power system as a way to cope with excessive peak demand. In this sense, grid-connected solar photovoltaic systems can cater best to this shortage. In this work, a 100 kW grid-connected photovoltaic system for a practical solar parking lot is modelled. The simulations are decomposed in two cases of mono-facial and bifacial panels, and the comparison study among them is made. As a simulation environment, the PVsyst is used to design and simulate PV systems. The simulation results show that in case of mono-facial module the 150 MWh/yr with an average performance ratio of 77.7% and for a bifacial system the 171.1 MWh/yr with an average performance ratio of 87.31 % can be produced and thus injected to the system. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
5th International Conference on Information and Communications Technology, ICOIACT 2022 ; : 77-81, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191908

ABSTRACT

During the era of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), online shopping has been growing and the traffic of parcel posts has also increased. However, recipients cannot always be on standby at home to receive their parcels. Therefore, a smart box prototype has been developed to receive parcel posts from the postal service. For sustainable development purposes, this system combines IoT and solar energy technologies to provide services to a recipient. One of the key features of this system is sending notifications or alerts to a recipient via a mobile application called LINE Notify when mail or parcel posts are dropped into the box. After testing the box using various kinds of mail envelopes for 50 time and various kinds parcels for 50 times, it was found that the average performance was 96%. The box received an overall evaluation score is $4.35\pm 0.50$ from system evaluation by 10 subjects. One problem detected in this system was an error detecting small sized parcels. This issue can be improved in the next version by adding additional sensors. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
Journal of Decision Systems ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2187351

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we raise the question of the usefulness of expert groups or scientific councils like those that were created during the COVID-19 crisis in several countries. We begin by characterising expertise and the limits of experts' knowledge. Then, we recall why expertise is not decision-making. In the third part we review the weaknesses of group thinking and the role of responsibility and commitment in decision-making. The fourth part is devoted to learning and we finally conclude on the usefulness of using expert knowledge and/or expert group knowledge, depending on the situation and on your aim but certainly not inducting experts as decision makers.

14.
International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics ; 12(4):445-458, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098804

ABSTRACT

One of the difficulties faced by policymakers during the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy was the monitoring of the virus diffusion. Due to changes in the criteria and insufficient resources to test all suspected cases, the number of 'confirmed infected' rapidly proved to be unreliably reported by official statistics. We explore the possibility of using information obtained from Google Trends to predict the evolution of the epidemic. Following the most recent developments on the statistical analysis of longitudinal data, we estimate a dynamic heterogeneous panel. This approach allows to takes into account the presence of common shocks and unobserved components in the error term both likely to occur in this context. We find that Google queries contain useful information to predict number patients admitted to the intensive care units, number of deaths and excess mortality in Italian regions.

15.
Energy (Oxf) ; 263: 125578, 2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076089

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected energy consumption and production pattern in various sectors in both rural and urban areas. Consequently, energy demand has increased. Therefore, most health care centers report a shortage of energy, particularly during the summer seasons. Therefore, integrating renewable energies into hospitals is a promising method that can generate electricity demand reliably and emits less CO2. In this research paper, a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) with hydrogen energy storage is simulated to cover the energy demand of sections and wards of a hospital that dealt with COVID-19 patients. Produced Oxygen from the hydrogen storage system is captured and stored in medical capsules to generate the oxygen demand for the patients. Results indicate that 29.64% of the annual consumed energy is utilized in COVID-19 sections. Afterward, modeled system has been optimized with a neural network-genetic algorithm to compute the optimum amount of the demand power from the grid, CO2 emission, oxygen capsules, and cost rate. Results determine that by having 976 PV panels, 179 kW fuel cell, and 171.2 kW electrolyzer, annual CO2 emission is 315.8 tons and 67,833 filled medical oxygen capsules can be achieved. The cost rate and demand electricity from the grid for the described system configuration are 469.07 MWh/year and 18.930 EUR/hr, respectively.

16.
Microorganisms ; 10(9)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071643

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the focus of developments in public health, given their widespread distribution and the high morbidity and mortality rates reported worldwide. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic or mild infection to severe or fatal disease. Rapidity is required in diagnostics to provide adequate and prompt management of patients. The current algorithm for the laboratory diagnosis of RTIs relies on multiple approaches including gold-standard conventional methods, among which the traditional culture is the most used, and innovative ones such as molecular methods, mostly used to detect viruses and atypical bacteria. The implementation of molecular methods with syndromic panels has the potential to be a powerful decision-making tool for patient management despite requiring appropriate use of the test in different patient populations. Their use radically reduces time-to-results and increases the detection of clinically relevant pathogens compared to conventional methods. Moreover, if implemented wisely and interpreted cautiously, syndromic panels can improve antimicrobial use and patient outcomes, and optimize laboratory workflow. In this review, a narrative overview of the main etiological, clinical, and epidemiological features of RTI is reported, focusing on the laboratory diagnosis and the potentialities of syndromic panels.

17.
Energies ; 15(19):7257, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065780

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to show the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on electricity consumption and, consequently, on decisions regarding the installation of photovoltaic panels using the example of a selected local authority in Poland—the Szemud Municipality. The analysis was conducted in 2022 and covered the years 2019–2021. An attempt was made to explore the factors that may have triggered an increase in the use of solar energy in households and identify the determinants of installing photovoltaic panels in the period under analysis. Previous analyses of the PV market (and the impact of the pandemic on it) have so far focused on the market as a whole, either in macro or global terms, while studies on smaller municipalities have been limited to examining changes in electricity consumption levels during the COVID-19 pandemic and during lockdown. Therefore, a research gap was identified in that there are no studies analyzing the reasons for the shift from conventional to PV-assisted energy in households, with the COVID-19 pandemic as the background of these changes. The literature research showed that there are currently no studies attempting to establish a link between the increased interest in this type of energy by local authorities and the COVID-19 pandemic. The research confirmed the hypothesis of increased interest in household PV during the pandemic. The main conclusions of the study boil down to the need for further support as well as promotion of the use of solar energy. In addition, the results derived from the empirical research indicate the need to take action at a policy level to counter adverse trends regarding undesirable social behavior.

18.
Energies ; 15(16):6089, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023312

ABSTRACT

In recent years, one of the key postulates in the European Union’s policy has become the development of renewable energy sources. In order to achieve the desired synergy effect, the idea of combining two selected sources of energy appeared. This article presents a technical and economic analysis of a hybrid connection of a ground source heat pump with a photovoltaic installation. Taking into account the heat demand of the building, a ground heat pump with a catalog nominal heating power of 25 kW was selected. This article presents the problem of the economic profitability of using a hybrid combination of a heat pump and photovoltaic panels in domestic hot water and central heating systems. The justification for the use of such heat sources in these installations is due to global trends and the gradual departure from conventional energy sources such as oil or gas boilers. This paper presents the economic and ecological results of using the pump heat connected together with photovoltaic panels. In the economic analysis, with the assumed installation costs related to the use of the considered heat pump and PV, two parameters commonly used in the investment analysis (static and dynamic) were used, namely, the simple payback period and the net present value of the investment. For the adopted assumptions, the usable area of the facility and the number of years of use were indicated, at which the investment in question is competitive with other alternative investment interest methods and will start to bring tangible benefits. The performed analysis also has measurable environmental benefits in the form of a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions at the level of 2893 kg/year into the atmosphere. The presented solution will help future investors understand the investment profitability mechanism for their households.

19.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2011018

ABSTRACT

Renewable energy associations note that solar panels installed in the early-2000s solar energy boom are now reaching the end of their 25- to 30-year lifespan. Benjamin Sovacool, of the University of Sussex’s Science Policy Research Unit, describes how the developed world’s attempt to reduce its carbon footprint has led to environmental and public health risks, gender discrimination, child labour, and ethnic discrimination in the global South. Markus Spitzbart, head Sustainable E-Waste Management in Ghana, German Corporation for International Cooperation Furthermore, the German Corporation for International Cooperation (GIZ) has set up a project to create new centres and training courses for e-waste recycling and disposal methods for recyclers and scrap collectors.

20.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 22(1): 49-60, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008441

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is one of the main causes of mortality associated with infectious diseases worldwide. Several challenges have been identified in the management of patients with pneumonia, ranging from accurate and cost-effective microbiological investigations, prompt and adequate therapeutic management, and optimal treatment duration. AREAS COVERED: In this review, an updated summary on the current management of pneumonia patients is provided and the epidemiological issues of infectious respiratory diseases, which in the current pandemic situation are of particular concern, are addressed. The clinical and microbiological approaches to pneumonia diagnosis are reviewed, including discussion about the new molecular assays pointing out both their strengths and limitations. Finally, the current recommendations about antibiotic treatment are examined and discussed depending on the epidemiological contexts, including those with high prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. EXPERT OPINION: We claim that rapid diagnostic tests, if well-positioned in the diagnostic workflow and reserved for the subset of patients who could most benefit from these technologies, may represent an interesting and feasible tool to optimize timing of targeted treatments especially in terms of early de-escalation or discontinuation of antibiotic therapy.


Subject(s)
Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Pneumonia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Prevalence
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