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1.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 180-181: 120-130, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321101

ABSTRACT

The widespread usage of smartphones has made accessing vast troves of data easier for everyone. Smartphones are powerful, handy, and easy to operate, making them a valuable tool for improving public health through diagnostics. When combined with other devices and sensors, smartphones have shown potential for detecting, visualizing, collecting, and transferring data, enabling rapid disease diagnosis. In resource-limited settings, the user-friendly operating system of smartphones allows them to function as a point-of-care platform for healthcare and disease diagnosis. Herein, we critically reviewed the smartphone-based biosensors for the diagnosis and detection of diseases caused by infectious human pathogens, such as deadly viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These biosensors use several analytical sensing methods, including microscopic imaging, instrumental interface, colorimetric, fluorescence, and electrochemical biosensors. We have discussed the diverse diagnosis strategies and analytical performances of smartphone-based detection systems in identifying infectious human pathogens, along with future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Viruses , Humans , Smartphone , Point-of-Care Systems , Bacteria
2.
European Journal of Applied Mathematics ; 34(2):238-261, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2319879

ABSTRACT

We study the effect of population mobility on the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases by considering a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) epidemic model with graph Laplacian diffusion, that is, on a weighted network. First, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the SEIR model defined on a weighed graph. Then by constructing Liapunov functions, we show that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than unity and the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is greater than unity. Finally, we apply our generalized weighed graph to Watts–Strogatz network and carry out numerical simulations, which demonstrate that degrees of nodes determine peak numbers of the infectious population as well as the time to reach these peaks. It also indicates that the network has an impact on the transient dynamical behaviour of the epidemic transmission.

3.
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine ; 13(3):265-279, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319807

ABSTRACT

Objective: Severe disease onset of COVID-19 may result in alveolar injury and respiratory failure. Apoptosis and inflammation are the main causes of respiratory distress syndrome. Berberine is used in medicine as an analgesic, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral. In the current investigation, the effect of berberine on COVID-19 outpatients was studied. Materials and Methods: The present clinical trial was performed on 40 outpatients who were randomly assigned to berberine (300 mg, TID, 2 weeks) (n=19) or placebo groups (n=21). Both groups received standard therapy and they were monitored on days 3, 7, and 14 after the beginning of the therapy for clinical symptoms' improvement, quantitative CRP, lymphopenia, CBC, and SpO2. The severity and frequency of these symptoms and the level of the parameters were statistically compared between the two groups. Results: On days 0, 3, 7, and 14, there was no significant difference between the berberine and placebo groups in the improvement of clinical symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, nausea, loss of smell and taste, diarrhea, dizziness, sore throat, stomachache, body aches, and body temperature), quantitative CRP, lymphopenia, WBC, neutrophils, platelets, or SpO2. Conclusion: Berberine (300 mg, TID, two weeks) is ineffective in treating COVID-19. More research with a larger sample size is needed to investigate different berberine dosages in other pharmaceutical formulations.

4.
Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ; 36(1):23-27, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319777

ABSTRACT

AIM: The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: It was a test-negative, case-control study conducted at Sharda Hospital, Greater Noida, India, between March 2021 and May 2021. An equal number of cases and controls were included in the study after taking proper informed consent. The individuals with positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test reports were taken as cases, whereas those with negative reports were included as controls. Data were analyzed and the groups were compared using multivariable logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR), with adjustment for gender and presence or absence of comorbidities. The effectiveness of vaccine was calculated by the formula (1-adjusted OR) x100%. RESULTS: On analyzing the data from 560 case-control pairs, the vaccine effectiveness was calculated as 57.46% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.85-61.02) and 60.09% (95% CI: 56.32-63.77) for single dose and two doses, respectively. The effectiveness of complete and single-dose vaccination against the moderate-to-severe disease was calculated as 63.79% (95% CI: 58.58-68.77) and 56.19% (95% CI: 51.30-61.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine was found to be effective against COVID-19, with protection after two doses being a little more than that after a single dose. It also proved effective in protecting against the severe form of the disease.

5.
Tehran University Medical Journal ; 80(9), 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319711

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the consequences of COVID-19, which is associated with increased hospitalization and patient mortality. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of endoscopic findings and the outcome of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized from September to December 2019 in Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, out of 5800 patients who were admitted to Al- Zahra Hospital in Isfahan from September to December 2019 due to COVID-19 (according to the positive PCR test result), 87 patients who underwent endoscopy due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding by a skilled gastroenterologist, were selected and studied. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, use of anticoagulants, and laboratory findings were studied and evaluated and finally, the disease was evaluated and compared based on endoscopic findings. Results: Based on the results obtained from this research, the patients with endoscopic lesions had higher average age (P=0.041), lower blood oxygen saturation percentage (P=0.028), and higher bleeding intensity (P=0.018). The frequency of using anticoagulant drugs in the group whose endoscopy results were abnormal was higher but insignificant. Hemoglobin, platelet, lymphocyte, and CRP levels were higher in the group whose endoscopy was normal, and NLR, LDH, and D-dimer levels were higher in the group whose endoscopy was abnormal (P<0.050). Three people (11.55%) from the group with normal endoscopy and 18 people (29.5%) from the group with abnormal endoscopy died, but the frequency of death was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.070). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the COVID patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had endoscopic lesions had significant differences in some characteristics such as age, bleeding intensity, and blood oxygen saturation percentage with patients with normal endoscopy. Also, the frequency of death in patients with endoscopic lesions was relatively higher. Therefore, COVID patients with gastrointestinal bleeding should undergo endoscopy as soon as possible and necessary measures should be taken to control and prevent gastrointestinal bleeding.

6.
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal ; 16(9):744-755, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319710

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Statins, which are primarily used for controlling blood cholesterol levels, have a well-known role in inhibiting the inflammatory process and reducing mortality rate of infectious diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin along with standard treatment protocol in hospitalized adults with COVID-19. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on adults hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom, Iran from April to September 2020. They were randomly divided into groups of treatment (n=37, receiving atorvastatin 40 mg daily for 30 days plus standard treatment protocol) and control (n=37, receiving standard treatment protocol alone). The data were analyzed in SPSS v.22 software using chi-square, paired t-test, and ANOVA. P < 0.05 was statistically significant. Results: The CRP level in the atorvastatin-treated group decreased significantly such that there was a significant difference between the two groups after 30 days (P=0.01). There was no significant difference in Spo2 level on the discharge day. The length of hospitalization in the atorvastatin-treated group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of atorvastatin as an adjunctive treatment method, can significantly reduce the length of hospitalization and CRP level after 30 days in hospitalized patients.

7.
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 17(1):1-9, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319486

ABSTRACT

Many studies have dealt with the medicinal properties of Jatropha curcas;however, there are limited studies on the scope of its antiviral potential. This is a fact associated with the current challenges posed by HIV-AIDS and COVID-19, which has reinforced the need to expand the knowledge about its antiviral resource. Based on the search for natural products with anti-HIV-1 and anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities, this work analyzed the extract of J. curcas seed, the structure of the plant whose antiviral references were not found in the literature, and the compounds that can potentiate it as a candidate for herbal medicine. GC-MS analysis was used to screen for the active substances of the J. curcas seeds, and the literature was searched to find those with anti-HIV-1 and anti-SARS-CoV-2 indication. The results showed they have 27 compounds, of which glycerol 1-palmitate, stigmasterol and gamma-sitosterol were shown to have antiviral action in the literature. Regarding glycerol 1-palmitate, no detailed description of its antiviral action was found. Stigmasterol and gamma-sitosterol act as anti-HIV-1 and anti-SARS-CoV-2, respectively, inhibiting the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1, the proteases 3CLpro, PLpro and the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. However, despite the fact that the extract of J. curcas seeds consist of antiviral compounds that fight against the etiological agents of HIV-AIDS and COVID-19, it is concluded that there is a need to deepen this evidence, by in vitro and in vivo assays.

8.
Revista Espanola de Salud Publica ; 96(e202212091), 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of social and gender determinants, which influence the places where people are exposed to COVID-19, may be relevant in the development of preventive and control strategies. The aim of this paper was to determine the context in which COVID-19 cases were infected (household, work/labor, health, social-health, and social-leisure settings) according to country of origin, occupational social class and gender, which is essential in order to designing public health strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of an epidemiological registry of 56,628 COVID-19 incident cases was made, whose exposure/ contagion setting was studied according to the previous variables from June 15 to December 23, 2020, in the Region of Murcia (Spain). An exact Fisher test was used to study the distribution of COVID-19 cases based on the above variables. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence was higher in people from Africa (5,133.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants) and Latin America (11,351.1) than in non-immigrants (3,145.7). It was also higher in women (3,885.6) than in men (3,572.6). It is noteworthy, that 53.3% of the cases with employment were workers in industry or construction, artisans, agricultural workers, or elementary occupations. In contrast, during the second semester of 2020, 41.3% of the employed population in the Region of Murcia performed such jobs. The household was the main exposure setting (56.5% of cases with a known setting), followed by social-leisure (20.7%) and work/labor (18.2%). The labor settings were more important in immigrants from Africa (28.4%) and Latin America (35.7%) than in non-immigrants (12%), inversely to social-leisure settings. Labor context was more important in women (19.6%) than in men (16.5%) and in manual workers (44.1%) than in non-manual workers (26.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The context in which COVID-19 cases were infected is different according to social inequalities related to country of origin, gender and occupational social class.

9.
Journal of the Bahrain Medical Society ; 35(1):20-33, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319203

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the restructuring of traditional clinical activity;hence, globally, 58% of countries implemented the use of telemedicine to meet their healthcare needs. Background: To examine patients' satisfaction with telemedicine medical service and experience at the level of primary care in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 335 patients who used teleconsultations in January 2022 in primary care. A validated questionnaire was modified to assess patients' satisfaction with teleconsultation medical services and experience during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 315 responses were included in the final analysis (response rate 94%). Almost all expressed extreme satisfaction with the medical service as they were able to easily explain their medical problem over the phone and fully understood their illness after the consultation. They were also satisfied with the ability of the doctor to understand their problem, explain their treatment, and provide appropriate management over the phone. Over 90% were satisfied with the consultation time that it does not require transportation and would like to use it in the future. Sharing private or personal information over the phone received the lowest satisfaction rate (77.5%). Conclusion: The overall satisfaction expressed by respondents of this survey with the teleconsultation medical service and experience is very high. Such a result confirms that patients have a positive attitude towards telemedicine services in primary care and are willing to use it again and, therefore, must be adopted as a proactive strategy to ensure long-term sustainability.

10.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine ; 48(2):357-360, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2319127

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Indonesian Government's plan to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, aside from implementing health protocols, also involves vaccinating everyone with the inactivated SARS CoV2 vaccine until herd immunity is reached. The aim of this study was to assess the post-vaccination immune response to inactivated SARS CoV2 vaccine, namely Sinovac/Sinopharm, by measuring the antibodies (IgM and IgG) in subjects after their second dose of vaccination. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was a cohort study using simple random sampling with 51 respondents aged 18-56 years who had received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. All respondents were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to inclusion. Serum IgM and IgG antibodies were detected using a specific and sensitive automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). CLIA uses the Cut Off Point (COI) value of >1 AU/ml for IgM and the Reactive Value of >10 AU/ml for IgG. Results: This study showed that the IgM levels using a reactive Cut Off Point (COI) >1 were 18% in the first month, 14% in the third month, and 10% in the sixth month. There was a constant decline in the third comparison. Meanwhile, compared to the first month, 59% of respondents had IgG levels with reactive values over 10 AU/ml, which after decreasing by 35% in the third month, the number increased by 47% in the sixth month. Conclusion: It has been evident that IgG and IgM antibody response could be induced by inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine which can be influenced by age and detection time after the second dose of vaccination. Boosters, however, must be given after six months of the second dose, since antibody levels were seen to decrease after this period.

11.
Journal of Research Development in Nursing and Midwifery ; 19(2):59-62, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318984

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalization of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients can lead to burden of care and cause health problems for family members of the patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between burden of care and mental health of family members of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional correlation study was conducted from November 2021 to February 2022. The study population consisted 84 family members of COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shariati Hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were selected via consecutive sampling. Data collection was done using a demographic information form, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21, the Zarit Burden Interview, and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 and at significance level of 0.05. Results: More than half of the participants (51.22%) experienced mild to moderate level of care burden, while 17.07% of them experienced moderate to severe level of care burden. The mean score of mental health in the participants was 16.925+or-1.953. By adjusting the demographic variables and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21, the level of stress of family members led to more burden of care (coefficient beta= 0.608, 95% confidence interval= 0.451-1.556, P=0.001). Conclusion: Paying attention to the issue of stress in the family members of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and supporting these individuals can help to provide better care to the patients and reduce health challenges.

12.
Plant Archives ; 22(2):184-192, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318867

ABSTRACT

The taxonomic diversity and the richness of the region of Seraidi (North-East Algeria) in medicinal plants, as well as the appearance of diseases of viral origin, in particular, the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, led us to the realization of an ethnobotanical survey of plants with antiviral interests. The survey was conducted based on a pre-established quiz, with 120 people from different categories of the population of Seraidi, with the aim of listing the medicinal plants used in the treatment of viral diseases and collecting as much information as possible on this subject. After analyzing, the information provided by the people interviewed, we listed 32 species belonging to 20 families, of which the Lamiaceae family is the most represented. Older women are the most affected by the use of plants;people without a higher intellectual level have the most knowledge about the use of plants with antiviral interest. The leaf is the most widely used organ, in the form of a decoction or infusion, administered orally.

13.
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research ; 6(3):242-249, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318822

ABSTRACT

Aim: The global COVID-19 pandemic and new variants continue to seriously threaten society. In this study;It was aimed to investigate surveillance of SARS CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses in respiratory tract samples in the winter season of 2020-2021 in Sakarya province. Material and Method: The study was carried out at Sakarya Training and Research Hospital between 2020-2021. e study was carried out with respiratory tract samples (Nasopharyngeal swab) stored in the laboratory. Clinical samples included in study were stored in a Bio-SpeedyRvNATRtransfer tube (Bioeksen,Turkey) and no extraction was performed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. All analyzes were recorded on BIO-RAD CFX-96C1000 Touch Real-time system device using Diagnovital influenza A/B, SARS CoV-2, RSV multiplex Real Time PCR amplification kit. Results: Of the 200 patients diagnosed with URTI/LRTI, 54.5% were male and 45.5% female. e most common clinical symptoms;sore throat 74%, cough 73.5%, fatigue 71%, fever 57%, runny nose 56%, headache 48.5%, sneezing 41.5%, loss of smell / taste 39.5%, diarrhea 36%, dyspnea was 31.5% and myalgia was 23.5%. PCR positivity rates of samples were analyzed as 28.5% for SARS COV-2 and 1.5% for RSV, respectively. PCR positivity for influenza A/B was not defined in the study. Considering the statistical significance between PCR results and COVID-19 symptoms in patients;symptoms of dyspnea (n=63), fever(n= 62) and sneezing(n=56), respectively, were statistically significant(p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to the circumstances, only three main viral agents could be investigated in the study. RSV was frequently identified as an important factor in pediatric patients, whereas influenza-which may be related to social and individual measures (mask,distance,hygiene)- was not detected in any sample. More comprehensive scientific studies are needed to support the data.

14.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 74(3):118-121, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318752

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Globally, the case fatality ratio is more in males versus females. Some studies have suggested estrogen hormone decreases susceptibility to SARS CoV-2. We have analyzed the observed sex differences in COVID-19 behavior in males and females and the clinical profiles of females of different age groups of COVID-19 patients and discussed their symptoms, laboratory evaluations, and associated comorbidities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patients were tested for COVID-19 through real-time RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) assay. The data obtained were studied for the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics from their medical records. RESULTS: The mortality rate in females was 12.33% (36/292) whereas mortality in males was 19.63% (84/428). In between group analysis, 8.7% (14/161) of females died in the <40 years age group versus 16.8% (22/131) in more than 40 years age group whereas in males, the mortality was 13.7% (21/153) in <40 years versus 22.9%(63/275). The mortality rate in women older than 40 years was greater than mortality in younger females emphasizing the protection provided by estrogen hormone in them. The proportion of patients who expired due to COVID-19 significantly differs by age cutoff of 40 years, X2 (1, n=428). The difference is statistically significant at P < 0.05. Males more than 40 years are more likely to expire. CONCLUSION: Sex-related differences in coronavirus pandemic have been found pointing toward the protective role of estrogen hormone and other differences in immunological behavior in males and females. Downregulation of ACE2 expression, thereby reducing viral entry, might also be contributory to decreasing mortality in females.

15.
Indian Journal of Community Medicine ; 48(2):364-368, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318585

ABSTRACT

Background: There are studies available on the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM) in hospitalized patients but not on the incidence of CAM in post-discharge patients. The aim of our study was to find the incidence of CAM in the patients discharged from a COVID hospital. Material and Methods: Adult patients with COVID discharged between March 1, 2021 and June 30, 2021 were contacted and enquired about sign and symptoms of CAM. Data of all included patients were collected from electronic records. Results: A total of 850 patients responded, among which 59.4% were males, 66.4% patients had co-morbidities, and 24.2% had diabetes mellitus. Around 73% of patients had moderate to severe disease and were given steroids;however, only two patients developed CAM post discharge. Conclusion: The incidence of CAM post discharge was low in our study, which could be attributed to protocolized therapy and intensive monitoring.

16.
Jurnal Veteriner ; 23(1):121-129, 2022.
Article in Indonesian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318350

ABSTRACT

Coinfection caused by bacteria, parasites, or viruses complicates almost all feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections. Pathogens that colonize the gastrointestinal tract, Clostridium perfingens, Clostridium piliforme, Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, Tritrichomonas fetus, canine parvovirus type 2,Salmonella sp., feline coronavirus, feline bocavirus, and feline astrovirus were isolated in the presence of FPV infection. Complex mechanisms between viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and hosts contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of coinfection. Prompt and accurate diagnosis, vaccination precautions, and appropriate treatment play important roles in reducing morbidity and mortality. This article outlines the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment that can help veterinarians and pet owners improve their knowledge of managing the diseases.

17.
Journal of Natural Remedies ; 23(1):13-22, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318301

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created much concern among general public, policy makers and especially heath care workers. The reason is not one but varied such as anxiety, fear, compromised health, isolation, economic crisis and social stigma all of which leads to psychological stress. The disease became a global concern due to unmanageable death even in much developed countries. Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID -19) is a newly discovered disease caused by coronavirus which reside both in humans and animals. The article is a detailed review from the origin of the disease, its progression in India and its various other aspects.

18.
One Health Journal of Nepal ; 2(1):26-31, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318280

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), since its emergence, has spread rapidly as a pandemic causing massive loss of human life. This study aims to describe clinical severity of the disease in relation to age, mode of oxygen delivery and clinical outcome of patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Nepal. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of data records of 130 COVID-19 patients 18 years and above admitted in Nepal Armed Police Force Hospital from April 2021 to June 2021 with Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction positive status. Ethical approval was obtained from Nepal Health research Council. Data were collected using structured proforma and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results: Patients with severe illness (52/130) constituted 40% of the bulk of COVID-19 patients, 48 of them requiring intensive care. Among them, 38.5% required non-invasive ventilation and 32.7% were intubated during treatment. Severity of illness was variable among different age groups but mortality was high among severely ill patients, 19/52 (36.5%) and with increasing age. The overall mortality was 19/130 (14%) over the study period, all of which were among severely ill patients. Conclusions: Most of the clinically severe cases required Intensive Care Unit admission, the majority receiving oxygen therapy via non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, with a high mortality rate. The number of severely ill COVID-19 patients was variable in different age groups. Mortality, however, was observed in severely ill patients only and proportionately increased in COVID-19 patients with advancing age.

19.
Medica Innovatica ; 11(1):1-6, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2318202

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is common in young adults even in sunlight sufficient countries. It manifests with subtle and trivial symptoms that are often ignored. Nutritional deficiency due to improper dietary habits, poverty, long hours at work and study are factors. The lockdown during COVID has exacerbated the incidence. We had a patient with VDD who became symptomatic after routine thyroidectomy prompting our review into literature on the global health perspective of VDD. Material and method: - A 21-year-old nursing student developed hypocalcaemia within 24 hours after a routine thyroidectomy. VDD was detected and patient improved after supplementation. Literature was reviewed from Pubmed database for the medical aspects of the problem, from Government archives like the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, ICMR etc for cause and medical archives including those of paediatric and general health for the impact of disease at the state, national and global level. A global health problem list was prepared and data was reviewed. Discussion: Vitamin D is protective against respiratory infections due to viral aetiology including COVID. However, complete lockdown to prevent spread of COVID, online learning, and work from home culture has reduced sunlight exposure and increased incidence of VDD. Post thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia is common in VDD. Conclusion: Since there is a high prevalence of asymptomatic VDD even in sunshine sufficient countries, it is recommended to screen all patients especially young adults for VDD during routine preoperative work up.

20.
Istanbul Medical Journal ; 23(4):301-305, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2317856

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Proinflammatory cytokines, produced as an immune response in severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection, activate the coagulation cascade as well. In this study, we investigated the difference in the clinical course of patients who had been already using anti-thrombotic therapy before coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) for any reason compared to the group who had not. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter study;patients who were hospitalized between March 11 and July 1, 2020 were divided into two main groups as who had been on anti-thrombotic therapy for any indication use previously at the time of admission or who had not been on anti-thrombotic therapy at the time of admission, and their selected clinical parameters were compared. Results: After analyzing the study population of 124 patients with a homogeneous distribution in terms of age and gender, the comparison of anti-thrombotic users and non-users showed no significant difference in hospitalization. There was a statistically significant decrease in mechanical ventilation apply rate, intensive care unit duration and mortality rate between the group using anti-thrombotic compared to the group not using it (p<0.05). Conclusion: It has already been shown that COVID-19 patients are more prone to thromboembolic events as it activates the coagulation cascade with the cytokine storm it creates and thus the mortality of COVID-19 infection increases significantly. Parallel to this fact the results of our study demonstrated that using anti-thrombotic therapy for any reason may affect the bad prognosis of the disease positively.

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