Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 193
Filter
1.
Acta Haematologica Polonica ; 53(1):19-25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822565

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition of overexpressed inflammatory response resulting in hypercytokinemia, macrophages infiltration and subsequent multiple organ failure. Without treatment, it leads to death. The main etiological factors include: viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, malignancies and autoinflammatory diseases. The main clinical manifestations are: high fever ≥38°C, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Central nervous system involvement occurs in 30-70% of cases. Less common symptoms include: dyspnea, cough, arrhythmias, jaundice, peripheral edema, rashes, albinism and diarrhea. The picture of the disease seen in laboratory tests consists of: duopenia, hypofibrinogenemia (<150 mg/dL) high D-dimers level, and hyperferritinemia. Other abnormalities include hypertriglyceridemia, elevated liver enzymes, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia. Diagnostics include: laboratory tests, histopathological examination, lumbar puncture, radiological imaging, functional test and genetic checking. It is important to rule out factors mimicking HLH. Some of the old, well-known criteria are of less relevance nowadays. The aim of the therapy is immunosuppressive, immunomodulatory and anti-cytokine treatment, using the HLH-2004 protocol. In secondary HLH, elimination of the causative agent is critical. In primary HLH, or relapse of secondary forms, allogeneic transplantation is the only curative treatment. The prognosis is uncertain.

2.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy ; 36(3):288-290, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822141
3.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; 85(2):122-136, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818324

ABSTRACT

Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) have distinct clinical features, both diseases may coexist in a patient because they share similar risk factors such as smoking, male sex, and old age. Patients with both emphysema in upper lung fields and diffuse ILD are diagnosed with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), which causes substantial clinical deterioration. Patients with CPFE have higher mortality compared with patients who have COPD alone, but results have been inconclusive compared with patients who have idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Poor prognostic factors for CPFE include exacerbation, lung cancer, and pulmonary hypertension. The presence of interstitial lung abnormalities, which may be an early or mild form of ILD, is notable among patients with COPD, and is associated with poor prognosis. Various theories have been proposed regarding the pathophysiology of CPFE. Biomarker analyses have implied that this pathophysiology may be more closely associated with IPF development, rather than COPD or emphysema. Patients with CPFE should be advised to quit smoking and undergo routine lung function tests, and pulmonary rehabilitation may be helpful. Various pharmacologic agents and surgical approaches may be beneficial in patients with CPFE, but further studies are needed.

4.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817311

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 has been reported in most countries around the world since its origins in Wuhan, China. As of September 2021, there have been over 229 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 4.7 million COVID-19–associated deaths. Body: The devastating second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India has seen a rise in various extrapulmonary manifestations. One of key components in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is downregulation of ACE-2, which is expressed on many organs and counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effects of ACE/angiotensin-II axis. This leads to influx of inflammatory cells into alveoli, increased vascular permeability and activation of prothrombotic mediators. Imaging findings such as ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, vascular dilatation and pulmonary thrombosis correlate well with the pathogenesis. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the systemic complications of COVID-19 are caused by either direct viral invasion or effect of cytokine storm leading to inflammation and thrombosis or a combination of both. Gaining insights into pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 will help understanding the various multisystemic manifestations of COVID-19. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the pathophysiology of COVID-19 along with its various multisystemic imaging manifestations.

5.
Advances in physiology education ; 46(2):297-308, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1816798

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a strong driver for moving more teaching and learning activities online. Border restrictions have had a severe impact on international students either hoping to enroll in courses offered in Australia or continue with such courses if they are already enrolled. The online learning experience is likely different between students onshore and offshore. This study took a unique opportunity to investigate any such differences in students' attitudes toward remote learning, necessitated by the pandemic, by comparing two cohorts of students, Australia versus China based. An anonymous survey using the Likert Scale and open-ended questions was available for student feedback on subject delivery. The students based in Australia expressed a preference for remote learning due to the convenience of attendance and availability of the video recordings. However, students in China had a strong preference for face-to-face sessions, with the lack of prior experience in an English-speaking learning environment and hesitance to speak with the lecturers and engage in the learning activities possible reasons for this. In quizzes, students in Australia performed better than those in China regardless of local or international student status. This difference may be due to the Australian-based students' prior experience of English-speaking environments and open-book quizzes. In conclusion, remote learning in a familiar language and learning environment is accepted by students, whereas if the teaching is delivered in a second language using unfamiliar teaching methods, remote learning will require additional scaffolding to enhance their learning experience.

6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1816797

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, while disruptive and abrupt, provided instructors opportunities to redesign face-to-face (F2F) lecture courses to an online asynchronous delivery mode. Asynchronous course delivery is often synonymous with recorded lectures, discussion boards, and standardized assessments. Yet this mode can be student-centered, include active learning, and engage students. Our undergraduate clinical pathophysiology course was redesigned using Understanding Your Physiology (Lt ADInstruments) lessons with video case studies in place of a textbook. Most students (72.7%) found the Lt activities effective in helping them learn the material as well as a cost-effective replacement to a traditional textbook (50%). In addition, the course design focused on different types of Lt activities to deliver the course content in an interactive way. Specifically, students (82%) appreciated the opportunity to select an answer without penalty and make another selection if needed. The type of activity students selected as most effective in helping them learn and understand the content was the ability to determine which statements were correct/incorrect (32%). Students enjoyed the video case studies of patients because they were directly related to course content, were visually engaging, and used real patients who told their personal story. All these factors contributed to the success in achieving the study's goals of redesigning a F2F lecture course to an asynchronous online format. The online course led to verifiable pedagogical outcomes using the Lt platform to engage students in learning. This course was offered again in 2021, filled quickly and will continue to be offered each year.

7.
Journal of Critical Care ; 69, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1814662

ABSTRACT

PurposeAcute lung injury associated with COVID-19 contributes significantly to its morbidity and mortality. Though invasive mechanical ventilation is sometimes necessary, the use of high flow nasal oxygen may avoid the need for mechanical ventilation in some patients. For patients approaching the limits of high flow nasal oxygen support, addition of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators is becoming more common but little is known about its effects. This is the first descriptive study of a cohort of patients receiving inhaled epoprostenol with high flow nasal oxygen for COVID-19.Materials and methodsWe collected clinical data from the first fifty patients to receive inhaled epoprostenol while on high flow nasal oxygen at our institution. We compared the characteristics of patients who did and did not respond to epoprostenol addition.ResultsThe 18 patients that did not stabilize or improve following initiation of inhaled epoprostenol had similar rates of invasive mechanical ventilation as those who improved or stabilized (50% vs 56%). Rates of mortality were not significantly different between the two groups (17% and 31%).ConclusionsIn patients with COVID-19 induced hypoxemic respiratory failure, the use of inhaled epoprostenol with high flow nasal oxygen is feasible, but physiologic signs of response were not related to clinical outcomes.

8.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(5):1353-1358, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812612

ABSTRACT

The Covid 19 epidemic has had a massive influence on humanity. People are suffering not only physically, but also financially and emotionally. Those who are afflicted with this fatal virus have a variety of bodily symptoms. One of them is myalgia. To minimise future difficulties, it must be treated effectively. Massage therapy and Kinesio taping are two interventions that can be used to treat myalgia, also known as muscular soreness or pain. It can be speculated that Massage therapy and Kinesio taping can be used to treat Covid 19 patients with Myalgia based on the results of studies on the effects of Massage and Kinesio Taping and the currently understood pathophysiology underlying Myalgia.

9.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine ; 17(2):87-93, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to explore the pathophysiology and rehabilitation management of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We reviewed articles published in 2019-2021 using PubMed, Google Scholar, and CINAHL databases as an electronic database. Data obtained were pathophysiology and rehabilitation management of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 survivors. Types of the article were original articles and systematic or narrative reviews, both published and preprint articles. Articles that were written in English and freely accessible in pdf or HTML format were included. RESULTS: There were 28 articles eligible for this review. Pathophysiology, rehabilitation management, and both pathophysiology and rehabilitation management were explained in 7, 24, and 4 articles, consecutively. DISCUSSION: Exercise intolerance is caused by some pathological processes in the respiratory, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems as a result of systemic inflammation. Fatigue and shortness of breath during the activity were the most common symptom in the early phase of COVID-19 and persisted until the follow-up phase. Hospital admission, especially prolonged use of ventilators and immobilization worsen functional impairment resulting in persistent symptoms. Rehabilitation management begins with a functional assessment consisting of symptom assessment and physical examination of the body systems affected. The goals of rehabilitation management are to increase functional capacity, reduce symptoms, improve the ability to perform daily activities, facilitate social reintegration, and improve quality of life. Exercise is an effective intervention to reach these goals. Several studies recommend breathing, and aerobic exercises, as well as resistance exercises for peripheral and respiratory muscles, to improve symptoms and increase functional capacity.

10.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 23(8):4203, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809937

ABSTRACT

[...]this model system is now being actively used not only to studying in vivo functions of human disease-related genes, but also to screen and evaluate candidate substances for therapeutic research. The fly model utilized for this study shows a number of parallels to obese human, exhibiting increased body mass, decreased locomotive ability and shortened life span. In a comprehensive review article published in this volume, Harnish et al. introduced studies that used transgenic Drosophila strains to overexpress pathogenic proteins produced by viruses and bacteria to elucidate host-pathogen interactions in vivo [9]. Since the innate immune system, developmental signaling pathways, and many other fundamental biological pathways are conserved between humans and Drosophila, insights into how pathogenic proteins alter these pathways have been investigated in vivo using Drosophila models, especially over the past decade. [...]damage results in loss of heterozygosity of a visible marker during larval development, which can easily be visualized as mutant wing spots in adult flies. Since the SMART assay is high-throughput, economic and can be used to assess food safety, drug safety and genotoxicity of various environmental pollutants, the authors argue that various health-related industries can benefit from this technology.

11.
Children ; 9(4):528, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809741

ABSTRACT

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) makes nerves increasingly susceptible to mechanical pressure at entrapment sites. Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) can cause sudden regional weakness following events to which the patient is immunologically predisposed, such as vaccination. However, NA related to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is seldom reported. We describe the case of a child with NA as the cause of a dropped shoulder following the administration of the HPV vaccine. Underlying asymptomatic HNPP was confirmed in this patient based on the electrodiagnostic findings and genetic analysis. We speculate that HPV vaccination elicited an immune-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in NA. Our patient with pre-existing HNPP might be vulnerable to the occurrence of an immune-mediated NA, which caused the dropped shoulder.

12.
Current Diabetes Reviews ; 18(3), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1809163

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the most frequently reported comorbidities in patients tainted with the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With a high pervasiveness of diabetes mellitus, there is an urgency to understand the special aspects of COVID-19 in hyperglycemic patients. Diabetic patients are at higher risk than the general population of viral or bacterial infections, thus require special attention since diabetes is linked with severe, critical, and lethal modes of COVID-19. Objective: The objective of this study was to focus on epidemiology, pathophysiology, mechanism, and management of DM with COVID-19. Methods: The search was carried out on databases portals such as Pubmed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and CINAHL with the keywords, i.e., COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, diabetes, covid-19, etc. Result: DM and COVID-19 disease conditions can impact each other in terms of clinical progression and outcome. Available laboratory/clinical observations suggest that hyperglycemia-induced immune dysfunction, inflated lactate grades, and cytokines storm may play critical roles in the seriousness of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes;however, the exact mechanisms linking diabetes and COVID-19 remain to be further clarified. Conclusion: Standards to constrain the disease spread at the individual and community level are the key to extenuate the speedily rising pandemic, while definitive treatment, like plasma therapy, chemoprophylaxis, or vaccine for COVID-19, has yet to be discovered. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.

13.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(s1):74-75, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1795905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2), which underlies the current COVID-19 pandemic, among other tissues, also targets the central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study is to investigate mechanisms of neuroinflammation in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated mouse model and SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this research I will assay vascular reactivity of cerebral vessels to assess vascular dysfunction within the microcirculation. I will determine expression of proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation factors and AT1 receptors (AT1R) in isolated microvessels from the circle of Willis to assess inflammation, thrombosis and RAS activity in the microvasculature. LPS and SARS-CoV-2, are both associated with coagulopathies and because of that I will measure concentration of PAI-1, von Willebrand Factor, thrombin and D-dimer to assess the thrombotic pathway in the circulation. Histology and immunohistochemistry will assess immune cell type infiltration into the brain parenchyma, microglia activation and severity of neuroinflammation and neural injury. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that under conditions of reduced ACE2 (e.g., SARS-CoV-2 infection), AT1R activity is upregulated in the microvasculature. In the presence of an inflammatory insult, these AT1Rs promote endothelialitis and immunothrombosis through pro-thrombotic pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to endothelial dysfunction in the microvasculature, blood brain barrier (BBB) injury, deficits in cognition and increased anxiety. We will test this hypothesis through 2 aims: Aim 1: Determine the role of the pro-injury arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. Aim 1: Determine the role of the protective arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study will provide insights that will complement on-going clinical trials on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) in COVID-19. This research is a necessary first step in understanding mechanisms of brain pathogenesis that can set the groundwork for future studies of more complex models of disease.

14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835104, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785341

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus-19 (COVID-19), has caused significant morbidity and mortality globally. In addition to the respiratory manifestations seen in severe cases, multi-organ pathologies also occur, making management a much-debated issue. In addition, the emergence of new variants can potentially render vaccines with a relatively limited utility. Many investigators have attempted to elucidate the precise pathophysiological mechanisms causing COVID-19 respiratory and systemic disease. Spillover of lung-derived cytokines causing a cytokine storm is considered the cause of systemic disease. However, recent studies have provided contradictory evidence, whereby the extent of cytokine storm is insufficient to cause severe illness. These issues are highly relevant, as management approaches considering COVID-19 a classic form of acute respiratory distress syndrome with a cytokine storm could translate to unfounded clinical decisions, detrimental to patient trajectory. Additionally, the precise immune cell signatures that characterize disease of varying severity remain contentious. We provide an up-to-date review on the immune dysregulation caused by COVID-19 and highlight pertinent discussions in the scientific community. The response from the scientific community has been unprecedented regarding the development of highly effective vaccines and cutting-edge research on novel therapies. We hope that this review furthers the conversations held by scientists and informs the aims of future research projects, which will potentially further our understanding of COVID-19 and its immune pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immune System Diseases , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779862

ABSTRACT

Recently, the post-COVID neurological syndrome has been coined, which describes the functional and structural sequelae of coronavirus infection disease-19 (COVID-19) in the brain. Mild/severe manifestations of the post-COVID neurological syndrome have been identified in approximately 33.00% of COVID-19 survivors. The presence of neurological complications after COVID allowed neuropathologists to investigate in-depth the role of viral infection in neurons. The pathophysiology of the post-COVID neurological syndrome involved the development of a systematic response, including coagulopathy characterized by the formation of microthrombi. Coagulopathy, an old term for a new disease, describes the discrepancy between pro-coagulant and anticoagulant systems due to overexpression of pro-coagulant substances and or their receptors in addition to suppression of the anticoagulant molecules and or their receptors. Vascular endothelial cells and hepatocytes play a central role in the regulation of hemostasis that is disrupted during the acute phase response (APR) of coronavirus-19 (COVID-19). Currently, coagulopathy and inflammation are termed together since both form a complementary system, indicated by the elevation of inflammatory biomarkers (APR) and fibrinolysis biomarkers (D-dimer/fibrin). The later events of post-COVID neurological syndrome are primarily induced by coagulopathy and direct viral tropism. Therefore, the paper introduces the hypothesis of coagulopathy induced post-COVID neurological syndrome.

16.
Proceedings of the 67th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Nashville, Tennessee, USA ; 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1777178

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology, prevalence, distribution, risk factors, transmission, physiopathology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of equine coronavirus are presented.

17.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332431

ABSTRACT

Background: The pathophysiology of COVID-19 hypoxia remains poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the relative contribution of intrapulmonary shunting and ventilation-to-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatch to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 using a mathematical model to construct oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curves (ODCs). Methods: ODCs were constructed using transcutaneous pulse oximetry at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2). 199 patients were included from two large district general hospitals in the South East of England from 1st to 14th January 2021. The study was supported by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Clinical Research Network. Findings Overall mortality was 29%. Mean age was 68.2 years (SEM 1·2) with 46% female. Median shunt on admission was 17% (IQR 8-24.5) and VA/Q was 0.61 (IQR 0.52-0.73). Shunt was 37.5% higher in patients who died (median 22%, IQR 9-29) compared to those that survived (16%, 8-21;p=0.0088) and was a predictor of mortality upon univariate logistic regression (OR 1.04;95% CI 1.01-1.07). However, admission oxygen saturations were more strongly predictive of mortality (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). There was no difference in VA/Q mismatch between deaths (0.60;IQR 0.50-0.73) and survivors (0.61;IQR 0.52-0.73;p=0.63) and it was not predictive of mortality (OR 0.68;95% CI 0.18-2.52;p=0.55). Shunt was negatively correlated with admission oxygen saturation (R value -0.533;p<0.0001) whereas VA/Q was not (R value 0.1137;p=0.12). Shunt correlated with admission NEWS2 score (p<0.0001), WCC (p=0.0085), neutrophil count (p=0.016), CRP (p=0.0003), D-dimer (p=0.002), LDH (p=0.001), and urea (p=0.025). VA/Q mismatch was not related to any parameters collected. Interpretation: This study identifies the relative proportions of shunt and VA/Q mismatch in people presenting with severe COVID-19 infection. Shunt, not VA/Q mismatch, was associated with worsening hypoxia. These observations add to our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for hypoxaemia in COVID-19. It remains to be determined whether targeting these mechanisms will improve outcome. Calculating shunt provided no additional prognostic value beyond oxygen saturations alone. Nevertheless, this rapid, inexpensive, reliable, and non-invasive technique may provide further insights into the pathophysiology of hypoxia in other respiratory diseases such as bacterial pneumonia.

18.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775547

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses hold idiosyncratic morphological features and functionality. The members of this group have a remarkable capability of infecting both animals and humans. Inimitably, the replication of the RNA genome continues through the set of viral mRNA molecules. Coronaviruses received the least attention until 2003 since they caused only minor respiratory tract illnesses. However, this changed exclusively with the introduction of zoonotic SARS-CoV in 2003. In 2012, MERS-CoV emerged and confirmed this group of viruses as the major causative agents of severe respiratory tract illness. Today, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (i.e., COVID-19) has turned out to be a chief health problem that causes a severe acute respiratory disorder in humans. Since the first identification of COVID-19 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, this infection has devastatingly spread all around the globe leading to a crippling affliction for humans. The strain is known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and WHO (the World Health Organization) has termed this new pandemic disease as Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 is still spreading, with an estimated 136 million confirmed cases and more than 2.94 million deaths worldwide so far while the pandemic is still going on. In the current scenario, there is no particular treatment for COVID-19, however remarkable efforts for immunization and vaccine development can be observed. Therefore, the execution of precautions and proper preventive measures are indispensable to minimize and control the community transmission of the virus. This review summarizes information about the pathophysiology, transmission, symptoms, and the host defense mechanism as well as immunization and vaccine development against COVID-19.

19.
Turkish Journal of Rheumatology ; 37(1):150-152, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1776906

ABSTRACT

[...]several theories have been discussed involving differences in the immune system, such as thymic function difference, cross-reactive immunity against other coronaviruses, and differences in the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor used by the virus to enter the cell.3 In the Weisberg et al.'s4 study, cases with a diagnosis of MIS-C showed ineffective and reduced neutralizing antibody activity against SARS-CoV-2, compared to adults who had severe COVID-19 and recovered. In the largest series related to the MIS-C, the median age of the patients was eight years (interquartile range, 4 to 12 years) and the youngest case was two-week-old.6 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) case definition for MIS-C includes a positive RT-PCR, serology, or antigen test for SARS-CoV-2;or COVID-19 exposure within the four weeks before the onset of symptoms.1 However, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), case definition for MIS-C does not include a four-week period, although it includes similar test results.7 In the literature, MIS-C has been described as presenting within two to six weeks, typically within 21 to 25 days, of an illness compatible with acute COVID-19.8 Cirks et al.9 reported a case that was diagnosed with MIS-C after 16 weeks period of COVID-19. The underlying mechanism of MIS-C is still unknown and children usually have asymptomatic COVID-19 and, thus, it is unpredictable which child would develop MIS-C after COVID-19. [...]serial RT-PCR and antibody monitoring are practically futile in children with COVID-19.

20.
Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770874

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 illness is a highly contagious disease presently affecting more than 200 countries and is a disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2). Persons with Diabetes mellitus (DM), severe obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are more likely to be infected with COVID-19 and are at higher risk of death. The pandemic of COVID-19 is overlapping the preexisting diabetes pandemic to produce fast and very vulnerable groups of COVID-19 and diabetes patients. Evidence relating to COVID-19 and diabetes is less, but continuing to emerge. In this context, we present evidence identified through rapid reviews. The current manuscript's goal is to provide information on diabetic patients suffering from COVID-19. Consequently, diabetic people have a higher susceptibility to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, since defects in the glucose metabolism exacerbate the COVID-19 pathogenesis. After an extensive literature survey, it can come to an end that specific care is required for diabetes patients suffering from the COVID-19 virus. COVID-19 infection in diabetic patients may lead to loss of life if immediate care is not taken. In this paper, we give insight into the COVID-19 disease complications relevant to diabetes and try to emphasize the current information and emerging concepts for SARS-CoV-2 infections of patients with DM.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL