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1.
J Pediatr Urol ; 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796433

ABSTRACT

Over the course of approximately 60 years, the field of pediatric urology has evolved as a convergence of pediatric surgery, urology, and plastic surgery to address congenital anomalies of the urinary tract and genitalia in children. Guidelines for training and certification are narrowing in high-income countries (HICs) at the same time as the fertility rate is declining and the prevalence of complex genitourinary (GU) conditions is decreasing. In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), health systems for large populations are currently in a state of stress. Here we briefly review the history of pediatric urology as a surgical subspecialty, identify unmet needs especially in LMICs and place the field in the context of a global surgical ecosystem. METHODS: The English language literature on workforce trends in pediatric urology, pediatric surgery and urology was reviewed as well as development of the emerging field of global surgery. Global surgery looks at the social, economic and political context of health systems as well as unmet clinical need. World trends in fertility rates were reviewed to identify regions of workforce surplus and gaps, supply chain needs, infrastructure and systems strengths and weaknesses. RESULTS: The proliferation of training programs in pediatric surgery and specialties in high-income countries (HICs) coupled with declining birth rates has led to a saturation of specialists and declining surgical case load. In LMICs, while the birth rate has also been declining, surgical specialization has not progressed. In the lowest income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, training in pediatric surgical specialties and urology is rare. The broad workforce that supports surgical care, such as anesthesia, intensivist pediatrics, radiology, laboratory, and nursing face similar challenges. Supply chains for specialized pediatric urological surgery are weak. CONCLUSION: There is an evolving maldistribution of pediatric surgical and pediatric urological workforce globally, with too few practitioners in LMICs and too many in HICs. The high cost of specialized equipment limits access to quality care, and the supply chain for consumables and medication is patchy. In LIC's, basic community-based infrastructure for health including reliable electricity is lacking. Recent experience with Covid and environmental disasters has highlighted that even in HICs surgical resilience can be challenged. This is an opportunity to consider the state of children's urological care globally and to build resilience by identifying and addressing strengths and gaps.

2.
Urol Ann ; 13(4): 397-404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702080

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on pediatric urology practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: Data of 10 tertiary hospitals in KSA were retrospectively analyzed. Data of outpatient department (OPD) visits and pediatric urology surgical procedures from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2019, and from January 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, were extracted. The primary outcome was to compare OPD visits and pediatric urology workload in the first third of 2020 versus 2019, where there was no curfew. The secondary outcome was to compare the same variables during the full curfew time, i.e., April 2020 versus April 2019. RESULTS: The number of OPD visits was lower in the first third of 2020 (7390 vs. 10,379 in 2019 P < 0.001). OPD visits in April 2020 were 78.6% lower than in April 2019, and teleclinics represented 850 (94.3%). Elective procedures in the first third of 2020 were 688, with a reduction rate of 34.3% compared to the same period of 2019 (P < 0.001). In April 2020, there were 18 elective surgeries, with a 91.4% decrease than in April 2019. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and circumcision stopped, while pyeloplasty (n = 14) and urolithiasis (n = 4) procedures had declined by 50% and 76.5%, respectively. Most of the procedures (71.8%) were day surgery. Emergency procedures were similar in the first third of 2020 (65 vs. 64 in 2019, P = 0.994) and declined in April 2020 by 6.7% versus April 2019. During the full curfew, the most common emergency intervention were cases with obstructive uropathy (42.8%), followed by torsion testis (28.6%), posterior urethral valve (14.3%), and urological trauma (14.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In KSA, the number of elective pediatric surgical procedures were reduced by >90%, while the number of emergency pediatric surgical procdures were similar during COVID-19 pandemic compared with non-COVID-19 time. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias repair, cryptorchidism, and circumcision procedures were postponed. Pyeloplasty and urolithiasis-related procedures were performed to prevent irreversible disease progression or organ damage. There was an increase in rate of teleclinic and day surgery to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection.

3.
Urol Ann ; 13(4): 397-404, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478290

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on pediatric urology practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS: Data of 10 tertiary hospitals in KSA were retrospectively analyzed. Data of outpatient department (OPD) visits and pediatric urology surgical procedures from January 1, 2019, to April 30, 2019, and from January 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, were extracted. The primary outcome was to compare OPD visits and pediatric urology workload in the first third of 2020 versus 2019, where there was no curfew. The secondary outcome was to compare the same variables during the full curfew time, i.e., April 2020 versus April 2019. RESULTS: The number of OPD visits was lower in the first third of 2020 (7390 vs. 10,379 in 2019 P < 0.001). OPD visits in April 2020 were 78.6% lower than in April 2019, and teleclinics represented 850 (94.3%). Elective procedures in the first third of 2020 were 688, with a reduction rate of 34.3% compared to the same period of 2019 (P < 0.001). In April 2020, there were 18 elective surgeries, with a 91.4% decrease than in April 2019. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and circumcision stopped, while pyeloplasty (n = 14) and urolithiasis (n = 4) procedures had declined by 50% and 76.5%, respectively. Most of the procedures (71.8%) were day surgery. Emergency procedures were similar in the first third of 2020 (65 vs. 64 in 2019, P = 0.994) and declined in April 2020 by 6.7% versus April 2019. During the full curfew, the most common emergency intervention were cases with obstructive uropathy (42.8%), followed by torsion testis (28.6%), posterior urethral valve (14.3%), and urological trauma (14.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In KSA, the number of elective pediatric surgical procedures were reduced by >90%, while the number of emergency pediatric surgical procdures were similar during COVID-19 pandemic compared with non-COVID-19 time. Ureteric reimplantation, hypospadias repair, cryptorchidism, and circumcision procedures were postponed. Pyeloplasty and urolithiasis-related procedures were performed to prevent irreversible disease progression or organ damage. There was an increase in rate of teleclinic and day surgery to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection.

4.
J Pediatr Urol ; 18(1): 17-22, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1457212

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine has bridged the distance gap between patients and pediatric urologists for over a decade, yet many pediatric urologists have not embraced it as a major part of their practice. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate and clarify the optimal role of telemedicine in pediatric urology, as well as the benefits, barriers, risks, and other important considerations that must be accounted for in its optimal adoption. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this systematic review utilized Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to search PubMed through April 29, 2021 as follows: (Humans [MeSH]) AND ((Child [MeSH]) OR (Infant [MeSH])) AND ((Remote Consultation [MAJR]) OR (Telemedicine [MAJR]) OR (Videoconferencing [MAJR]) OR (Health Services Accessibility [MAJR])) AND ((Urology [MAJR]) OR (Postoperative Care [MAJR]) OR (Urologic Surgical Procedures [MAJR])). 73 resulting articles, plus 21 from manual searches (e.g. papers too recent to have MeSH terms), were screened. 17 met inclusion criteria by discussing telemedicine in context of pediatric urology in a full manuscript. Non-complete manuscripts and papers not specifically considering pediatric urology, or in which telemedicine was not a major focus, were excluded. RESULTS: 17 papers met inclusion criteria. Varied approaches to the topic included surveys, controlled studies, retrospective studies, and descriptive opinion pieces. Quality of evidence varied, representing at least 1851 virtual encounters, 409 in-person encounters, and 68 clinician opinions. Four papers included a comparison or control group, and none utilized randomization. All 17 papers support expanded application of telemedicine in pediatric urology with varied evidence that telemedicine improves patient access to pediatric urologic care, satisfies both patient families and clinicians, is safe, provides equivalent outcomes, and is practicable. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of telemedicine in pediatric urology should be expanded as it can practicably and safely improve patient access to pediatric urologic care, satisfy both patient families and clinicians, and maintain outcomes.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Urology , Child , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Urologists
5.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Testicular torsion is a pediatric surgical emergency, and prompt diagnosis and treatment is imperative. During the COVID-19 pandemic, pediatric patients with symptoms of testicular torsion may be reluctant to seek medical care which increases the likelihood of delayed presentation and the need for an orchiectomy. This observational study sought to determine whether there was a higher number of testicular torsion cases during COVID-19. METHODS: As the first patient with COVID-19 was admitted to our facility on March 6, 2020, we identified male children ages 1-18 years with testicular torsion between March 1-December 31, 2020 (during COVID-19) compared to the same time period between 2015 and 2019 (prior to COVID-19). All patients were evaluated at our Institution's Emergency Department by a pediatric urologist. RESULTS: There were 38 cases of testicular torsion between March 1-December 31, 2020 compared to 15.8 cases on average during the same 10-month period between 2015 and 2019 (a total of 79 cases). There was a statistically significant increase in testicular torsion cases during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to equivalent time periods in 2015-2019 (38 vs. 15.8, p = 0.05). Patients with testicular torsion during the COVID-19 pandemic were younger, had a longer duration of symptoms, and had a higher number of orchiectomies (although not statistically significant). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an escalation in testicular torsion cases was observed. Timely assessment, diagnosis, and surgery are crucial to prevent testicular loss and potential infertility in the future. Further evaluation is needed to elucidate the surge in testicular torsion and possible mechanisms.

6.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 480.e1-480.e7, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Widespread utilization of telemedicine in our practice to date has been limited to the evaluation of certain post-surgical patients. The COVID-19 pandemic acutely stressed our established system and required us to enhance our utilization of telemedicine. We hypothesized that expansion of telemedicine to new and follow up patient visits for pediatric urology could be done effectively in a way that satisfied patient and parental expectations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a pre-COVID-19 established telemedicine program based in our electronic medical record (EMR), patients and providers transitioned to primarily virtual visits when clinically appropriate. Guidelines were formulated to direct patient scheduling, provider and staff education was provided, including a process map designed for multiple providers to complete video visits (VV), and the EMR was redesigned to incorporate telehealth terminology. The number of VV per provider was recorded using the electronic medical record, and patient reported outcomes (PRO) were measured using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 631 VV met inclusion criteria during the period of May 2018-April 2020. This included 334 follow up, 172 new, and 125 postoperative visits. The median age of patients at time of visit was 7 years (IQR 2-12 years), median visit time was 20 min (IQR 15-30 min), and the median travel distance saved by performing a VV was 12.2 miles (IQR 6.3-26.8 miles). Diagnoses were varied and included the entire breadth of a standard pediatric urology practice. The PRO questionnaire was completed for 325 of those patient visits. Families reported a high overall satisfaction with the video visits (median score of 10 out of 10) and felt that the visit met their child's medical needs. 90% stated that they would strongly recommend a telehealth visit to other families. Patients and parents reported benefits of VV including decreased travel costs and less time taken off from work and school. CONCLUSION: The EMR enabled nimble redirection of clinical care in the setting of a global pandemic. The enhanced use of telemedicine has proved to be an alternative method to provide care for pediatric urology patients. Families indicate a high degree of satisfaction with this technology in addition to significant time and cost savings. Telemedicine should remain a key aspect of medical care and expanded from post-operative visits to new patient and follow up visits, even as we return to our normal practices as the pandemic restrictions soften.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Urology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost Savings , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(4): 569-570, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188820

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 began in December 2019 then spread worldwide. Providers, including pediatric urologists, had to adapt their clinical processes, and many non-covid research activities were suspended. COVID-19 impacts how research is financed, performed, and published, and is itself the subject of intense research. We present current research and publications specifically related to the urinary tract and the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologists
8.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(3): 402.e1-402.e7, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046241

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Burnout syndrome is a major cause of decreased life quality, mental health, and productivity for physicians. It is strongly related to work overload and has been a scarcely studied topic in pediatric urology. During the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities' recommendations have led to big changes in pediatric urology practice worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the level of burnout in Ibero-American pediatric urologists (IPUs) during this pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by applying an electronic survey during the COVID-19 pandemic peak to members of the two major associations of pediatric urology in Ibero-America (the Ibero-American Society of Pediatric Urology [SIUP] and the Brazilian School of Pediatric Urology [BSPU]) to evaluate demographic, pre-pandemic, and pandemic data. Burnout levels were assessed using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) questionnaire. RESULTS: A response rate of 40% was obtained (182 out of 455 IPU respondents). Participants were from 14 different countries in Ibero-America and 75.4% were male. Data showed that during the pandemic there was a significant decrease in weekly workload, that is: > 40 h per week (h/w) (91.4%-44.6%, p < 0.001); and >6 h/w (94.9%-45.1%%, p < 0.001) in operating room time (ORT). Personal (Pe-BO), work-related (W-BO), and patient-related (Pa-BO) burnout levels among IPUs were 26.3%, 22.3%, and 7.4%, respectively (Summary table). An important difference by gender was seen, with women suffering more from the syndrome (odds ratio of 2.67 [95% confidence interval, 1.285.58; p = 0.013] for Pe-BO and OR of 3.26 [95% CI, 1.52-7.01; p = 0.004] for W-BO). CONCLUSION: A significant decrease in workload for IPU during the pandemic was observed, as well as a low level of burnout syndrome during this time. However, the predominance of burnout in women found in this study is notable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , Brazil , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
J Pediatr Surg ; 56(5): 923-928, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032319

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has ripped around the globe, stolen family members and forced healthcare systems to operate under an unprecedented strain. As of December 2020, 74.7 million people have contracted COVID-19 worldwide and although vaccine distribution has commenced, a recent rise in cases suggest that the pandemic is far from over. METHODS: This piece explores how COVID-19 has explicitly impacted the field of pediatric urology and its patients with a focus on vulnerable subpopulations. RESULTS: Various medical and surgical associations have published guidelines in reaction to the initial onset of the pandemic in early 2020. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: As the number of patients with COVID-19 increases, long-term recovery and future preparedness are imperative and should be cognizant of patient subpopulations that have been subject to disproportionate morbidity and mortality burden. Development of a dedicated response team would aid in achieving preparedness by drafting and implementing plans for resource allocation during scarcity, including logistic and ethical considerations of vaccine distribution. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , Child , Forecasting , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Pediatr Urol ; 17(2): 260-262, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009702

ABSTRACT

Although some centres have successfully integrated remote clinics into their paediatric urological practice, for many, remote clinics have developed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. One UK-based institution has integrated remote clinics in their practice for over two years and has developed guidelines considering which conditions may be suitable for remote consultations. These guidelines have been appraised by the European Association of Urology Young Academic Urologists paediatric working group. Through practical experience and anticipated difficulties, we have discussed considerations that paediatric urology departments should ponder when integrating remote clinics into their practice as we move forward from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Remote Consultation , Urology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 44(10): 659-664, 2020 Dec.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986880

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a pandemic of global impact that forced social-political measures to be taken, such as the declaration of the state of alarm in Spain. At the same time, the reorganization of the pediatric medical-surgical activities and infrastructures was carried out, with the consequent suspension of the non-urgent surgical activity of Pediatric Urology. We analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical activity in a Pediatric Urology division, as well as surgical complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of epidemiological, clinical and surgical data was carried out, including complications and readmissions of all patients operated on in the division of Pediatric Urology within the duration of the state of alarm. Five time periods have been created according to the de-escalation phases. RESULTS: Forty-nine surgical procedures were carried out on 45 patients (8 prior to the implementation of the de-escalation phases). High priority pathologies were the most frequent in the first phases, being the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction the most prevalent. Four complications were recorded (8.8%), none of them were respiratory. CONCLUSIONS: The EAU recommendations for the resumption of surgical activity have allowed a correct, safe and gradual transition to the routine surgical activity in Pediatric Urology. The Clavien-Dindo classification is useful and valid for application in this division. No respiratory complications have been reported that could be attributable to the pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/classification , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prune Belly Syndrome/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal/surgery , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/surgery , Urologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Urology Department, Hospital
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