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1.
J Assoc Med Microbiol Infect Dis Can ; 5(2): 98-103, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109663

ABSTRACT

As the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to evolve globally and within our Canadian borders, hospitals will begin to see an increasing number of confirmed or suspected cases at their doors. Although many patients can be managed at home, a reasonable proportion will experience progression of disease requiring hospitalization and potentially mechanical ventilation and intensive care. Herein, we report the presentation of the first case of COVID-19 admitted to hospital in Alberta. While The patient's course was mild, this case highlights a number of key points-namely the importance of widespread testing in the community to help inform emergency services (ambulance) workers and receiving front-line health care staff. Other important points include in-hospital monitoring and pharmacologic treatment.


Avec l'évolution de la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) dans le monde et à l'intérieur des frontières du Canada, les hôpitaux verront un nombre croissant de patients au diagnostic confirmé ou présumé. De nombreux cas bénins peuvent être traités à la maison, mais dans une proportion raisonnable de cas, la maladie exigera une hospitalisation et peut-être une ventilation mécanique et une admission aux soins intensifs. Les auteurs rendent compte de la présentation du premier cas de COVID-19 hospitalisé en Alberta. Même si la maladie était bénigne, plusieurs éléments fondamentaux en sont ressortis, notamment l'importance de tests généralisés dans la population pour renseigner les services d'urgence (ambulance) et les travailleurs de la santé de première ligne. Le monitorage à l'hôpital et le traitement pharmacologique font partie des autres éléments importants.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 160047, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105907

ABSTRACT

Personal protective equipment (PPE) has become a new pollutant derived from the COVID-19 pandemic. Much of the efforts to characterize PPE litter has focused on its spatial distribution (i.e., trying to identify hotspots of PPE litter), however, such efforts have been limited in the temporal domain, which might result in under- or overestimations in annual projections. Here, using 55 continuous days of sampling in an urban and tropical neighborhood in south east Mexico, I show that in order to have a robust and defensible average and variance values it is needed at least 22 days of random sampling. Nonetheless, this minimum number might change in different ecosystems and land use areas of the built environment due to the temporal variability of the human behavior and activities related to the surveyed areas, as well as the influence of weather conditions that might affect the mobility of people. Furthermore, I discuss how it is recommended to report the daily average density of PPE litter (items m-2 day-1) and its variability (i.e., 95 % confidence intervals), rather than only the density of PPE litter (items m-2) in order to facilitate annual estimates of PPE litter disposal.

3.
Chemosphere ; 312(Pt 1): 137178, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104525

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic seriously threats the human society and provokes the panic of the public. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are widely utilized for frontline health workers to face the ongoing epidemic, especially disposable face masks (DFMs) to prevent airborne transmission of coronavirus. The overproduction and massive utilization of DFMs seriously challenge the management of plastic wastes. A huge amount of DFMs are discharged into environment, potentially induced the generation of microplastics (MPs) owing to physicochemical destruction. The MPs release will pose severe contamination burden on environment and human. In this review, environmental threats of DFMs regarding to DFMs fate in environment and DFMs threats to aquatic and terrestrial species were surveyed. A full summary of recent studies on MPs release from DFMs was provided. The knowledge of extraction and characterizations of MPs, the release behavior, and potential threats of MPs derived from DFMs was discussed. To confront the problem, feasible strategies for control DFMs pollution were analyzed from the perspective of source control and waste management. This review provides a better understanding the threats, fate, and management of DFMs linked to COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Biomaterials ; 291: 121898, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104423

ABSTRACT

Although face masks as personal protective equipment (PPE) are recommended to control respiratory diseases with the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, improper handling and disinfection increase the risk of cross-contamination and compromise the effectiveness of PPE. Here, we prepared a self-cleaning mask based on a highly efficient aggregation-induced emission photosensitizer (TTCP-PF6) that can destroy pathogens by generating Type I and Type II reactive oxygen species (ROS). The respiratory pathogens, including influenza A virus H1N1 strain and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) can be inactivated within 10 min of ultra-low power (20 W/m2) white light or simulated sunlight irradiation. This TTCP-PF6-based self-cleaning strategy can also be used against other airborne pathogens, providing a strategy for dealing with different microbes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Photosensitizing Agents , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential viral contamination on the surfaces of personal protective equipment (PPE) in COVID-19 wards. METHODS: Face shields, gloves, the chest area of the PPE and shoe soles were sampled at different time points. The samples were tested for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by PCR, and the cycle threshold (CT) values were recorded for quantification. The positive rates of different types of PPE samples and their CT values and the CT values of specimens from different spots were compared. RESULTS: The positive rate was 74.7% (239/320) for all PPE specimens and was highest for gloves (96.25%, 77/80) and shoe soles (92.5%, 74/80). The CT values of the samples were ranked in the following order: face shields > chests > gloves > shoe soles (37.08±1.38, 35.48±2.02, 34.17±1.91 and 33.52±3.16, respectively; P for trend <0.001). After disinfection, the CT values of shoe soles decreased significantly compared with before disinfection (32.78±3.47 vs. 34.3±2.61, P=0.037), whereas no significant effect of disinfection on the CT values of face shields, chests and gloves was observed. After disinfection (disinfection period), the CT values of specimens collected from shoe soles gradually increased; before disinfection (nondisinfection period), the CT values of shoe sole specimens were all less than 35. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 can attach to the surfaces of the PPE of healthcare professionals working in a designated hospital, especially the soles of shoes and undisinfected gloves. Shoe soles had the highest SARS-CoV-2 loads among all tested PPE items.

6.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 29(4): 303-309, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100052

ABSTRACT

Background: Every workplace has got hazards in many different forms, ranging from sharps, falling objects, chemicals, infections, noise and a lot of other potentially dangerous situations. The occupational safety and health administration mandates employers to protect their employees from such potentially dangerous workplace hazards. Personal protective equipment (PPE) plays an important role in preventing and ensuring health safety amongst industrial workers. This study aimed to determine the use of PPE and rules compliance amongst Industrial Workers in Kano State. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess 150 workers selected from the Sharada Industrial Estate, Kano, Nigeria, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were obtained using semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: The response rate was 88.2%, and the mean age of respondents was 28.1 ± 7.4. About 72% were male, 74.7% had secondary education and 16.4% reported ever having a child with a congenital anomaly. Up to 25% reported using PPE always, 62% used PPE occasionally and 12% never used PPE. Factors significantly associated with the use of PPE at bivariate level were: Gender, 'provision of statutory regulation by the management', 'provision of PPE on worksite' and 'provision of training to staff' respectively. However, on multivariable regression analysis, only 'provision of statutory regulation by the management' and 'provision of PPE on worksite' were found to be independent (intrinsic) predictors of the use of PPE. Conclusions: Training alone does not necessarily increase the uptake of PPE amongst industrial workers. There is a need to ensure the availability of PPE at the worksite, as well as statutory regulations by industries.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Personal Protective Equipment , Female , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Nigeria , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Coatings ; 12(10), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2099380

ABSTRACT

Chest compressions and ventilation attempts can generate aerosols during resuscitation. It is important to determine whether different materials suitable for the blanketing of cardiac arrest patients can diminish exposure to aerosols. In this study, three volatile organic compounds, ethanol, acetone, and isoprene, commonly found in human breath in moistened air, acted as substitutes for aerosols. Here, we present information on the adsorption of these volatiles to three blanketing materials: polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, and aluminum coated polyethylene terephthalate. After exposure to the surfaces of these materials the test volatiles were quantified by the proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry. There was a trend towards a potentially higher reduction for acetone (p = 0.071) and isoprene (p = 0.050) on polyethylene, compared to polyvinyl chloride and aluminum coated polyethylene terephthalate during the rise interval. Adsorption capacity did not differ between the foils and was between 67% and 70%. From our studies, we propose that the aluminum-coated polyethylene terephthalate surface of space blankets prove adequate to diminish exposure to volatiles in moistened air, and hence to aerosols.

8.
Work ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agricultural labor-intensive activities have been threatened by COVID-19. Wearing a face mask has been introduced as one of the personal protective equipment (PPE) to reduce COVID-19 risk. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the safety behavior of urban green space workers around wearing a face mask in the time of COVID-19 before vaccination. METHODS: The personal and safety backgrounds of 61 male participants were collected using a designed questionnaire. The nonparametric correlation coefficient of Spearman and logistic regressions were used to investigate the relationships among variables. RESULTS: Above one-third of workers (37.7%) got COVID-19 in the past year. Although all of the participants were aware of wearing a face mask is a protocol against COVID-19, only about half of them (50.8%) completely wear face mask at work. Non-smoking participants were 5.5 times more likely to influence their personal preference on wearing the mask. CONCLUSION: Safety attitude may be a key variable in relation to the factors that influence the wearing face mask. The causes of face mask-wearing during a pandemic such as COVID-19 as well as safety attitudes may be behind the factors studied in this study. Although some significant linkages were found, they were not enough to conclude a comprehensive action program. This concern is still open to discovering factors that influence wearing face mask.

9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 30(1): 10, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dispatching first responders (FR) to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in addition to the emergency medical service has shown to increase survival. The promising development of FR systems over the past years has been challenged by the outbreak of COVID-19. Whilst increased numbers and worse outcomes of cardiac arrests during the pandemic suggest a need for expansion of FR schemes, appropriate risk management is required to protect first responders and patients from contracting COVID-19. This study investigated how European FR schemes were affected by the pandemic and what measures were taken to protect patients and responders from COVID-19. METHODS: To identify FR schemes in Europe we conducted a literature search and a web search. The schemes were contacted and invited to answer an online questionnaire during the second wave of the pandemic (December 2020/ January 2021) in Europe. RESULTS: We have identified 135 FR schemes in 28 countries and included responses from 47 FR schemes in 16 countries. 25 schemes reported deactivation due to COVID-19 at some point, whilst 22 schemes continued to operate throughout the pandemic. 39 schemes communicated a pandemic-specific algorithm to their first responders. Before the COVID-19 outbreak 20 FR systems did not provide any personal protective equipment (PPE). After the outbreak 19 schemes still did not provide any PPE. The majority of schemes experienced falling numbers of accepted call outs and decreasing registrations of new volunteers. Six schemes reported of FR having contracted COVID-19 on a mission. CONCLUSIONS: European FR schemes were considerably affected by the pandemic and exhibited a range of responses to protect patients and responders. Overall, FR schemes saw a decrease in activity, which was in stark contrast to the high demand caused by the increased incidence and mortality of OHCA during the pandemic. Given the important role FR play in the chain of survival, a balanced approach upholding the safety of patients and responders should be sought to keep FR schemes operational.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Emergency Responders , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095595

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to create an overview on the COVID-associated burdens faced by the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) workforce during 1 year of the pandemic. OMS hospitals and private practices nationwide were surveyed regarding health care worker (HCW) screening, infection status, pre-interventional testing, personal protective equipment (PPE), and economic impact. Participants were recruited via the German Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. A total of 11 hospitals (416 employees) and 55 private practices (744 employees) participated. The HCW infection rate was significantly higher in private practices than in clinics (4.7% vs. 1.4%, p<0.01), although most infections in HCW occurred in private environment (hospitals 88.2%, private practice 66.7%). Pre-interventional testing was performed significantly less for outpatients in private practices than in hospitals (90.7% vs. 36.4%, p<0.01). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used significantly more for inpatients in hospitals than in private practices (100.0% vs. 27.3%, p<0.01). FFP2/3 use rose significantly in hospitals (0% in second quarter vs. 46% in fourth quarter, p<0.05) and private practices (15% in second quarter vs. 38% in fourth quarter, p<0.01). The decrease in procedures (≤50%) was significantly higher in hospitals than in private practices (90.9% vs. 40.0%, p<0.01). Despite higher infection rates in private practices, declining procedures and revenue affected hospitals more. Future COVID-related measures must adjust the infrastructure especially for hospitals to prevent further straining of staff and finances.

11.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 140188, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095138

ABSTRACT

Ozone – a powerful antimicrobial agent, has been extensively applied for decontamination purposes in several industries (including food, water treatment, pharmaceuticals, textiles, healthcare, and the medical sectors). The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to recent developments in the deployment of different ozone-based technologies for the decontamination of surfaces, materials and indoor environments. The pandemic has also highlighted the therapeutic potential of ozone for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, with astonishing results observed. The key objective of this review is to summarize recent advances in the utilisation of ozone for decontamination applications in the above-listed industries while emphasising the impact of key parameters affecting microbial reduction efficiency and ozone stability for prolonged action. We realise that aqueous ozonation has received higher research attention, compared to the gaseous application of ozone. This can be attributed to the fact that water treatment represents one of its earliest applications. Furthermore, the application of gaseous ozone for personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical device disinfection has not received a significant number of contributions compared to other applications. This presents a challenge for which the correct application of ozonation can mitigate. In this review, a critical discussion of these challenges is presented, as well as key knowledge gaps and open research problems/opportunities.

12.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Staff actions to prevent infection introduction and transmission in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) were key to reducing morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. Implementing infection control measures (ICMs) requires training, adherence and complex decision making while trying to deliver high quality care. We surveyed LTCF staff in England about their preparedness and morale at three timepoints during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: Online structured survey targeted at LTCF workers (any role) administered at three timepoints (November 2020-January 2021; August-November 2021; March-May 2022). Narrative summary of answers, narrative and statistical summary (proportionality with Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's Exact Test) of possible differences in answers between waves. RESULTS: Across all three survey waves, 387 responses were received. Morale, attitudes towards working environment and perception about colleague collaboration were mostly positive at all survey points. Infection control training was perceived as adequate. Staff felt mostly positive emotions at work. The working environment remained challenging. Masks were the single form of PPE most consistently used; eye protection the least used. Mask-wearing was linked to poorer communication and resident discomfort as well as mild negative health impacts on many staff, such as dehydration and adverse skin reactions. Hand sanitiser caused skin irritation. CONCUSIONS: Staff morale and working practices were generally good even though the working environment provided many new challenges that did not exist pre-pandemic.

13.
J Pers Med ; 12(10)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084790

ABSTRACT

This study sought to determine whether the C-MAC video laryngoscope (VL) performed better than a direct laryngoscope (DL) when attempting endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the emergency department (ED) while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). This was a retrospective single-center observational study conducted in an academic ED between February 2020 and March 2022. All emergency medical personnel who participated in any ETI procedure were required to wear PPE. The patients were divided into the C-MAC VL group and the DL group based on the device used during the first ETI attempt. The primary outcome measure was the first-pass success (FPS) rate. A multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with FPS. Of the 756 eligible patients, 650 were assigned to the C-MAC group and 106 to the DL group. The overall FPS rate was 83.5% (n = 631/756). The C-MAC group had a significantly higher FPS rate than the DL group (85.7% vs. 69.8%, p < 0.001). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, C-MAC use was significantly associated with an increased FPS rate (adjusted odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-4.08; p < 0.001). In this study, we found that the FPS rate of ETI was significantly higher when the C-MAC VL was used than when a DL was used by emergency physicians constrained by cumbersome PPE.

14.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 1917-1929, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079910

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has brought greater workload pressures to the medical field, such as medical staff being required to wear personal protective equipment (PPE). While PPE can protect the safety of staff during the pandemic, it can also accelerate the accumulation of fatigue among operators. Objective: This study explores the influence of different protection states on the mental fatigue of nurses. Methods: In this study, 10 participants (5 males and 5 females) were randomly selected among applicants to monitor mental fatigue during the nurses' daily work in four different PPE states (low temperature and low protection; low temperature and high protection; high temperature and low protection; high temperature and high protection). The NASA subjective mental fatigue scale was used for subjective evaluation. Reaction time, attention concentration, attention distribution, memory, and main task completion time were used for objective evaluation. Results: The results demonstrated a significant difference in the effects of different protection states on mental fatigue. The state of high temperature and high protection had the greatest influence on mental fatigue, the state of low temperature and low protection had the least, and states of high (low) temperature and low (high) protection had intermediate effects on mental fatigue. Furthermore, the correlation between the subjective and objective fatigue indices was analyzed using a multiple regression model. Conclusion: This study clarified the influence of different protection states on the mental fatigue of nurses, and verified that nurses require more time and energy to complete the same work as before under high protection states. It provides a basis for evaluating the mental fatigue of nurses in the unique period of the COVID-19 pandemic and specific ideas for optimizing the nursing process.

15.
Cureus ; 14(8): e27823, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2072179

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has dramatically shifted the healthcare landscape since 2020. Measures against it includes universal masking in the healthcare areas and the community, viral testing before aerosolizing procedures, and ambulatory elective surgical procedures. Some hospitals have had mandated viral testing policies even before admission to the hospital. Healthcare workers (HCWs) have been cautiously modifying all pertinent practices to avoid the transmission of the virus. Personal protective equipment (PPE), including gowns, gloves, eye protection, and properly fitted N95 respirator or powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) while treating the suspected and confirmed COVID-19 patients were made mandatory. Similarly, we changed our aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) protocols based on available limited data. We amended our approach to in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (basic life support (BLS)/advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS)), given the risk of aerosol generation and transmission during the process. This article shares our experience and outcomes of PPE use in healthcare emergencies at our tertiary care academic center.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 733724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071098

ABSTRACT

Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the influence of personal protective equipment (PPE) on quality of chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) showed inconsistent results. Accordingly, a meta-analysis was performed to provide an overview. Methods: Relevant studies were obtained by search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane's Library databases. A random-effect model incorporating the potential heterogeneity was used to pool the results. Results: Six simulation-based RCTs were included. Overall, pooled results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the rate [mean difference (MD): -1.70 time/min, 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.77 to 2.36, P = 0.41, I 2 = 80%] or the depth [MD: -1.84 mm, 95% CI: -3.93 to 0.24, P = 0.11, I 2 = 73%] of chest compressions performed by medical personnel with and without PPE. Subgroup analyses showed that use of PPE was associated with reduced rate of chest compressions in studies before COVID-19 (MD: -7.02 time/min, 95% CI: -10.46 to -3.57, P < 0.001), but not in studies after COVID-19 (MD: 0.14 time/min, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.36, P = 0.95). In addition, PPE was not associated with significantly reduced depth of chest compressions in studies before (MD: -3.34 mm, 95% CI: -10.29 to -3.62, P = 0.35) or after (MD: -0.97 mm, 95% CI: -2.62 to 0.68, P = 0.25) COVID-19. No significant difference was found between parallel-group and crossover RCTs (P for subgroup difference both > 0.05). Conclusions: Evidence from simulation-based RCTs showed that use of PPE was not associated with reduced rate or depth of chest compressions in CPR.

17.
Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica ; 72(2):101-107, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068271

ABSTRACT

Background : During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers were facing shortage in personal protective equipment, especially adequate respirators. Alternative do-it-yourself respirators emerged, without any proof of protection. Objective : Verify seal potential of two alternative respirators compared to a common FFP2 respirator. Design : Quality assessment pilot study. Setting : Tertiary Care Hospital. Participants : Ten anaesthesiology residents. Interventions : Participants performed quantitative face-fit tests (QNFT) with three respirators to evaluate seal. A common FFP2 "duckbill" respirator was used as baseline (control group). Alternatives tested in this study were an anaesthesia face mask and a full-face modified snorkelling mask with a 3D-printed connector, both in conjunction with a breathing system filter. Main outcome : Non-inferior seal performance of the alternatives over FFP2, assessed by calculated QNFT based on measured individual fit factors, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Results :For each respirator a total of 90 individual fit factor measurements were taken. Within the control group, seal failed in 37 (41%) measurements but only in 10 (11%) within the anaesthesia mask group and in 6 (7%) within the snorkelling mask group (P < 0.001 respectively). However, when calculating the final, mean QNFT results, no difference was found between respirators. Successful QNFT were determined for 5 out of 10 participants in the FFP2 group, for 8 in the anaesthesia mask group (P = 0.25) and for 7 in the snorkelling mask group (P = 0.69). Conclusion : Both do-it-yourself respirators successfult) pass QNFT and have the potential to provide non inferior seal compared to a common FFP2 respirator. While anaesthesia masks are easily assembled, snorkelling masks must undergo significant but feasible modifications. Our results suggest that those do-it-yourself respirators seem to be viable alternatives for situations when certified respirators are not available but need further investigation for validation. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials. gov identifier: NCT04375774 Key Points : Question: Can alternative do-it-yourself respirators protect wearers from hazardous aerosols? Findings : Our findings demonstrate that do-it-yourself respirators have the potential to provide non-inferior seal as compared to regular FFP2 personal protective equipment. Meaning : Our real-life situational testing provides evidence that do-it-yourself respirators potentially provide sufficient seal to compete with or even outperform conventional FFP2 respirators and that face-fit testing should be a mandatory safety check in healthcare providers.

18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 185(Pt A): 114250, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in certain types of litter, many of which are expected to end up in the marine environment. The present study aimed to monitor the pandemic-related litter pollution along the Greek coastal environment. Overall, 59 beach and 83 underwater clean-ups were conducted. Litter was categorized as: PPE (face masks and gloves), COVID-19-related, single-use plastic (SUP) and takeaway items. PPE, dominated by face masks (86.21 %), accounted for 0.29 % of all litter. The average PPE density was 3.1 × 10-3 items m-2 and 2.59 items/ 100 m. COVID-19-related items represented 1.04 % of the total. Wet wipes showed higher densities (0.67 % of all litter) than in the pre-COVID era, while no increase in SUP and takeaway items was observed. Benthic PPE, dominated by gloves (83.95 %), represented 0.26 % of the total. The mean PPE density was 2.5 × 10-3 items m-2.

19.
Indian J Occup Environ Med ; 26(3): 140-150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066865

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among the frontline health care workers (HCWs). Even though PPE helps in preventing infection, it poses significant physical and psychological impacts at varying levels. Correspondingly, multiple independent studies have brought out the PPE-associated problems. However, there exists a lacuna on comprehensive information of global prevalence related to the same. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of PPE among HCWs during COVID-19 across the globe. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Method: The review was undertaken as per the protocol registered in PROSPERO CRD42021272216 following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis(PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers have undertaken the search strategy, study selection, and methodological quality assessment. Discrepancies were addressed by the third reviewer. Heterogeneity was addressed through I2 statistics and forest plots generated by open meta-software. Results: A total of 16 articles conducted across 6 different countries among 10,182 HCWs were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of skin lesions, headache, sweating, breathing difficulty, vision difficulty, thirst/dry mouth, fatigue, and communication difficulty, anxiety, fear were 57 (47-66%), 51 (37-64%), 75 (56-90%), 44 (23-68%), 61 (21-94%), 54 (30-77%), 67 (58-76%), 74 (47-94%), 28 (24-33%), 14 (10-17%), respectively. Moreover, the various risk factors included are the use of PPE for >6 h and young females. In addition, the medical management of new-onset problems created an additional burden on the frontline health care personnel (HCP). Conclusion: The frontline HCWs encountered physical and psychological problems at varying levels as a result of wearing PPE which needs to be addressed to prevent the inadequate use of PPE leading to infections.

20.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(9): 1398-1405, 2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066659

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the practices and perceptions of Health care workers (HCWs) in Nigeria towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in Nigeria healthcare facilities using a 25-item validated online questionnaire. The hyperlink of the questionnaire was shared with the various professional associations/societies and hospitals in June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 426 HCWs completed the questionnaire with pharmacists (28.8%), nurses/midwives (22.7%) and medical doctors (20.1%) being the highest respondents. Less than 50% of the HCWs had previous training on COVID-19 and how to use personal protective equipment (PPE). Only one in five HCWs had access to adequate PPE during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overall, the HCWs had good infection control practices with better practices observed among those who attended training on COVID-19 infection and those trained on how to use PPE. Lack of funds to purchase PPEs (55.3%), lack of access to PPE (52.5%) and lack of training on how to use PPE (44.0%) were the most common barriers to adherence to infection control guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in Nigeria have limited access to adequate PPE and lack adequate support from health authorities. Attendance of training on the use of PPE and COVID-19 infection were associated with access to adequate PPE and better infection control practices. Training of HCWs, provision of adequate PPE, and support are recommended to improve compliance with infection control guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception
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