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1.
Journal of Arthropod Borne Diseases ; 15(4):358-365, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040530

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the confirmation of the presence of the novel coronavirus in the feces and municipal sewerage system, and the feeding of domestic insects from fecal matter, as well as the ability of these insects to mechanically transmit microbes from the sewerage system. This study was aimed at molecular evaluation of the novel coronavirus infection isolated on cockroaches and flies collected from Kamkar-Arabnia Hospital in Qom City, Iran.

2.
Veterinarski Glasnik ; 74(1):1-17, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039613

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been recognized in veterinary virology for a long time and comprise a large group of RNA viruses responsible for enteric, respiratory, hepatic, and neurologic diseases in a variety of animal species and humans. These viruses are very adaptable considering their highly error-prone replication process and recombination ability, resulting in remarkable mutability and efficient expansion of their host range and tissue tropism. Scope and Approach. In the recent past, after the outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, CoVs became a research focus in the scientific community. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raised more questions concerning the threats posed by these viruses. Several significant examples of coronaviruses jumping the species barrier and changing their tropism have been reported in the past, and novel viruses of both animals and humans have appeared as a consequence. This paper reviews some of the examples of CoV mutability and the most notable animal coronaviruses of veterinary relevance. Key Findings and Conclusions. There is still no proof that the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to humans from domestic animals, and its recent cross-species jump is currently being intensively researched. Intensified and diverse human activities that lead to the disruption of ecosystems contribute to the increased risk of contact with animals that might represent virus reservoirs. The need for constant surveillance of CoVs and expanded studies of their virological traits, mutation mechanisms, diversity, prophylactic and therapeutic measures highlight the key role of both veterinarians and medical doctors in order to preserve the health of the human population.

3.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039228

ABSTRACT

With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 there was a drastic reduction in the number of dengue cases in Sri Lanka, with an increase towards the end of 2021. We sought to study the contribution of virological factors, human mobility, school closure and mosquito factors in affecting these changes in dengue transmission in Sri Lanka during this time. To understand the reasons for the differences in the dengue case numbers in 2020 to 2021 compared to previous years, we determined the association between the case numbers in Colombo (which has continuously reported the highest number of cases) with school closures, stringency index, changes in dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and vector densities. There was a 79.4% drop in dengue cases from 2019 to 2020 in Colombo. A significant negative correlation was seen with the number of cases and school closures (Spearman's r = -0.4732, p <0.0001) and a negative correlation, which was not significant, between the stringency index and case numbers (Spearman's r = -0.3755 p = 0.0587). There was no change in the circulating DENV serotypes with DENV2 remaining the most prevalent serotype by early 2022 (65%), similar to the frequencies observed by end of 2019. The Aedes aegypti premise and container indices showed positive but insignificant correlations with dengue case numbers (Spearman r = 0.8827, p = 0.93). Lockdown measures, especially school closures seemed to have had a significant impact on the number of dengue cases, while the vector indices had a limited effect.

4.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

6.
Zhongguo Meijie Shengwuxue ji Kongzhi Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control ; 33(4):596-600, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025547

ABSTRACT

Hantaviruses are important pathogenes of natural focal diseases that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. According to the latest classification of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, hantaviruses can be divided into 53 species, 7 genera, and 4 subfamilies. Hantaviruses are widely found in Rodentia, Chiroptera, and Insectivora, and later also found in reptile, Actinopterygii, and Agnatha. There are many species of bats, which are the second largest group of mammals in the world after rodents. At present, 1 446 species have been reported, accounting for about 22% of global mammals. In addition, bats have strong flight ability and are widely distributed in all continents except Antarctica. As the host animal of viruses, bats bear a variety of viruses, and many emerging infectious pathogens such as Marburg virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah virus have been confirmed to come from bats. Bats have also been associated to Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In recent decades, more and more bat-borne hantaviruses have been discovered. Bats and bat-borne hantaviruses have an important research value. Therefore, this paper reviews the latest classification of Hantavirus and bat-borne hantaviruses.

7.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Suppl 2):A70-A71, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2019834

ABSTRACT

605 Figure 1Comparisons Between TA and Non-TA Families: Socio-political Determinants[Figure omitted. See PDF] 605 Table 1Health care access: comparison of non-TA and TA families n (%)ConclusionTA children were increasingly disadvantaged among multiple domains: socio-demographics, food insecurity, inadequate/poor housing, health service access. Therefore, the need is urgent to minimise the potential lifelong health impacts of these socio-political determinants of health experienced by this vulnerable group in addition to tackling the immediate risks arising from issues such as digital exclusion and poor housing conditions, which were likely exacerbated during the pandemic. The future of the pandemic is uncertain and future lockdowns are possible, so all families must have digital access now that many vital health services and schooling are online, even some exclusively. The time families spend in TA must be reduced, and the co-production of interim solutions and future policies to ensure a minimum set of housing standards for TA should be made a priority to address these inequalities and inequities.

8.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 95(9):554-559, 2020.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011448

ABSTRACT

Throughout the course of civilization, epidemics and pandemics have ravaged humanity, destroyed animal breeding and horticulture, and has also changed the course of history. It has been estimated that Justinian plague has affected half of the population of Europe and killed in three pandemics 50 million people, the avian-borne flu (Spanish flu), resulted in 50 million deaths worldwide in the years 1918-1919, and recently the COVID-19 is officially a pandemic, after barreling through 114 countries in just three months. In the past, rinderpest has hit Europe with three long panzootics, African swine fever (ASF), is still a threat to both the swine production industry and the health of wild boar populations. Several molecular changes occur in the pathogen that may trigger an epidemic or even pandemic. These include increase of virulence, introduction into a novel host, and changes in host susceptibility to the pathogen. Once the infectious disease threat reaches an epidemic or pandemic level, the goal of the response is to mitigate its impact and reduce its incidence, morbidity and mortality as well as disruptions to economic, political, and social systems. An epidemic curve shows progression of illnesses in an outbreak over time and the SIR, SI, SIRD and SEIR represent the simplest compartmental models that enable simplify the mathematical modelling of epidemics. This article throws a light on changing ideas in epidemiology of infectious diseases.

9.
Emergence/reemergence d'agents infectieux et risques epidemiques dans les forets d'Afrique centrale 2022. 284-308. ; 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011055

ABSTRACT

The years 2020-2021 will remain marked by the COVID-19 crisis. This pandemic was triggered by a coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which jumped the species barrier between a wild species (as yet unknown) and humans, somewhere in China in 2019 (Andersen et al. 2020). Beyond the number of deaths caused directly by COVID-19, this crisis will have a long-term impact on our societies. This pandemic is not the first of its kind in modern times. The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa (and its resurgence in 2021), was also a major wake-up call of the threat of a pathogen moving from wildlife to human populations (Heymann et al. 2015). The list of emerging animal-derived pathogens that have threatened to, or succeeded in, reaching epidemic or pandemic levels after interspecies transmission is already long (e.g., HIV, SARSCoV-1, MERS-CoV, Nipah virus, Rift Valley fever). Today, emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), defined here as "pathogens that are rapidly increasing in geographic expansion, host range, or prevalence" (Daszak, Cunningham, and Hyatt 2000;Tompkins et al. 2015), represent one of the major risks to human health and societies. Indeed, these EIMs have been increasing over the past few decades (Binder et al. 1999;Woolhouse and Gowtage-Sequeria 2005). More than 60% of known EIMs are due to an animal pathogen (Morens, Folkers, and Fauci 2004;Jones et al. 2008), and an estimated 75% of these infectious diseases that have emerged over the past three to four decades originate in wildlife (Woolhouse 2002;Wolfe, Dunavan, and Diamond 2007).

10.
Journal of Cotton Research and Development ; 36(2):244-251, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2010741

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID 19 on the economy in general is no doubt ravaging and its impact on agriculture is complex and varied across diverse segments that form the agricultural value chain. Cotton has a complex supply chain that stretch from input suppliers, farmers, traders, ginning factories, spinning mills, textile companies and oil processors. The study was designed to capture the panoramic view of world and national cotton economy during the pandemic period and its impact on cotton fanning in India. Cotton prices declined in the initial months for January to April, 2020 and later recouped once the lock down restrictions were phased out. As such from the study during the year 2020-2021, it was noticed in general, as per CAB estimates, cotton fanning in India was not Effected in its area and production excepting in north zone which was not due to lock down but for the pest attack and lack of irrigation facilities. Districtwise analysis confirmed that labour availability for loading and unloading and its transport was the major impediment especially in the southern zone while it was market uncertainty in the other zones. During the COVID 19 pandemic year, the cotton value chain, like others, had faced unprecedented disruptions. Cotton farmers and supply chain actors should work together to make sure that the farmers have secured acquaintance to sell their cotton. Farmers' protection should be considered a priority in getting the minimal requirements regarding the input supply, logistics and remuneration for their produce.

11.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999615

ABSTRACT

Not only can agricultural science and research help bolster the nutritional value of staple crops, but it can also produce hardier varieties that can withstand pests and disease, meaning more produce surviving to harvest and providing additional income as a buffer. Since 2013, quality potato seed, improved crop management and value chain approaches have helped more than two million smallholder farmers in Africa and Asia. [...]making the right crops available for changing climates and cultural environments, and improving the availability of resilient, adapted varieties relies on protecting a back catalogue of genetic material to safeguard different features of different crops. The economic benefits of conservation are clear: gene banks like CIP’s contributed almost three-quarters of the $1 billion generated by the Victoria potato variety alone in Uganda between 1991 and 2016, which is just one indication of the potential economic value of conservation and utilisation of genetic materials.

12.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):109-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964619

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gather information on the research status and the hot spots of zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms worldwide, and to provide references for the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in China. Method: COOC 12.6 and Citespace 5.8 R1 software were used to carry out frequency statistics, co-occurrence analysis, cluster analysis, timeline analysis and burst analysis on the keywords associated with zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms in PubMed database. Result: According to the keywords frequency statistics and co-occurrence analysis results from the year of 2001 to 2021 in pubMed database, the zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms arousing high international attentions were classified into the following three categories: the first category was commonly observed zoonotic microorganisms such as Brucella, hepatitis E virus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella, to which continuous public attentions were still needed to be paid;the second category was the zoonotic microorganisms worldwide concerned in recent years such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus, which were worthy of more in-depth research to control the spread of these diseases as soon as possible;the third category was the zoonosis that had massively prevailed in specific regions abroad such as Q fever and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and these diseases were expected to be noticed in terms of imported risks to avoid their outbreaks in China. In addition to the above mentioned zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms, some keywords associated with detection and diagnosis such as phylogeny and PCR were also of high interests. The cluster analysis generated a total of 10 clusters, in which the tick-borne infectious disease cluster suggested the role of ticks in the transmission of zoonotic diseases;the results of timeline and burst analysis demonstrated that among the zoonotic microorganisms, the attentions being paid to influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 were gradually increasing. At the same time, the detection technology of zoonotic microorganisms was evolving from specific sequence detection to whole genome sequencing. These fields were likely to be the research direction and trend in the future.

13.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata ; 170(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1961565

ABSTRACT

Originally, the 17th Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships (SIP-17) was scheduled to take place in Leiden, The Netherlands, in July 2020. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the symposium was postponed to July 2021 and held in an exclusively online format. This exceptional edition has resulted in four strong contributions to the journal. It is with great pleasure that we now present a themed issue including the proceedings of SIP-17, supplemented with eight regular articles within the subject of insect-plant relationships.

14.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 761(7), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1960943

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to investigate and identifying the possible source of virus in animals and identifying the vector media of the disease and the methods of its spread and working hard to search for a successful vaccine for immunization against infection, in addition to establishing specialized units to predict new versions of the virus in the years to come.

15.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1089-1091, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958134

ABSTRACT

t is well established that socioeconomic and demographic factors, such as race and ethnicity, income, and education, are independently linked to health disparities.1 Tools that combine multiple socioeconomic and demographic variables into an overall rank, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), provide a quantitative framework that can be used by policymakers to identify communities that have higher overall social vulnerability with regard to disparate health outcomes and living conditions across multiple factors, and to develop targeted interventions.2 Historically, the SVI and similar frameworks have been crafted for emergency preparedness and response and used for study and practice in more extreme natural and human-caused disaster scenarios. Over the years, the SVI has been used for public health research and practice, communications, and accessibility planning, and to target geographically specific interventions related to natural disasters such as flooding and hurricanes,3, human-caused events such as chemical spills,2 and disease outbreaks like the recent COVID-19 pandemic.4 However, addressing issues of health inequity attributable to environmental injustice is imperative, and should not be restricted to alleviating the impact of event-specific hazards. Environmental injustice in the built environment is often associated with the disproportionate placement of hazardous and industrial sites and polluting transportation infrastructure in socially vulnerable neighborhoods,5 where residents often lack the social or economic capital to influence policy decisions.6 Although existing research links housing and health equity,7 the impact of poor housing conditions and household exposures to lead, pests, and indoor air pollutants on the health and well-being of socially vulnerable populations is an important and often overlooked aspect of environmental injustice.7,8 The Environmental Protection Agency's definition of environmental justice is all-encompassing and espouses the idea that environmental justice is only achieved when "everyone enjoys: The SVI has already been used outside the realm of disaster management to better characterize obesity10 and physical fitness.11 Hollar et al. set a new precedent for the value it may bring to the environmental justice sector, and additional research should be done to understand its utility in identifying communities that may be more likely to experience other socially linked conditions associated with environmental injustice, such as routine exposure to indoor and outdoor environmental pollutants, chronic disease burden, poor working conditions, lack of greenspace, and other issues with the built environment, in addition to housing conditions.

16.
Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology ; 43(10):5-16, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1929196

ABSTRACT

The current study is the reviews of the work done for pest infestation in different legume pulse grains Pulse grains have been found to have different susceptibility for the attack of pulse beetle. An insect has varied fecundity on different varieties of pulses. India is agriculture based country and agriculture is the key sector of Indian economy. Including many kharif and rabbi crops, pulses are cultivated in all parts of country. Pulse cultivation has its own significant place in agriculture as it has been considered as complimentary to cereal crop in many aspects and positioned as a second most important crop plant [1]. Study indicates 20-40% of dry matter of pulse grains is made up of beneficial dietary proteins [2]. Insufficiency of adequate amount of protein in diet may lead to protein energy malnutrition. Like poverty and hunger, to combat PEM is another great provocation for agriculture and nation. Pulse grains legumes are good source of protein and other nutrient materials. Crop plant of Arhar has its own advantage for agriculture. The leguminous plants are used in crop rotation to improve the fertility of soil as the root nodules harbor the nitrogen fixing bacteria;fixes atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compound about 72-350 kg/hectare/year . The current study emphasizes the different facts of pulse beetle and their infestation in arhar seed grains. About eight months of the year have been found to be susceptible for infestation;remarkable growth and development of pests continue during six months of the year. Arhar pulse grains are most suitable for pest infestation. Bold variety of arhar was identified to be the most preferred for maximum oviposition having larger and smooth surface area. Temperature suitable for oviposition was noticed between 28-370c. Developmental period was found to be of lesser duration and survival of adults was more in bold varieties as compared to the smaller variety. Developmental period was recorded as 24-30.3 days in bold legume grains and 26-32.3 days in smaller size grains. Survival of male and female insect pest was also different as male survived for 7-10.6 days and females for 8.3-12.6 days. Increased growth rate of insect population was there with the increase in temperature and humidity. Significant Weight loss, content loss and percent germination loss have been found in the pulse grains of both varieties in the current studies. Indian economy relies significantly on agriculture and loss and damage of complementary crop plant certainly affect it. At this point there is need to consider the condition of Mass poverty of India after pandemic covid -19 which has been ascertained after more than 45 years The outcome of pandemic recession is more than 2 fold increase in the number of poor from 60 million in a year to 134 million (Reports of downtoearth.org.in). Furthermore any rise in price would snatch the accessibility of the easily available protein diet from people living in indigence.

17.
Zhongguo Meijie Shengwuxue ji Kongzhi Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Vector Biology and Control ; 32(2):254-256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924680

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the social prevention and control measures of "early detection, early report, early isolation, and early treatment" have been widely used in the public health field and are widely accepted by the general public. In the practice of integrated vector management, Henan province gives full play to the advantages of mobilization and coordination of the Patriotic Health Campaign, establishes a work path of "early detection, early report, early assessment, and early control", the strategies of "four early". It defines the responsibilities of government, departments, territories, and individuals, and clarifies the working concepts of integrated vector management, which helps to form societal forces and promote the development of vector control in Henan province. This article analyzes the strategies of "four early" in integrated vector management in Henan province, in order to provide a reference for vector management strategies in China.

18.
Veterinarski Zurnal Republike Srpske ; 21(1/2):94-106, 2021.
Article in English, Serbian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903815

ABSTRACT

Today, pets are the source of numerous infectious diseases that can be transmitted to humans, as a result of their increasingly frequent contact. The most important viruses with zoonotic potential include rabies and influenza viruses as well as rotaviruses and noroviruses. However, the importance of individual viruses varies depending on the climate and infectious disease control systems in certain countries. Dogs, cats, and other increasingly popular types of pets can transmit bacterial zoonotic agents to humans in various ways. In addition to known pathogens such as the bacteria causing leptospirosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, or brucellosis, the bacteria Pasteurella multocida and Bartonella henselae transmitted by bites or scratches are also significant in human pathology. There has been a significant increase in the prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in isolates originating from pets and the transmission of these strains between humans and animals requires special attention. Furthermore, fungi causing diseases such as sporotrichosis or dermatophytosis are linked to long-term and persistent infections in humans. The epidemiological situation caused by SARS-CoV-2, and the assumption of an interspecies jump of this virus from animals to humans, including its documented presence in domestic cats, dogs, tigers, and martens, have raised the question of the possibility of virus transmission from pets to humans. However, the current pandemic is caused exclusively by SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the human population, and these animals are not a source of infection for humans. A significant number of zoonoses originating from pets is a threat to public health, thus requiring the "One Health" approach through close cooperation between human and veterinary medicine to develop and implement effective health measures for both humans and animals. As part of responsible ownership, pet owners must be informed by veterinarians about measures to prevent infectious diseases and certain risks that are related to keeping certain species of animals.

19.
Indian Journal of Poultry Science ; 56(3):287-294, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1903809

ABSTRACT

Backyard poultry is evolving as a fast-growing sector in recent times across the world. Apart from providing nutritional security, and livelihood to marginalized sector, also fulfils the demand for organic and welfare meat and eggs. However, the productivity is often challenged by incidences of diseases due to poor biosecurity and lack of vaccination. In this study, systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on the global prevalence of infectious diseases in backyard chickens. A total of 22 bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal diseases were reported from 55 publications between 2000 and 2020 worldwide. Viral diseases were the most reported followed by bacterial and parasitic diseases. 61 out of 91 studies from 55 publications investigated seven major diseases: Avian influenza (AI), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), Salmonella infection, and infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). The overall pooled prevalence estimate for all the diseases worldwide was 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28-38). The pooled estimates for most reported viral diseases AI and ND were 12.5% (95% CI: 7-18) and (30% CI: 19-43), respectively. IBD (71% CI: 13-100), MS (76% CI: 67-85) and helminth infestations (72% CI: 44-93) were the highly prevalent diseases among viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, respectively. The continent wise pooled prevalence ranged from 17 to 32%. The present results will help in devising the best possible strategies to minimize the disease risk for commercial poultry and humans as well as for improving the productivity of backyard poultry farming.

20.
NAVC Clinician's Brief ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1898249
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