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1.
Wound Practice & Research ; 30(4):232-232, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2206043

ABSTRACT

Objectives: - Internationally, chronic wounds are a serious medical concern that have a significant financial impact on healthcare and a significant impact on patients' quality of life (1). The chronic wound is challenged by persisting inflammation that prevents the wound from progressing to normal wound healing. Blue Light is known to reduce signs of inflammation, reduces wound associated pain and produces faster tissue regeneration than standard wound care via photobiomodualtion (PBM). (2-4). This pilot study (N=10 patients) aimed to explore the use of a blue light emitting device (400-430nm) on chronic non healing wounds and whether there were any alterations in wound metrics and patient reported pain. Methods: All enrolled patients with a wound of chronicity greater than 8 weeks meeting the inclusion criteria were treated with the device for 60-seconds per 20cm2 (120mW/cm2) once weekly following standard care protocols in the outpatient setting for up to 10 weeks. Results: The retrospective analysis of the data found will be presented in this paper with patient cases, super-user information and will provide trends on wound characteristics. At the time of submission and with Covid-19 surge demands Results: are in data collection phase. Conclusions: At the time of submission 2 patients had completed the treatment period showcasing encouraging improvements in wound bed tissue, exudate, and wound size reduction along with wound pain score. Additional patient observations will be included as the pilot study progresses, possibly preceding a larger clinical trial.

2.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 40(9): 622-631, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017667

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the high morbidity and mortality rates of this century, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the health of the global population. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the disturbing impact of in-hospital stay length and the appeal of severe problems for supplemental oxygen for our patients with COVID-19 in moderate stage who were undergoing transvascular blood irradiation onto sublingual vessels. The demand for supplemental oxygen and the serum oxygen levels were measured, and the impact on the length of hospital stay was assessed. Methods: This randomized, prospective, clinical pilot study evaluated the diagnosis of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ventilatory care unit and undergoing treatment protocol usage of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation by transvascular application onto the sublingual vessels daily. Patients were selected and enrolled into two groups: the Placebo group (n = 7) that received conventional treatment by the device off (LED-off), and the photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) group (n = 7) that also received the same therapy plus LED irradiation. Results: There was a statistically significant clinical improvement, such as a reduction in serum creatinine, and oxygen usage per few days less in the PBMT group compared with the Placebo group. All patients in the PBMT group had normalized SatO2, while a quarter of patients in the Placebo group required longer O2 supplementation until hospital discharge. Conclusions: The surveillance of clinical improvement in moderate stage indicated that the daily PBMT was able to diminish oxygen supplementation within a short time, besides reducing the hospital stay length in the PBMT group, particularly, when compared with the Placebo group. Clinical Trial Registration number: The study was reviewed by the Ethics Committee in UNINOVE research under number 42325020.6.0000.5511 and approved through number 5,090,119.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creatinine , Humans , Oxygen , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies
3.
J Biophotonics ; 15(6): e202100375, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669491

ABSTRACT

Blue light has been already reported as able to counteract different types of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and viruses, especially the enveloped ones. It has been reported that both blue and visible light can efficiently impact SARS-CoV-2 by affecting its ability to replicate in in vitro cellular models of infection. In this study, blue light at 450, 454 and 470 nm was tested on SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the residual viral infectious potential on Vero E6, Caco-2 and Calu-3 cells, after the irradiation of viral particles. Following 12' of irradiation at 40 mW/cm2 , a drastic block of viral amplification was observed. Indeed, at 7 days post-irradiation/infection the viral load was the same as the one measured 1 day post-irradiation/infection, and cellular viability was maintained showing similar levels to the noninfected control cells. Taken together our results indicate that blue LED lamps can be considered as a cheap and convenient tool for SARS-CoV-2 disinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Caco-2 Cells , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans
4.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 38: 102743, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661892

ABSTRACT

Several oral lesions related to COVID-19 have been described in the scientific literature. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighs importance of supportive protocols, which can reduce the inflammation and aid in tissue repair in severe cases. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) alone or in combination with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be used to manage orofacial lesions in confirmed cases of COVID-19. Here, we sought to describe the clinical presentation and specificities of three cases in which aPDT and PBMT were used to manage orofacial lesions in patients with COVID-19. The laser protocols were effective with improvement of the orofacial lesions within a few days.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 37: 102678, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562141

ABSTRACT

Opportunistic infections are widely described in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, very few studies have addressed those affecting the oral cavity. Given the lack of information on the clinical presentations and the available treatment options, the present study aimed to show a case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for the management of two concomitant COVID-19-associated opportunistic oral infections (oral pseudomembranous candidiasis and recurrent herpes labialis). Within 7 days and without any systemic drug administration, all the lesions resolved completely, and the patient no longer reported oral pain or discomfort. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the significant gaps in the knowledge and understanding of COVID-19, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing viral and fungal opportunistic oral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opportunistic Infections , Photochemotherapy , Humans , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Commun Integr Biol ; 14(1): 200-211, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434306

ABSTRACT

The leading cause of mortality from COVID-19 infection is respiratory distress due to an exaggerated host immune response, resulting in hyper-inflammation and ensuing cytokine storms in the lungs. Current drug-based therapies are of limited efficacy, costly, and have potential negative side effects. By contrast, photobiomodulation therapy, which involves periodic brief exposure to red or infrared light, is a noninvasive, safe, and affordable method that is currently being used to treat a wide range of diseases with underlying inflammatory conditions. Here, we show that exposure to two 10-min, high-intensity periods per day of infrared light causes a marked reduction in the TLR-4 dependent inflammatory response pathway, which has been implicated in the onset of cytokine storms in COVID-19 patients. Infrared light exposure resulted in a significant decline in NFkB and AP1 activity as measured by the reporter gene assay; decreased expression of inflammatory marker genes IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, INF-alpha, and INF-beta as determined by qPCR gene expression assay; and an 80% decline in secreted cytokine IL6 as measured by ELISA assay in cultured human cells. All of these changes occurred after only 48 hours of treatment. We suggest that an underlying cellular mechanism involving modulation of ROS may downregulate the host immune response after Infrared Light exposure, leading to decrease in inflammation. We further discuss technical considerations involving light sources and exposure conditions to put these observations into potential clinical use to treat COVID-19 induced mortality.

7.
Life (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273481

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a viral disease characterized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Since then, researchers from all over the world have been looking for ways to fight this disease. Many cases of complications arise from insufficient immune responses due to low immunity, with intense release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can damage the structure of organs such as the lung. Thus, the hypothesis arises that photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) with the use of a low-level laser (LLLT) may be an ally approach to patients with COVID-19 since it is effective for increasing immunity, helping tissue repair, and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This systematic review was performed with the use of PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar databases with the following keywords: "low-level laser therapy OR photobiomodulation therapy AND COVID-19". The inclusion criteria were complete articles published from January 2020 to January 2021 in English. The exclusion criteria were other languages, editorials, reviews, brief communications, letters to the editor, comments, conference abstracts, and articles that did not provide the full text. The bibliographic search found 18 articles in the Pubmed/MEDLINE database, 118 articles on the Web of Science, 23 articles on Scopus, and 853 articles on Google Scholar. Ten articles were included for qualitative synthesis, of which four commentary articles discussed the pathogenesis and the effect of PBMT in COVID-19. Two in vitro and lab experiments showed the effect of PBMT on prevention of thrombosis and positive results in wound healing during viral infection, using the intravascular irradiation (ILIB) associated with Phthalomethyl D. Two case reports showed PBMT improved the respiratory indexes, radiological findings, and inflammatory markers in severe COVID-19 patients. One case series reported the clinical improvement after PBMT on 14 acute COVID-19 patients, rehabilitation on 24 patients, and as a preventive treatment on 70 people. One clinical trial of 30 patients with severe COVID-19 who require invasive mechanical ventilation, showed PBMT-static magnetic field was not statistically different from placebo for the length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit, but improved diaphragm muscle function and ventilation and decreased the inflammatory markers. This review suggests that PBMT may have a positive role in treatment of COVID-19. Still, the necessity for more clinical trials remains in this field and there is not sufficient research evidence regarding the effects of PBMT and COVID-19 disease, and there is a large gap.

8.
Commun Integr Biol ; 14(1): 66-77, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228392

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 - related morbidity is associated with exaggerated inflammation and cytokine production in the lungs, leading to acute respiratory failure. The cellular mechanisms underlying these so-called 'cytokine storms' are regulated through the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway and by ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Both light (Photobiomodulation) and magnetic fields (e.g., Pulsed Electro Magnetic Field) stimulation are noninvasive therapies known to confer anti-inflammatory effects and regulate ROS signaling pathways. Here we show that daily exposure to two 10-minute intervals of moderate intensity infra-red light significantly lowered the inflammatory response induced via the TLR4 receptor signaling pathway in human cell cultures. Anti-inflammatory effects were likewise achieved by electromagnetic field exposure of cells to daily 10-minute intervals of either Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF), or to Low-Level static magnetic fields. Because current illumination and electromagnetic field therapies have no known side effects, and are already approved for some medical uses, we have here developed protocols for verification in clinical trials of COVID-19 infection. These treatments are affordable, simple to implement, and may help to resolve the acute respiratory distress of COVID-19 patients both in the home and in the hospital.

9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 34: 102281, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195388

ABSTRACT

Oral lesions related to the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been increasingly described; however, clinical and epidemiological information is still scant. Although a diversity of therapeutic strategies for the management of these lesions are present in the literature, one can note a lack of standardization and doubtful effectiveness. Thus, the present study aimed to report a series of cases in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for orofacial lesions in patients suffering from COVID-19. It was noted, in all cases, a marked improvement in tissue repair and pain relief within a few days; moreover, the patients recovered their orofacial functions satisfactorily. Based on the present series of cases and having in mind the conspicuous lack of information on the different aspects of COVID-19, the protocol which combined aPDT with PMBT seemed to be effective in the management of COVID-19-related orofacial lesions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Low-Level Light Therapy , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Photochemotherapy/methods , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Biophotonics ; 14(4): e202000496, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095310

ABSTRACT

The study of any intervention able to counteract SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is considerably envisaged. It was previously shown, in in vitro models of infections, that the LED blue light is able to decrease the viral load of HSV-1 and ZIKV. In our study, LED photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) at blue wavelengths (450, 454 and 470 nm) was tested in an in vitro model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, employing three experimental settings: SARS-CoV-2 was irradiated and then transferred to cells; already infected cells were irradiated; cells were irradiated prior to infection. A decrement of the viral load was observed when previously infected cells were irradiated with all three tested wavelengths and relevant effects were registered especially at 48 hours post-infection, possibly suggesting that the blue light could interfere with the intracellular viral replication machinery. Our in vitro findings could represent the starting point for translational applications of PBMT as a supportive approach to fight SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Low-Level Light Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Viral Load , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Vero Cells
11.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 33: 102196, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051903

ABSTRACT

Many oral signs and symptoms related to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been reported; however, both prevalence and etiology are still undetermined. Since the clinical features of the oral lesions seen in COVID-19 are highly heterogeneous and the treatments differ considerably in the literature, the present study aimed to report a clinical case in which a combination of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) was used for extensive lip lesions in a patient suffering from COVID-19. Within 4 days and without any systemic drug administration, after two sessions of aPDT and one session of PBMT, the lip lesions were completely healed, and the patient recovered her orofacial functions satisfactorily. According to the current case report and taking into consideration the evident lack of information about many aspects of COVID-19 infection, this combination of phototherapy modalities seems to be a promising tool for managing COVID-19-related lip lesions; however, more studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lip/drug effects , Lip/pathology , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Photochemotherapy/methods , Female , Humans , Methylene Blue/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 13-56, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032957

ABSTRACT

Initially, the SARS-CoV-2 virus was considered as a pneumonia virus; however, a series of peer reviewed medical papers published in the last eight months suggest that this virus attacks the brain, heart, intestine, nervous and vascular systems, as well the blood stream. Although many facts remain unknown, an objective appraisal of the current scientific literature addressing the latest progress on COVID-19 is required. The aim of the present study was to conduct a critical review of the literature, focusing on the current molecular structure of SARS-CoV-2 and prospective treatment modalities of COVID-19. The main objectives were to collect, scrutinize and objectively evaluate the current scientific evidence-based information, as well to provide an updated overview of the topic that is ongoing. The authors underlined potential prospective therapies, including vaccine and phototherapy, as a monotherapy or combined with current treatment modalities. The authors concluded that this review has produced high quality evidence, which can be utilized by the clinical scientific community for future reference, as the knowledge and understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are evolving, in terms of its epidemiological, pathogenicity, and clinical manifestations, which ultimately map the strategic path, towards an effective and safe treatment and production of a reliable and potent vaccine.

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