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1.
Virus Research ; 324:199033, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165947

ABSTRACT

Aims To assess influenza viruses (IVs) circulation and to evaluate A(H3N2) molecular evolution during the 2021-2022 season in Italy. Materials and methods 12,393 respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal swabs or broncho-alveolar lavages) collected from in/outpatients with influenza illness in the period spanning from January 1, 2022 (week 2022-01) to May 31, 2022 (week 2022-22) were analysed to identify IV genome and were molecularly characterized by 12 laboratories throughout Italy. A(H3N2) evolution was studied by conducting an in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequences. The predicted vaccine efficacy (pVE) of vaccine strain against circulating A(H3N2) viruses was estimated using the sequence-based Pepitope model. Results The overall IV-positive rate was 7.2% (894/12,393), all were type A IVs. Almost all influenza A viruses (846/894;94.6%) were H3N2 that circulated in Italy with a clear epidemic trend, with 10% positivity rate threshold crossed for six consecutive weeks from week 2022-11 to week 2022-16. According to the phylogenetic analysis of a subset of A(H3N2) strains (n=161), the study HA sequences were distributed into five different genetic clusters, all of them belonging to the clade 3C.2a, sub-clade 3C.2a1 and the genetic subgroup 3C.2a1b.2a.2. The selective pressure analysis of A(H3N2) sequences showed evidence of diversifying selection particularly in the amino acid position 156. The comparison between the predicted amino acid sequence of the 2021-2022 vaccine strain (A/Cambodia/e0826360/2020) and the study strains revealed 65 mutations in 59 HA amino acid positions, including the substitution H156S and Y159N in antigenic site B, within major antigenic sites adjacent to the receptor-binding site, suggesting the presence of drifted strains. According to the sequence-based Pepitope model, antigenic site B was the dominant antigenic site and the p(VE) against circulating A(H3N2) viruses was estimated to be -28.9%. Discussion and conclusion After a long period of very low IV activity since public health control measures have been introduced to face COVID-19 pandemic, along came A(H3N2) with a new phylogenetic makeup. Although the delayed 2021-2022 influenza season in Italy was characterized by a significant reduction of the width of the epidemic curve and in the intensity of the influenza activity compared to historical data, a marked genetic diversity of the HA of circulating A(H3N2) strains was observed. The identification of the H156S and Y159N substitutions within the main antigenic sites of most HA sequences also suggested the circulation of drifted variants with respect to the 2021-2022 vaccine strain. Molecular surveillance plays a critical role in the influenza surveillance architecture and it has to be strengthened also at local level to timely assess vaccine effectiveness and detect novel strains with potential impact on public health.

2.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 41:45-52, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165401

ABSTRACT

Purpose The study aims to isolate and understand cytopathogenesis, ultrastructure, genomic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 virus of B.1.210 lineage, that circulated in India during first wave of the pandemic. Methods Clinical specimen from an interstate traveller from Maharashtra to Karnataka, in May 2020, who was positive by RT PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection was subjected to virus isolation and Whole Genome Sequencing. Vero cells were used to study cytopathogenesis and ultrastructural features by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequences of several SARS-CoV-2 variants downloaded from GISAID was performed in comparison with the B.1.210 variant identified in this study. Results The virus was isolated in Vero cells and identified by immunofluorescence assay and RT PCR. The growth kinetics in infected Vero cells revealed a peak viral titre at 24 ​h post-infection. Ultrastructural studies revealed distinct morphological changes with accumulation of membrane-bound vesicles containing pleomorphic virions in the cytoplasm, with single or multiple intranuclear filamentous inclusions and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum with viral particles. Whole genome sequence of the clinical specimen as well as the isolated virus revealed the virus to be of lineage B.1.210 with the D614G mutation in the spike protein. Phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome sequence in comparison with other variants reported globally revealed that the isolated SARS-CoV-2 virus of lineage B.1.210 is closely related to the original Wuhan virus reference sequence. Conclusions The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.210 virus isolated here showed ultrastructural features and cytopathogenesis similar to that of the virus reported during early phase of pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated virus is closely related to the original Wuhan virus, thereby suggesting that the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.210 that was circulating in India during the early phase of pandemic is likely to have evolved from the original Wuhan strain.

3.
Biomedica ; 42(Sp. 2): 48-58, 2022 10 31.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155751

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. RESULTADOS: De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. CONCLUSIONES: Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión  zoonótica o entre especie.


Introducción. El síndrome respiratorio agudo grave causado por el nuevo coronavirus SARSCoV-2 es causa de la emergencia sanitaria por la pandemia de COVID-19. Si bien el humano es el el principal huésped vulnerable, en estudios experimentales y reportes de infección natural, se han encontrado casos de zoonosis inversa de SARS-CoV-2 en animales. Objetivo. Evaluar la infección natural por SARS-CoV-2 en gatos y perros de propietarios con diagnóstico de COVID-19 en el Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. La circulación del SARS-CoV-2 se evaluó por RT-qPCR y RT-PCR en muestras de frotis nasofaríngeos y orofaríngeos de gatos y perros cuyos propietarios se encontraban dentro del periodo de los 14 días de aislamiento. Los casos positivos se verificaron amplificando fragmentos de los genes RdRp, N y E; se secuenció el gen RdRp y se analizó filogenéticamente. Resultados. De 80 animales evaluados, seis gatos y tres perros fueron casos confirmados de infección natural por SARS-CoV-2. Los animales no presentaron signos clínicos y sus propietarios, que padecían la infección, reportaron únicamente signos leves de la enfermedad sin complicaciones clínicas. En el análisis de una de las secuencias, se encontró un polimorfismo de un solo nucleótido (SNP) con un cambio en la posición 647, con sustitución del aminoácido serina (S) por una isoleucina (I). Los casos se presentaron en los municipios de Caldas, Medellín y Envigado. Conclusiones. Se infiere que la infección natural en los gatos y perros se asocia al contacto directo con un paciente con COVID-19. No obstante, no es posible determinar la virulencia del virus en este huésped, ni su capacidad de transmisión zoonótica o entre especie.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Colombia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Informatics in Medicine Unlocked ; : 101143, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149896

ABSTRACT

Phylogenetic analysis is one of the most reliable and important analyses in bioinformatics. Currently, many phylogenetic analysis tools can be used for the visualization and interpretation of biological data. However, a lot of technical expertise is required in order to use these tools. It is challenging for biologists to have to deal with this issue. This study therefore compared three multipurpose phylogenetic analysis tools and informed on their features so as to help the user choose the appropriate tool for their research and resources, especially those who want to do research in bioinformatics in Africa. Phylogenetic analysis was done on whole genome sequences obtained from NCBI repositories using MEGA, SeaView and Geneious separately. Subsequently, a detailed comparison table based on features for each tool was generated. What makes our study unique is that we used the African SARS-CoV-2 genomes which have rarely been used for studies describing the evolution of coronaviruses. After the benchmarking, we recommend tools based on the user's resources and objectives. MEGA and SeaView would be the best option for a researcher with no technical bioinformatics knowledge and looking for a free tool. Geneious is as easy to use as MEGA and SeaView, and it additionally gives more options and information. On the other hand, it requires a lot of time and it is not free to use. We have highlighted the relevant molecular and genetic evolutionary analysis tool based on the user's resources.

5.
Assam Journal of Internal Medicine ; 11(2):42-47, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2144107

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory corona virus 2 (SARS-COV-2) is mainly respiratory disease occurring since December 2019 and first detected in Wuhan province of China. The complexity of SARSCOV-2 is centered on the unpredictable clinical course of the disease that can rapidly develop causing severe and deadly outcomes. The pandemic COVID-19 is a scientific, medical, and social challenge. In this review, the basic pathological and biochemical changes in COVID-19 are described, also how it influences in predicting the disease progression thereby helping in early interventions to prevent complications.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1023847, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123429

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) HCoV-NL63, HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 have been circulated in the human population worldwide, and they are associated with a broad range of respiratory diseases with varying severity. However, there are neither effective therapeutic drugs nor licensed vaccines available for the treatment and prevention of infections by the four HCoVs. In this study, we collected nasopharyngeal aspirates of children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection in China during 2014-2018 and conducted next-generation sequencing. Sequences of four HCoVs were then selected for an in-depth analysis. Genome sequences of 2 HCoV-NL63, 8 HCoV-229E, 2 HCoV-HKU1, and 6 HCoV-OC43 were obtained. Based on the full-length S gene, a strong temporal signal was found in HCoV-229E and the molecular evolutionary rate was 6 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. Based on the maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree of complete S gene, we designated H78 as a new sub-genotype C2 of HCoV-HKU1, and the obtained P43 sequence was grouped into the reported novel genotype K of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Guangzhou, China. Based on the complete genome, potential recombination events were found to occur as two phenomena, namely intraspecies and interspecies. Moreover, we observed two amino acid substitutions in the S1 subunit of obtained HCoV-NL63 (G534V) and HCoV-HKU1 (H512R), while residues 534 and 512 are important for the binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Our findings might provide a clue for the molecular evolution of the four HCoVs and help in the early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of broad-spectrum HCoV infection.

7.
Heliyon ; 8(10): e11043, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113687

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data of specific respiratory pathogens from the pre-COVID-19 period are essential to determine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on other respiratory infections. In this study, we revealed the pre-COVID-19 molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among children in Bangladesh. We tested 3170 samples collected from 2008 to 2012 for a panel of respiratory viruses; RSV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) 1, 2, 3, and adenovirus. Five hundred fifty-five samples (17.5 %) were positive for RSV, including 2.5% having co-infections with other viruses. Genotypic characterization of RSV showed that RSV-A (82%) contributed more acute respiratory infections than RSV-B (18%). Clinical features were similar with RSV-A and RSV-B infections. However, children with RSV-B were more likely to have upper respiratory infections (URI) (10% vs. 29%, p = 0.03). Among RSV-A cases, hospitalization was higher for ON1 cases (25%, ON1 vs. 8%, NA1, p = 0.04), whereas the recovery without a disability was higher among the NA1 cases (56%, ON1 vs. 88%, NA1, p = 0.02). The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for RSV in Bangladesh was 1949 for RSV-A and 1944 for RSV-B. This study revealed the genotypic diversity and evolutionary relatedness of RSV strains in Bangladesh and provided pre-COVID molecular epidemiology data to understand better the COVID-19 impact on upcoming RSV epidemiology in Bangladesh.

8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 392, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, has become the major causative agent of acute gastroenteritis in piglets since 2010 in China. RESULTS: In the current study, 91 complete spike (S) gene sequences were obtained from PEDV positive samples collected from 17 provinces in China from March 2020 to March 2021. A phylogenetic analysis showed that 92.3% (84 out of 91) of the identified strains belonged to GII subtype, while 7.7% (7 out of 91) were categorized as S-INDEL like strains and grouped within GI-c clade. Based on a recombination analysis, six of S-INDEL like strains were recombinant strains originated from S-INDEL strain FR/001/2014 and virulent strain AJ1102. In addition, PEDV variant strains (CH/GDMM/202012, CH/GXDX/202010 et al) carrying novel insertions (360QGRKS364 and 1278VDVF1281) in the S protein were observed. Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequences for the S protein showed that multiple amino acid substitutions in the antigenic epitopes in comparison with the vaccine strains. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these data provide novel molecular evidence on the epidemiology and molecular diversity of PEDV in 2020-2021. This information may help design a strategy for controlling and preventing the prevalence of PEDV variant strains in China.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Phylogeny , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Amino Acid Sequence , China/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Pathogens ; 11(10)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099690

ABSTRACT

Despite extensive vaccination and booster programs, SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in long-term care facilities (LTCF) continue to occur. We retrospectively describe a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak amongst a partially vaccinated LTCF population in The Netherlands which occurred in March 2021. The facility comprised three floors functioning as separate wards. Nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR were obtained from residents and staff presenting with COVID-19-like symptoms and from all residents and staff during two point prevalence screenings (PPS). Samples meeting technical criteria were included for phylogenetic analysis. Positive SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR were obtained from 11 (18%) of 61 residents and 8 (7%) of 110 staff members between March 8 and March 25. Seven (37%) cases and five (63%) vaccinated cases were diagnosed through PPS. Cases were found on all wards. Phylogenetic analysis (n = 11) showed a maximum difference of four nucleotides between sequences on the outer branches of the tree, but identified two identical sequences on the root differing maximum two nucleotides from all other sequences, suggesting all did belong to the same cluster. Our results imply that PPS is useful in containing SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks amongst (vaccinated) LTCF populations, as an entire LTCF might behave as a single epidemiological unit and it is preferable to maximize the number of samples included for phylogenetic analysis.

10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090359

ABSTRACT

Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the spike glycoprotein highlighted that the last variants, annotated as omicron, have about 30 mutations compared to the initial version reported in China, while the delta variant, supposed to be the omicron ancestor, shows only 7 mutations. Moreover, the five omicron variants were isolated between November 2021 and January 2022, and the last variant BA.2.75, unofficially named centaurus, was isolated in May 2022. It appears that, since the isolation of the delta variant (October 2020) to the omicron BA.1 (November 2021), there was an interval of one year, whereas the five omicron variants were isolated in three months, and after a successive four months period, the BA.2.75 variant was isolated. So, what is the temporal and phylogenetic correlation among all these variants? The analysis of common mutations among delta and the omicron variants revealed: (i) a phylogenetic correlation among these variants; (ii) the existence of BA.1 and BA.2 omicron variants a few months before being isolated; (iii) at least three possible intermediate variants during the evolution of omicron; (iv) the evolution of the BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 variants from omicron BA.2; (v) the centaurus variant evolution from omicron BA.2.12.1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Phylogeny , Mutation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
Future Virol ; 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089661

ABSTRACT

Aim: SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging coronavirus that was discovered in China and rapidly spread throughout the world. The authors looked at nucleotide and amino acid variations in SARS-CoV-2 genomes, as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary events in viral genomes, in Iran. Materials & methods: All SARS-CoV-2 sequences that were publicly released between the start of the pandemic and 15 October 2021 were included. Results: The majority of mutations were found in vaccine target proteins, Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins, and nonstructural proteins. The majority of the viruses that circulated in the early stages of the pandemic belonged to the B.4 lineage. Conclusion: We discovered the prevalence of viral populations in Iran. As a result, tracking the virus's variation in Iran and comparing it with a variety of nearby neighborhoods may reveal a pattern for future variant introductions.

12.
J Vet Res ; 66(3): 317-324, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071039

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an enteric pathogen causing porcine epidemic diarrhoea and acute gastroenteritis in pigs of all ages. Previous analysis of the viral genome of PEDV in Poland was only based on the spike protein (S) gene sequences and no analysis of other genes has been performed. The aim of this study was to analyse the envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) protein and open reading frame 3 (ORF3) gene sequences. Material and Methods: Viral RNA from 18 Polish pig faecal samples that were quantitative reverse transcription PCR-positive for PEDV was analysed in four genomic regions (E, M, N and ORF3). Results: Phylogenetic analysis based on these regions' sequences revealed that Polish PEDV isolates were highly related and were clustered into group G2a across the four genes compared. Moreover, the Polish strains were located in distinct subclusters on the phylogenetic trees, which suggests the presence of at least three independently evolving PEDV genetic lines circulating in Poland. The occurrence of unique mutations in the sequences of Polish PEDV strains suggests that PEDV continues to undergo evolutionary processes, accumulating the mutations necessary for viral fitness in its natural hosts. The Polish PEDV strains differed genetically from the CV777 vaccine strain, suggesting the risk of relatively low vaccine efficacy if this strain is used. Conclusion: Our results promote a better understanding of the genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in Poland and highlight the importance of molecular characterisation of PEDV field strains for the development of an effective vaccine against PEDV.

13.
Microorganisms ; 10(10)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066268

ABSTRACT

In January 2022, there was a global and rapid surge of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 related to more transmission. This coincided with an increase in the incidence in Asturias, a region where rapid diagnosis and containment measures had limited the circulation of variants. METHODS: From January to June 2022, 34,591 variants were determined by the SNP method. From them, 445 were characterized by the WGS method and classified following pangolin program and phylogenic analysis. RESULTS: The Omicron variant went from being detected in 2438 (78%) samples in the first week of January 2021 to 4074 (98%) in the third week, according to the SNP method. Using the WGS method, 159 BA.1 (35.7%), 256 BA.2 (57.6%), 1 BA.4 (0.2%) and 10 BA.5 (2.2%) Omicron variants were found. Phylogenetic analysis detected that three new sub-clades, BA.2,3.5, BA.2.56 and BF1, were circulating. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the incidence of SARS-CoV2 caused the circulation of new emerging variants. Viral evolution calls for continuous genomic surveillance.

14.
Open Vet J ; 12(4): 451-462, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025157

ABSTRACT

Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is endemic in Egypt despite the Egyptian authorities' annual mass vaccination of cattle with sheeppox vaccine (Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Egypt), and the LSD virus (LSDV) continues to thrive practically every summer. The disease has a huge economic impact on the trade of the animal and its by-product. Aim: This paper study the molecular characterization of LSDV strains that have been circulating in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, for three successive years (2018, 2019, and 2020). Methods: A total of 61 specimens (26 skin nodules and 35 oculonasal swabs) were collected from a clinic in the hospital of veterinary medicine, Zagazig University, during the summer months (July, August, and September) of three outbreaks in 2018, 2019, and 2020. These were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the open reading frame 103 (ORF103) gene to confirm the suspected cases and determine the degree of homology between the three different outbreaks during three successive years between each other and between the derived sequences of GenBank. Results: Cattle is thought to be infected with LSDV due to the presence of scattered local or diffuse circumscribed skin nodules along with fever and lymph node enlargement and sometimes leg edema. The PCR approach proved rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection of LSDV and confirmative diagnosis of the disease. Forty-six were detected to be positive by PCR (75.4%). The seven sequenced samples were translated to amino acid and registered in GenBank under accession number MW357655-MW357661. A single nucleotide mutation and amino acid variation were observed at positions 161 C (2020)/T (2018&2019) and consequently, a change in the amino acid at position 54 P (2020)/L (2018&2019) between the outbreak in 2020 and those in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The field LSDV isolates from Egypt cattle were more closely related to other LSDV sequences from Africa (Kenya), Asia, Europe, and the United States.These findings highlight the necessity of ongoing surveillance and characterization of circulating strains and the need to improve procedures for distinguishing vaccine strains from field viruses.


Subject(s)
Lumpy skin disease virus , Amino Acids/genetics , Animals , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Lumpy skin disease virus/genetics , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Nucleotides , Phylogeny
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 869818, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009875

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to have originated in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Infection with this highly dangerous human-infecting coronavirus via inhalation of respiratory droplets from SARS-CoV-2 carriers results in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which features clinical symptoms such as fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, and life-threatening pneumonia. Several COVID-19 waves arose in Taiwan from January 2020 to March 2021, with the largest outbreak ever having a high case fatality rate (CFR) (5.95%) between May and June 2021. In this study, we identified five 20I (alpha, V1)/B.1.1.7/GR SARS-CoV-2 (KMUH-3 to 7) lineage viruses from COVID-19 patients in this largest COVID-19 outbreak. Sequence placement analysis using the existing SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetic tree revealed that KMUH-3 originated from Japan and that KMUH-4 to KMUH-7 possibly originated via local transmission. Spike mutations M1237I and D614G were identified in KMUH-4 to KMUH-7 as well as in 43 other alpha/B.1.1.7 sequences of 48 alpha/B.1.1.7 sequences deposited in GISAID derived from clinical samples collected in Taiwan between 20 April and July. However, M1237I mutation was not observed in the other 12 alpha/B.1.1.7 sequences collected between 26 December 2020, and 12 April 2021. We conclude that the largest COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan between May and June 2021 was initially caused by the alpha/B.1.1.7 variant harboring spike D614G + M1237I mutations, which was introduced to Taiwan by China Airlines cargo crew members. To our knowledge, this is the first documented COVID-19 outbreak caused by alpha/B.1.1.7 variant harboring spike M1237I mutation thus far. The largest COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan resulted in 13,795 cases and 820 deaths, with a high CFR, at 5.95%, accounting for 80.90% of all cases and 96.47% of all deaths during the first 2 years. The high CFR caused by SARS-CoV-2 alpha variants in Taiwan can be attributable to comorbidities and low herd immunity. We also suggest that timely SARS-CoV-2 isolation and/or sequencing are of importance in real-time epidemiological investigations and in epidemic prevention. The impact of G614G + M1237I mutations in the spike gene on the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading as well as on high CFR remains to be elucidated.

16.
Biosaf Health ; 4(4): 253-257, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000278

ABSTRACT

At present, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide, which has emerged multiple variants and brought a threat to global public health. To analyze the genomic characteristics and variations of SARS-CoV-2 imported into Beijing, we collected the respiratory tract specimens of 112 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from January to September 2021 in Beijing, China, including 40 local cases and 72 imported cases. The whole-genome sequences of the viruses were sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. Variant markers and phylogenic features of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Our results showed that in all 112 sequences, the mutations were concentrated in spike protein. D614G was found in all sequences, and mutations including L452R, T478K, P681R/H, and D950N in some cases. Furthermore, 112 sequences belonged to 23 lineages by phylogenetic analysis. B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) lineages were dominant. Our study drew a variation image of SARS-CoV-2 and could help evaluate the potential risk of COVID-19 for pandemic preparedness and response.

17.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(8)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997799

ABSTRACT

With the progression of the global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the new variants have become more infectious and continue spreading at a higher rate than pre-existing ones. Thus, we conducted a study to explore the epidemiology of emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 that circulated in Bangladesh from December 2020 to September 2021, representing the 2nd and 3rd waves. We collected new cases and deaths per million daily data with the reproduction rate. We retrieved 928 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from GISAID and performed phylogenetic tree construction and mutation analysis. Case counts were lower initially at the end of 2020, during January-February and April-May 2021, whereas the death toll reached the highest value of 1.587 per million on the first week of August and then started to decline. All the variants (α, ß, δ, η) were prevalent in the capital city, Dhaka, with dispersion to large cities, such as Sylhet and Chattogram. The B.1.1.25 lineage was prevalent during December 2020, but the B.1.617.2/δ variant was later followed by the B.1.351/ß variant. The phylogeny revealed that the various strains found in Bangladesh could be from numerous countries. The intra-cluster and inter-cluster communication began in Bangladesh soon after the virus arrived. The prominent amino acid substitution was D614G from December 2020 to July 2021 (93.5 to 100%). From February-April, one of the VOC's important mutations, N501Y substitution, was also estimated at 51.8%, 76.1%, and 65.1% for the α, ß and γ variants, respectively. The γ variant's unique mutation K417T was detected only at 1.8% in February. Another frequent mutation was P681R, a salient feature of the δ variant, detected in June (88.2%) and July (100%). Furthermore, only one γ variant was detected during the entire second and third wave, whereas no η variant was observed in this period. This rapid growth in the number of variants identified across Bangladesh shows virus adaptation and a lack of strict quarantine, prompting periodic genomic surveillance to foresee the spread of new variants, if any, and to take preventive measures as soon as possible.

18.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979412

ABSTRACT

This study described a SARS-CoV-2 infection in minks on an Italian farm. Surveillance was performed based on clinical examination and a collection of 1879 swabs and 74 sera from dead and live animals. The farm was placed under surveillance for 4.5 months, from the end of July 2020, when a man working on the farm tested positive by RT-PCR, till mid-December 2020 when all the animals were sacrificed. Clinical examination revealed no clinical signs or increased mortality rates attributable to SARS-CoV-2, while diagnostic tests detected only four weak PCR-positive samples, but 100% of sera were positive for SARS-CoV-2 anti-S antibodies. The phylogenetic analysis of two SARS-CoV-2 sequences from two minks and the sequence of the worker showed that they belonged to different clades. It could be therefore assumed that two distinct introductions of the virus occurred on the farm, and that the first introduction probably occurred before the start of the surveillance period. From the data collected, and especially from the detection of specific antibodies through the combination of different tests, it can be postulated that syndromic surveillance combined with genome detection by PCR may not be sufficient to achieve a diagnosis in asymptomatic animals. In particular, the serological approach, especially when using tests directed towards the S protein, may be useful for improving the traceability of virus circulation in similar environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/veterinary , COVID-19 Testing , Farms , Humans , Mink , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e451-e462, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973741

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an economically important viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has recently spread into South and East Asia. LSD emerged in India in August 2019, first in Odisha State and spread to other areas, but there is scanty data on source and molecular epidemiology of LSDV involved in the initial outbreaks. Here we report genetic relationships and molecular features of LSDV, causing outbreaks in cattle spanning seven districts in Odisha and West Bengal States during August-December, 2019. Twelve LSDV isolates obtained using lamb testis cells were sequenced and analysed in four complete genes, GPCR, RPO30, P32 and EEV. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the Indian LSDV isolates from 2019 outbreaks are very closely related (99.7%-100%) to the historical Kenyan NI-2490/Kenya/KSGP-like field strains. Importantly, our results demonstrated that LSDV strains involved in 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh are very similar in GPCR (99.7%), RPO30 (100%) and partial EEV (100%) sequences, indicating a common exotic source of LSDV introduction. Additionally, a 12-nucleotide insertion was found in GPCR gene of LSDV strains from 2019 outbreaks in India and Bangladesh. The findings of this study highlight the importance of continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of LSDV strains. These data should be useful while developing diagnostic and control strategies against LSD in India.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Sheep Diseases , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Kenya , Lumpy Skin Disease/epidemiology , Lysergic Acid Diethylamide , Phylogeny , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
20.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 2076-2088, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973740

ABSTRACT

Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) is an antigenic variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which is mainly associated with infections of pigeons and has the potential to result in disease in chickens. In this study, we characterised 21 PPMV-1 isolates from diseased pigeons in China during 2007-2019. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to genotype VI. Among them, most isolates belonged to sub-genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2, suggesting that VI.2.1.1.2.2 has become a prevalent genotype in pigeons in China. The results showed that all PPMV-1 isolates were mesogenic in nature according to the mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that two genetically closely related isolates (Pi-11 and Pi-10) both of which belonged to sub-genotype VI.2.1.1.2.2 had similar replication kinetics in cells derived from pigeons, while the replication titre of Pi-11 was significantly higher than that of Pi-10 in cells derived from chickens. Pi-11 and Pi-10 could contribute to morbidity and mortality in pigeons. Remarkably, although the two viruses resulted in no apparent disease symptom in chickens, Pi-11 could cause more severe histopathological lesions and had a stronger replication ability in chickens compared to Pi-10. Moreover, chickens infected with Pi-11 had higher shedding efficiency than chickens infected with Pi-10. Additionally, several mutations within important functional regions of the fusion (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins might be associated with different pathogenicity of the two viruses in chickens. Collectively, these results indicated that the Pi-11-like virus of pigeon origin has the potential to induce severe outbreaks in chicken flocks. These findings will help us better understand the epidemiology and evolution of PPMV-1 in China and serve as a foundation for the further investigation of the mechanism underlying the pathogenic difference of PPMV-1 isolates in chickens.


Subject(s)
Newcastle Disease , Newcastle disease virus , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Columbidae , Genome, Viral , Newcastle Disease/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Virulence
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