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1.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694423

ABSTRACT

Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with persistent stress and disruption of neuronal function. Persistent stress causes neuronal atrophy, including loss of synapses and reduced size of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These alterations are associated with neural dysfunction, including mood disturbances, cognitive impairment, and behavioral changes. Synaptic plasticity is the fundamental function of neural networks in response to various stimuli and acts by reorganizing neuronal structure, function, and connections from the molecular to the behavioral level. In this review, we describe the alterations in synaptic plasticity as underlying pathological mechanisms for depression in animal models and humans. We further elaborate on the significance of phytochemicals as bioactive agents that can positively modulate stress-induced, aberrant synaptic activity. Bioactive agents, including flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, and lignans, have been reported to upregulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and release, suppress neuronal loss, and activate the relevant signaling pathways, including TrkB, ERK, Akt, and mTOR pathways, resulting in increased spine maturation and synaptic numbers in the neuronal cells and in the brains of stressed animals. In clinical trials, phytochemical usage is regarded as safe and well-tolerated for suppressing stress-related parameters in patients with depression. Thus, intake of phytochemicals with safe and active effects on synaptic plasticity may be a strategy for preventing neuronal damage and alleviating depression in a stressful life.

2.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2023 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695102

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the world's second leading cause of death, and there are no approved herbal therapies. The epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) receptor is a transmembrane protein with eight domains that is found in almost every cancer type and plays an important role in abnormal cell cellular function and causes malignant outcomes. The current study aimed to virtually screen phytochemicals from the NPACT database against EGFR-TKD and also to identify potential inhibitors of this transmembrane protein among plant candidates for anticancer drug development. The docking scores of the chosen phytochemicals were compared with the control (erlotinib). Kurarinone, (2S)-2-methoxykurarnione, and Sophoraflavanone-G exhibited a stronger binding affinity of -18.102 kcal/mol, -14.243 kcal/mol, and -13.759 kcal/mol than erlotinib -12.783 kcal/mol. Moreover, several online search engines were used to predict ADME and toxicity. The drug-likeness of selected phytochemicals was higher than the reference (erlotinib). A 100 ns molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was also applied to the docked conformations to examine the stability and molecular mechanics of protein-ligand interactions. Furthermore, the calculated molecular mechanics Poisson Boltzmann surface area energy of (2S)-2-methoxykurarnione was found to be -129.555 ± 0.512 kJ/mol, which approximately corresponds to the free energy of the reference molecule -130.595 ± 0.908 kJ/mol. We identify phytoconstituents present in Sophora flavescens from the NPACT database, providing key insights into tyrosine kinase inhibition and may serve as better chemotherapeutic agents. Experimental validation is required to determine the anti-EGFR potency of the potent lead molecules discussed in this study.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1035220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36686668

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are sporadic maladies that affect patients' lives with progressive neurological disabilities and reduced quality of life. Neuroinflammation and oxidative reaction are among the pivotal factors for neurodegenerative conditions, contributing to the progression of NDs, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Huntington's disease (HD). Management of NDs is still less than optimum due to its wide range of causative factors and influences, such as lifestyle, genetic variants, and environmental aspects. The neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of Moringa oleifera have been documented in numerous studies due to its richness of phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review highlights up-to-date research findings on the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of M. oleifera, including mechanisms against NDs. The information was gathered from databases, which include Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid-MEDLINE, Springer, and Elsevier. Neuroprotective effects of M. oleifera were mainly assessed by using the crude extracts in vitro and in vivo experiments. Isolated compounds from M. oleifera such as moringin, astragalin, and isoquercitrin, and identified compounds of M. oleifera such as phenolic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, (-)-epicatechin, and isoquercitrin) have been reported to have neuropharmacological activities. Therefore, these compounds may potentially contribute to the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. More in-depth studies using in vivo animal models of neurological-related disorders and extensive preclinical investigations, such as pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and bioavailability studies are necessary before clinical trials can be carried out to develop M. oleifera constituents into neuroprotective agents.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1073419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36687601

ABSTRACT

The monkeypox virus (MPXV) has become a major threat due to the increasing global caseload and the ongoing multi-country outbreak in non-endemic territories. Due to limited research in this avenue and the lack of intervention strategies, the present study was aimed to virtually screen bioactive phytochemicals against envelope proteins of MPXV via rigorous computational approaches. Molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, and MM/PBSA analysis were used to investigate the binding affinity of 12 phytochemicals against three envelope proteins of MPXV, viz., D13, A26, and H3. Silibinin, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid were computationally identified as potential phytochemicals that showed strong binding affinity toward all the tested structural proteins of MPXV through molecular docking. The stability of the docked complexes was also confirmed by MD simulations and MM/PBSA calculations. Results from the iMODS server also complemented the findings from molecular docking and MD simulations. ADME analysis also computationally confirmed the drug-like properties of the phytochemicals, thereby asserting their suitability for consumption. Hence, this study envisions the candidature of bioactive phytochemicals as promising inhibitors against the envelope proteins of the MPXV, serving as template molecules that could further be experimentally evaluated for their efficacy against monkeypox.

5.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-25, 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36688375

ABSTRACT

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Converting Enzyme (TACE) mediates inflammatory disorder and contributes to the pathophysiology of a variety of illnesses, such as chronic inflammation and cancer. This study identified metabolites in solvent extracts of Kigelia africana as putative TACE inhibitors due to the plant's known anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-MS/GCMS analysis was used to characterize tentative phytochemicals from K. africana. The identified metabolites (n = 123) were docked with TACE to reveal the lead compounds. Binding free energy, ADMET prediction, molecular dynamics simulation at 100 ns, and DFT calculation were further conducted. The results revealed that K. africana contains sterol, phenols, alkaloids, terpenes and flavonoids. The FTIR shows that the extracts had peaks that correspond to the presence of different functional groups. The quantum polarized ligand docking (QPLD) analysis identified compound (n = 3) with binding affinity higher than standard compound IK-682. The hits also had modest ADMET profiles, interacted with essential residues within TACE binding pockets, and formed stable complexes with the protein. The 100 ns MD simulation shows that the compounds formed fairly stable interactions and complex with the protein as evidenced through RMSF, RMSD and MM-GBA results. The HOMO/LUMO, global descriptive molecular electrostatic potential Fukui function aid in the identification of the compounds' atomic sites prone to electrophilic/neutrophilic attacks, and non-covalent interactions. This study suggests that K. africana's bioactive compounds are capable of mitigating inflammation by inhibiting TACE.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

6.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2023 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689040

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 has changed the world scenario and caused mortality around the globe. Patients who recovered from COVID-19 have shown neurological, psychological, renal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and hematological complications. In some patients, complications lasted more than 6 months. However, significantly less attention has been given to post-COVID complications. Currently available drugs are used to tackle the complications, but new interventions must address the problem. Phytochemicals from natural sources have been evaluated in recent times to cure or alleviate COVID-19 symptoms. An edible plant, Solanum nigrum, could be therapeutic in treating COVID-19 as the AYUSH ministry of India prescribes it during the pandemic. S. nigrum demonstrates anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiviral action to treat the SARS-CoV-2 infection and its post-complications. Different parts of the plant represent a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and prevent multi-organ failure by protecting various organs (liver, kidney, heart, neuro, and lung). The review proposes the possible role of the plant S. nigrum in managing the symptoms of COVID-19 and its post-COVID complications based on in silico docking and pharmacological studies. Further systematic and experimental studies are required to validate our hypothesis.

7.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; : 103561, 2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684115

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pulmonary disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. More than 200 million individuals are infected by this globally. Pyrexia, coughing, shortness of breath, headaches, diarrhoea, sore throats, and body aches are among the typical symptoms of COVID-19. The virus enters into the host body by interacting with the ACE2 receptor. Despite many SARS-CoV-2 vaccines manufactured by distinct strategies but any evidence-based particular medication to combat COVID-19 is not available yet. However, further research is required to determine the safety and effectiveness profile of the present therapeutic approaches. In this study, we provide a summary of Traditional Arabic or Islamic medicinal (TAIM) plants' historical use and their present role as adjuvant therapy for COVID-19. Herein, six medicinal plants Aloe barbadensis Miller, Olea europaea, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Nigella sativa, Cassia angustifolia, and Ficus carica have been studied based upon their pharmacological activities against viral infections. These plants include phytochemicals that have antiviral, immunomodulatory, antiasthmatic, antipyretic, and antitussive properties. These bioactive substances could be employed to control symptoms and enhance the development of a possible COVID-19 medicinal synthesis. To determine whether or if these TAIMs may be used as adjuvant therapy and are appropriate, a detailed evaluation is advised.

8.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1057645, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684722

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Products of plant secondary metabolism, such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, and hormones, play an important role in plant growth, development, stress resistance. The plant family Rubiaceae is extremely diverse and abundant in Central America and contains several economically important genera, e.g. Coffea and other medicinal plants. These are known for the production of bioactive polyphenols (e.g. caffeine and quinine), which have had major impacts on human society. The overall goal of this study was to develop a high-throughput workflow to identify and quantify plant polyphenols. Methods: First, a method was optimized to extract over 40 families of phytochemicals. Then, a high-throughput metabolomic platform has been developed to identify and quantify 184 polyphenols in 15 min. Results: The current metabolomics study of secondary metabolites was conducted on leaves from one commercial coffee variety and two wild species that also belong to the Rubiaceae family. Global profiling was performed using liquid chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Features whose abundance was significantly different between coffee species were discriminated using statistical analysis and annotated using spectral databases. The identified features were validated by commercially available standards using our newly developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Discussion: Caffeine, trigonelline and theobromine were highly abundant in coffee leaves, as expected. Interestingly, wild Rubiaceae leaves had a higher diversity of phytochemicals in comparison to commercial coffee: defense-related molecules, such as phenylpropanoids (e.g., cinnamic acid), the terpenoid gibberellic acid, and the monolignol sinapaldehyde were found more abundantly in wild Rubiaceae leaves.

9.
Vet Anim Sci ; 19: 100283, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36684817

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are used to fortify broiler chicken feeds as growth promoters. Chronic antibiotic use pollutes the environment and causes the development of antibiotic resistance. Natural alternatives that mimic the properties of antibiotics, without causing health and environmental challenges are required. ß-sitosterol has antimicrobial, antioxidant, digestive and immune system modulating and growth stimulating activities. We evaluated its potential to replace oxytetracycline as a growth-promoter in broiler chicken feeds. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four diets where ß-sitosterol replaced oxytetracycline at 0 mg/kg (control; fortified with 50 mg/kg oxytetracycline), 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg (w/w) feed and fed for 6 weeks: 2 weeks for each growth phase. Each diet was replicated thrice with 20 chicks per replicate. Initial, weekly and terminal body mass (TBM) and daily feed intake (FI) were measured. Body mass gain (BMG), average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio were computed. Terminally, the chickens were fasted for 4 h then slaughtered and dressed. Gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and GIT accessory viscera masses and small and large intestine lengths were measured. Dietary fortification with ß-sitosterol had similar effects (P > 0.05) to oxytetracycline on the chickens' TBM, BMG, ADG, FI and utilisation efficiency and GIT organ macromorphometry. In conclusion, ß-sitosterol can replace oxytetracycline in Cobb 500 broiler chicken feeds without compromising growth performance, feed intake and utilisation efficiency and GIT organ growth and development.

10.
Saudi Pharm J ; 31(1): 1-13, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36685305

ABSTRACT

Trigonella foenum-graecum has been extensively used for centuries in traditional medicine systems for the cure of health ailments including diabetes. Improving the medicinal attributes of plants through the elicitation strategy is gaining great interest in the recent past. In the current study, an attempt is made to reveal the role and possible mechanism of action of vitamin C elicit phytochemical-rich aqueous extract of 4th day germinated IM6 genotype fenugreek sprouts in the form of lyophilized powder (IM6E) under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The IM6E demonstrated strong α-glucosidase activity (95.24 %) and moderate α-amylase and invertase inhibition activities under in vitro conditions. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) based analysis demonstrated that IM6E possess significantly higher concentration of phenolic phytochemical quercetin (0.148 %) as compared to diosgenin and trigonelline bioactive anti-diabetic nutraceuticals. In normal rats after loading with glucose and sucrose, the IM6E administration in a dose-dependent manner significantly reduced the post-prandial hyperglycemia, in a similar fashion as the anti-diabetic drug voglibose as evident from the area under curves (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and oral sucrose tolerance test (OSTT) tests. The administration of IM6E in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats drastically improved the antioxidant activity of plasma in them as determined by Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and the effect was found to be dose-dependent. The oral administration of IM6E in diabetic rats normalized almost all the deregulated biochemical markers like liver enzymes, lipids and significantly decreased higher blood glucose levels with increasing insulin levels as compared to diabetic control. The best concentration of IM6E was found to be 300 mg/kg b.w after 21 days of experimentation. The intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in diabetic rats responded very well to IM6E treatment and 100 mg/kg.b.w. behaved almost like the administration of 0.5U insulin/kg bw, and thus indicating the insulinotropic nature of IM6E. Our findings clearly reveal the use of IM6E for diabetes management and at the same it possesses great potential when combined with voglibose to ameliorate diabetes and its associated complications to a greater extent due to synergistic effects as compared to monotherapy. However, more clinical trials need to be performed before recommending IM6E as an anti-diabetic alternative medicine.

11.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673362

ABSTRACT

Soybean protein isolate (SPI) and small molecule interactions have drawn more and more attention regarding their benefits for both parts, while research on large-scale investigations and comparisons of different compounds is absent. In this study, a high throughput virtual screening was applied on a phytochemical database with 1130 compounds to pinpoint the potential SPI binder. Pentagalloylglucose, narcissoside, poliumoside, isoginkgetin, and avicurin were selected as the top-five ranking molecules for further validation. Fluorescence quenching assays illustrated that isoginkgetin has a significantly higher apparent binding constant (Ka) of (0.060 ± 0.020) × 106 L·mol-1, followed by avicularin ((0.058 ± 0.010) × 106 L·mol-1), pentagalloylglucose ((0.049 ± 0.010) × 106 L·mol-1), narcissoside ((0.0013 ± 0.0004) × 106 L·mol-1), and poliumoside ((0.0012 ± 0.0006) × 106 L·mol-1). Interface characterization by MD simulation showed that protein residues E172, H173, G202, and V204 are highly involved in hydrogen bonding with the two carbonyl oxygens of isoginketin, which could be the crucial events in SPI binding. Van der Waals force was identified as the major driven force for isoginketin binding. Our study explored SPI-phytochemical interaction through multiple strategies, revealing the molecular binding details of isoginkgetin as a novel SPI binder, which has important implications for the utilization of the SPI-phytochemical complex in food applications.

12.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677853

ABSTRACT

The novel pathogenic virus was discovered in Wuhan, China (December 2019), and quickly spread throughout the world. Further analysis revealed that the pathogenic strain of virus was corona but it was distinct from other coronavirus strains, and thus it was renamed 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2. This coronavirus shares many characteristics with other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The clinical manifestations raised in the form of a cytokine storm trigger a complicated spectrum of pathophysiological changes that include cardiovascular, kidney, and liver problems. The lack of an effective treatment strategy has imposed a health and socio-economic burden. Even though the mortality rate of patients with this disease is lower, since it is judged to be the most contagious, it is considered more lethal. Globally, the researchers are continuously engaged to develop and identify possible preventive and therapeutic regimens for the management of disease. Notably, to combat SARS-CoV-2, various vaccine types have been developed and are currently being tested in clinical trials; these have also been used as a health emergency during a pandemic. Despite this, many old antiviral and other drugs (such as chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, and so on) are still used in various countries as emergency medicine. Plant-based products have been reported to be safe as alternative options for several infectious and non-infectious diseases, as many of them showed chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in the case of tuberculosis, cancer, malaria, diabetes, cardiac problems, and others. Therefore, plant-derived products may play crucial roles in improving health for a variety of ailments by providing a variety of effective cures. Due to current therapeutic repurposing efforts against this newly discovered virus, we attempted to outline many plant-based compounds in this review to aid in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Attention
13.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677944

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific studies have established a relationship between the consumption of phytochemicals such as carotenoids, polyphenols, isoprenoids, phytosterols, saponins, dietary fibers, polysaccharides, etc., with health benefits such as prevention of diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, etc. This has led to the popularization of phytochemicals. Nowadays, foods containing phytochemicals as a constituent (functional foods) and the concentrated form of phytochemicals (nutraceuticals) are used as a preventive measure or cure for many diseases. The health benefits of these phytochemicals depend on their purity and structural stability. The yield, purity, and structural stability of extracted phytochemicals depend on the matrix in which the phytochemical is present, the method of extraction, the solvent used, the temperature, and the time of extraction.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals , Phytosterols , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/chemistry , Dietary Supplements , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
14.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677967

ABSTRACT

A number of phytochemicals have been identified as promising drug molecules against a variety of diseases using an in-silico approach. The current research uses this approach to identify the phyto-derived drugs from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees (AP) for the treatment of diphtheria. In the present study, 18 bioactive molecules from Andrographis paniculata (obtained from the PubChem database) were docked against the diphtheria toxin using the AutoDock vina tool. Visualization of the top four molecules with the best dockscore, namely bisandrographolide (-10.4), andrographiside (-9.5), isoandrographolide (-9.4), and neoandrographolide (-9.1), helps gain a better understanding of the molecular interactions. Further screening using molecular dynamics simulation studies led to the identification of bisandrographolide and andrographiside as hit compounds. Investigation of pharmacokinetic properties, mainly ADMET, along with Lipinski's rule and binding affinity considerations, narrowed down the search for a potent drug to bisandrographolide, which was the only molecule to be negative for AMES toxicity. Thus, further modification of this compound followed by in vitro and in vivo studies can be used to examine itseffectiveness against diphtheria.


Subject(s)
Andrographis , Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Diphtheria , Diterpenes , Andrographis paniculata , Andrographis/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology
15.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670894

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress increase susceptibility to neurodegeneration and other age-related pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that an infusion prepared from Pulicaria incisa (Pi) has protective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects in glial cells. However, the neuroprotective activities of Pi infusion in cultured neurons and aging mice have never been studied. In the following study, the effects of Pi infusion were explored in a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Profiling of the infusion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and aucubin as some of its main constituents. H2O2-induced ROS accumulation and caspase 3 activity decreased SH-SY5Y viability and were prevented upon the pretreatment of cells with Pi infusion. Additionally, the Pi infusion upregulated cellular levels and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Aging mice treated daily for 18 months with Pi infusion exhibited reduced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus as compared to age-matched controls. We, therefore, propose Pi infusion as a candidate regulator of oxidative stress in the brain.

16.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 12(1)2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670985

ABSTRACT

The global prevalence of diabetes continues to increase partly due to rapid urbanization and an increase in the aging population. Consequently, this is associated with a parallel increase in the prevalence of diabetic vascular complications which significantly worsen the burden of diabetes. For these diabetic vascular complications, there is still an unmet need for safe and effective alternative/adjuvant therapeutic interventions. There is also an increasing urge for therapeutic options to come from natural products such as plants. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is central to the development of diabetes and diabetic complications. Furthermore, oxidative stress-induced inflammation and insulin resistance are central to endothelial damage and the progression of diabetic complications. Human and animal studies have shown that polyphenols could reduce oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and prevent diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Part of the therapeutic effects of polyphenols is attributed to their modulatory effect on endogenous antioxidant systems. This review attempts to summarize the established effects of polyphenols on endogenous antioxidant systems from the literature. Moreover, potential therapeutic strategies for harnessing the potential benefits of polyphenols for diabetic vascular complications are also discussed.

17.
Bioengineering (Basel) ; 10(1)2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36671636

ABSTRACT

The ayurvedic herb Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) is a gift to mankind to acquire a healthy lifestyle. It has great therapeutic and nutritional importance. Emblica officinalis, also known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. Amla is beneficial for treating illnesses in all its forms. The most crucial component is a fruit, which is also the most common. It is used frequently in Indian medicine as a restorative, diuretic, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, laxative, antipyretic, hair tonic, ulcer preventive, and for the common cold and fever. Hyperlipidemia is also known as high cholesterol or an increase in one or more lipid-containing blood proteins. Various phytocompounds, including polyphenols, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids, are present in the various parts of E. officinalis. E. officinalis has been linked to a variety of pharmacological effects in earlier studies, including hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, radioprotective, and hyperlipidemic effects. The amla-derived active ingredients and food products nevertheless encounter challenges such as instability and interactions with other food matrices. Considering the issue from this perspective, food component nanoencapsulation is a young and cutting-edge field for controlled and targeted delivery with a range of preventative activities. The nanoformulation of E. officinalis facilitates the release of active components or food ingredients, increased bioaccessibility, enhanced therapeutic activities, and digestion in the human body. Accordingly, the current review provides a summary of the phytoconstituents of E. officinalis, pharmacological actions detailing the plant E. officinalis's traditional uses, and especially hyperlipidemic activity. Correspondingly, the article describes the uses of nanotechnology in amla therapeutics and functional ingredients.

18.
Materials (Basel) ; 16(2)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36676430

ABSTRACT

The agricultural uses of nanoparticles continue to be considered as innovative methods that require more in-depth research into their impact on product quality. In our study, we investigated the effects of fertilizers containing metal nanoparticles (silver AgNPs and copper CuNPs) during the plant growth stage of winter rape cultivation, and in most experimental variants, with the exception of the (x2) application of AgNPs, we observed a decrease in the mass of one thousand seeds (MTS). The obtained result was 11.55% higher relative to the control sample in 2019, and also increased after the (x1) 4.36% and (x2) 11.11% application of CuNPS in 2020. The analyzed oxidative stability of the oil increased in both experimental years (2019-2020), with the highest values recorded after the (x1) and (x2) application of CuNPS-4.94% and 8.31%, respectively, in the first year of cultivation, and after the (x2) application of CuNPS-12.07% in the subsequent year. It was also observed that the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, squalene, tocopherols α and δ, chlorophylls, and carotenoids increased in the oil. Moreover, spectral FTIR analysis was performed on the oil samples obtained from cultivations sprayed with solutions containing Ag or Cu nanoparticles and revealed changes in several spectral regions with the maxima at ~1740, 1370, 1230, and ~1090 cm-1. Additionally, a FTIR analysis conducted in combination with multivariate analysis allowed us to classify the studied oils into the most similar groups and to study the structure of data variability. The conducted analyses revealed that the use of nanoparticles resulted in decreased size of the produced seeds and improved antioxidative properties of rapeseed oil.

19.
Pathogens ; 12(1)2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678393

ABSTRACT

Biofilms are large aggregates of various species of bacteria or other microorganisms tightly attached to surfaces through an intricate extracellular matrix. These complex microbial communities present quite the challenge in the food processing industry, as conditions such as raw meats and diverse food product content in contact with workers, drains, machinery, and ventilation systems, make for prime circumstances for contamination. Adding to the challenge is the highly resistant nature of these biofilm growths and the need to keep in mind that any antimicrobials utilized in these situations risk health implications with human consumption of the products that are being processed in these locations. For that reason, the ideal means of sanitizing areas of foodborne biofilms would be natural means. Herein, we review a series of innovative natural methods of targeting foodborne biofilms, including bacteriocins, bacteriophages, fungi, phytochemicals, plant extracts, essential oils, gaseous and aqueous control, photocatalysis, enzymatic treatments, and ultrasound mechanisms.

20.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 16(1)2023 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678588

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-degradation system that recycles cellular components and damaged organelles, which is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are short-lived molecules containing unpaired electrons that are formed by the partial reduction of molecular oxygen. It is widely known that autophagy and ROS can regulate each other to influence the progression of cancer. Recently, due to the wide potent anti-cancer effects with minimal side effects, phytochemicals, especially those that can modulate ROS and autophagy, have attracted great interest of researchers. In this review, we afford an overview of the complex regulatory relationship between autophagy and ROS in cancer, with an emphasis on phytochemicals that regulate ROS and autophagy for cancer therapy. We also discuss the effects of ROS/autophagy inhibitors on the anti-cancer effects of phytochemicals, and the challenges associated with harnessing the regulation potential on ROS and autophagy of phytochemicals for cancer therapy.

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