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1.
TELKOMNIKA ; 21(1):203-213, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164257

ABSTRACT

In mitigating the peak demand, the energy authority in Malaysia has introduced the enhanced time of use (EToU). However, the number of participants joining the programs is less than expected. Due to that reason, this study investigated the investment benefit in terms of electricity cost reduction when consumers subscribe to the EToU tariff scheme. The significant consumers from industrial tariff types have been focused on where the load profiles were collected from the incoming providers' power stations. Meanwhile, ant colony optimization (ACO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) are applied to optimize the load profiles reflecting EToU tariff prices. The proposed method had shown a reduction in electricity cost, and the most significant performance has been recorded congruently. For a maximum 30% load adjustment using ACO optimization, the electricity costs have been decreased by 10% (D type of tariff), 16% (E1 type of tariff), 9% (E2 kind of tariff), and 1.13% (E3 type of tariff) when compared to the existing conventional tariff. The cost-benefit of the EToU tariff switching has been identified where the simple payback period (SPP) is below one year for all the industrial types of consumers.

2.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1114(1):012082, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160871

ABSTRACT

This study aim to improve the quality of Phyllanthus sp production by increasing the content of secondary metabolites as a bioactive compound. Phyllanthus sp contains various secondary metabolites that enhance immunity and treat diabetes, hypertension, antioxidants, anti-cancer, kidney disorders, and other illnesses. Since the Covid-19 pandemic, Phyllanthus sp widely used as a raw material for making herbal medicines. The trade value of Indonesian herbal medicines is estimated to increase in 2022, and the price will reach around the US $ 910 million, so it has very bright business prospects. These relatively limited phytopharmaceutical products constrain the supply of high-quality raw materials under the requirements of the herb medicine industry. Therefore, conducting a depth assessment related to efforts to improve the quality of Phyllanthus sp production by increasing the content of secondary metabolites is necessary. The efforts to enhance the quality of Phyllanthus sp as a source of herbal medicine raw materials can be made through plant breeding such as genetic mutations and in combination with the environmental arrangements of soil water content and solar radiation intensity. The efforts to increase the quality of herbal medicine raw materials are critical to support the development of the herbal medicine industry.

3.
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering ; 10(6), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2159242

ABSTRACT

The consumption of antidepressants has increased on a global scale. These medications are frequently prescribed to treat mental health-related disorders and their usage is expected to rise in the future because the COVID-19 pandemic has intensified these problems significantly. These compounds have recently been detected in wastewater treatment plants and surface waters, raising concerns about their potential impacts on the envi-ronment. In this regard, the current review aims to critically evaluate the available information on the worldwide consumption of antidepressants, their occurrence, possible toxicological effects on aquatic organisms, and removal techniques. Several analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of antidepressant com-pounds have also been discussed. Additionally, risk quotients (RQs) have been estimated which indicates that sertraline posed the highest risk (RQ: 4.88) to the aquatic life followed by citalopram (RQ: 1.55) and bupropion (RQ: 1.12). It was observed that the aquatic organisms encountered behavioral, physical, cardiovascular, and reproductive changes after being exposed to antidepressant compounds. Some of these compounds have been satisfactorily removed (>85%) using a sequencing batch reactor with aerobic granulation of sludge. Physico-chemical processes such as photocatalysis, photochemical oxidation, and electrocatalysis exhibited more than 90% degradation efficiency in most cases. Moreover, integrating two or more physicochemical processes improved the treatment efficiency further. This study may help researchers to understand the threats posed by antidepressants to the environment and result in the development of innovative technologies for their removal.

4.
National Academy Science Letters ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2158220

ABSTRACT

Documentation of the folk knowledge of indigenous communities forms an integral part of the subject "ethnobiology”. Pursuing leads obtained through ethnobiological documentation has played a key role in maintaining human health and wellbeing. The current pandemic that we are passing through is expected to strengthen the subject with many challenges and opportunities. In this paper, we highlight the avenues and the role of the subject in the times to come. We strongly believe a paradigm shift in ethnobiology is lurking around the corner. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The National Academy of Sciences, India.

5.
8th International Food Operations and Processing Simulation Workshop, FoodOPS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2156279

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, an average of 2 kg of waste per person are generated in Spain. Furthermore, the household consumption is rising and, as a consequence, the waste production is also increasing. This trend presents a direct impact in the environment. Moreover, after two years of COVID-19 pandemic, it has been detected a stronger rise in consumption per person, while consumption through professional commercial channels for hospitality industry has been lower. This paper analizes the waste generation and product shrinkage in a potato bagging plant, which addresses its production to both final consumers and retailers. The raw materials washing line, as well as the production line, are taken into consideration in the analysis, while new uses to the produced waste are proposed, aiming at providing new useful life, such as the production of bioplastics or the production of biodiesel. As a consequence, the environment impact is minimized and new products are obtained. © 2022 The Authors.

6.
Bmj ; 379, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2152965

ABSTRACT

Samantha Black, consultant anaesthetist and patient information lead at the Royal College of Anaesthetists, said, “‘Dennis has an anaesthetic’ is a fantastic resource that can be used in preoperative assessment clinics and at home with parents to answer children’s questions and to reassure them.” (See www.rcoa.ac.uk/dennis-has-anaesthetic) Antimicrobial resistance Comments are sought for next five year plan England’s Department of Health and Social Care launched a consultation to inform the next five year plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance and is calling for input from technical experts on human health, animal and plant health, food, and the environment. The consultation closes on 20 January.3 Measles Disease is “imminent threat” worldwide Falling vaccination rates and reduced surveillance during the covid pandemic have created an “imminent threat” of measles spreading in every region of the world, said the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

7.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Druggable Targets and In Silico Update: Volume 3 ; : 155-171, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149164

ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants have been extensively used for treating a variety of infectious diseases for a long time. Drug discovery from these plants involves a versatile approach combining phytochemical, botanical, and molecular techniques. A broad range of active phytochemicals, like alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, extracted from herbal plants, and some volatile essential oils extracted from culinary herbs, herbal teas, and spices possess antiviral property. Medicinal plants have proven to be potent sources of antiviral agents with some main advantages over conventional drug therapy due to their broad healing potency and causing no side effects. This chapter presents research advances done for the search of suitable drugs from medicinal plants against viruses with special consideration of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronovirus-2. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

8.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Druggable Targets and In Silico Update: Volume 3 ; : 73-153, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149163

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has devastated the world, causing the deaths of tens of thousands people. This disease is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). So far, no vaccine or treatment could be properly developed. This chapter examined all the works that have reported experimental results on the treatment of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections using natural bioactive molecules. Findings were presented in a very clear and detailed way based on the relationship that exists between successful applications of these natural drugs against the two SARS coronaviruses. Scutettaria baicalensis, Urtica dioica, Psoralea corylifolia, Radix Polygoni multiflori, Allium sativum L., and Nigella sativa are promising plants for the treatment of COVID-19. The two herbal formulas Lianhuaqingwen and Qingfei Paidu have also attracted interests. Other plants containing lectins, flavonoids, baicalin, scutellarein, myricetin, and herbacetin can be considered as potential source of bioactives for drug discovery and treatments. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Druggable Targets and In Silico Update: Volume 3 ; : 355-376, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149156

ABSTRACT

The present study conducted an in silico investigation and identifications of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cellular entry. Thirty nine (39) bioactive compounds with evidence of in vitro or in vivo antidiabetic activities from medicinal plants were utilized in order to provide insight about their possible inhibitory potentials against SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Results from this study showed that silymarin, sanguinarine, withanolides, boswellic acids, fisetin, celastrol, neferine, ursolic acid, rutin, gambogic acid, quercetin, and luteolin expressed multiple binding capacity against nucleocapsid dimerization domain (−10.7 to −8.4kcal/mol), spike's protein binding domain (−10.0 to −8.1kcal/mol), and spike receptor-binding domain (−10.8 to −9.0kcal/mol) compared to lopinavir and remdesivir which were used as reference compounds in the study. However, withanolides, fisetin, luteolin, sanguinarine, and silymarin are most druggable phytochemicals as they obey the Lipinski's rule of five analyses with no signs of in silico predictory toxicity. Thus, they are recommended for further studies for the development of phytotherapy formulation to combat SARS-CoV-2 disease. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

10.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143463

ABSTRACT

Tulsi (Holy basil, Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Lamiaceae), native to Asia, has become globalised as the cultural, cosmetic, and medicinal uses of the herb have been popularised. DNA barcoding, a molecular technique used to identify species based on short regions of DNA, can discriminate between different species and identify contaminants and adulterants. This study aimed to explore the values associated with Tulsi in the United Kingdom (UK) and authenticate samples using DNA barcoding. A mixed methods approach was used, incorporating social research (i.e., structured interviews) and DNA barcoding of Ocimum samples using the ITS and trnH-psbA barcode regions. Interviews revealed the cultural significance of Tulsi: including origins, knowledge exchange, religious connotations, and medicinal uses. With migration, sharing of plants and seeds has been seen as Tulsi plants are widely grown in South Asian (SA) households across the UK. Vouchered Ocimum specimens (n = 33) were obtained to create reference DNA barcodes which were not available in databases. A potential species substitution of O. gratissimum instead of O. tenuiflorum amongst SA participants was uncovered. Commercial samples (n = 47) were difficult to authenticate, potentially due to DNA degradation during manufacturing processes. This study highlights the cultural significance of Tulsi, despite a potential species substitution, the plant holds a prestigious place amongst SA families in the UK. DNA barcoding was a reliable way to authenticate Ocimum species.

11.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143461

ABSTRACT

Aspergillus species consists of a group of opportunistic fungi that is virulent when the immunity of the host is compromised. Among the various species, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent species. However, the prevalence of fungal infections caused by non-fumigatus Aspergillus has been increasing. Polyenes, echinocandins and azoles are the three main classes of antifungal agents being used for the treatment of aspergillosis. Nevertheless, the incidence of resistance towards these three classes has been rising over the years among several Aspergillus spp. The side effects associated with these conventional antifungal agents have also limited their usage. This urges the need for the discovery of a safe and effective antifungal agent, which presents a major challenge in medicine today. Plants present a rich source of bioactive molecules which have been proven effective against a wide range of infections and conditions. Therefore, this present review intends to examine the current literature available regarding the efficacy and mechanism of action of plant extracts and their compounds against Aspergillus spp. In addition, novel drug delivery systems of plant extracts against Aspergillus spp. were also included in this review.

12.
Curr Comput Aided Drug Des ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, very few small drug molecules are used for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has been discovered since the epidemic commenced in November 2019. SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and spike protein are essential targets for drug development amidst whole variants of coronaviruses. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to discover and recognize the most effective and promising small molecules against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike protein targets through molecular docking screening of 39 phytochemicals from five different Ayurveda medicinal plants. METHODS: The phytochemicals were downloaded from PubChem, and SARS-CoV-2 RdRp and spike protein were taken from the protein data bank. The molecular interactions, binding energy, and ADMET properties were analyzed. RESULTS: Molecular docking analysis identified some phytochemicals, oleanolic acid, friedelin, serratagenic acid, uncinatone, clemaphnol A, sennosides B, trilobine and isotrilobine from ayurvedic medicinal plants possessing greater affinity against SARS-CoV-2-RdRp and spike protein targets. Two molecules, namely oleanolic acid and sennosides B, with low binding energies, were the most promising. Furthermore, based on the docking score, we carried out MD simulations for the oleanolic acid and sennosides B-protein complexes. CONCLUSION: Molecular ADMET profile estimation showed that the docked phytochemicals were safe. The present study suggested that active phytochemicals from medicinal plants could inhibit RdRp and spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Zeitschrift fur Arznei & Gewurzpflanzen ; 26(2):60-66, 2021.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2125255

ABSTRACT

This article provides information on the chemical components and antiviral characteristics of some medicinal plants against various Coronavirus strains. Some of these plants include sage (Salvia officinalis), Cistus incanus, Rumex acetosa and Plantago sp., among others.

14.
The Journal of Plant Science Research ; 38(1):31-63, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2146403

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 had been declared a pandemic in March 2020. The disease has caused destruction all around the world. Symptomatic treatment, supportive care, isolation and experimental measure are the most important ways to manage this disease. However, 81% of the COVID-19 patients showed mild-to-moderate symptoms such as fever, cough, nasal congestion, fatigue, sore throat, loss of smell and loss of taste etc. Patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms may not need hospitalization because most of them will be able to manage their sickness at home through medication or supportive care. It will be useful to take both preventive measures and substances that boost the immunity while rest at home. Ministry of AYUSH in India recommended several approaches for preventive health care to boost immunity and respiratory health: following yoga and meditation plus intake of a few medicinal-plant-based compounds such as those from turmeric (Curcuma longa), cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and coriander (Coriandrumsativum) etc., once or twice a day. C. longa has been one of the most commonly used remedy for symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic in India. Based on existing scientific evidences, C. longa has been proved to be a potent anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant source, as well as a medicinal plant effective for respiratory disorders. In this review, scientific evidence of C. longa phytochemicals responsible for pharmacological activities are presented using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. This review also discusses the disease COVID-19 and its causative virus SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(10), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2138422

ABSTRACT

Since late 2019 to early 2020, an outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a worldwide health emergency due to its rapid infection and mortality of millions of people around the world. As the main protease Mpro or 3CLpro produced by the virus plays an important role in coronavirus survival and proliferation, it becomes an excellent drug target to identify COVID-19 inhibitors. Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) is a medicinal plant that has been used for a long time for the treatment of many fungal and bacterial infections. In the search for new anti-COVID agents from medicinal plants, we report the results of our study into the potential inhibition of Mpro by the compounds isolated from the extracts of L. inermis roots and leaves using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. The molecular modeling results showed that all isolated compounds bonded spontaneously into the catalytic pockets of Mpro with binding energies <0. The docking and calculated pharmacokinetic results of the compounds (1-3, 6-8) were similar to and even better than those of the commercial COVID-19 inhibitor remdesivir. In particular, the triterpenoid glycoside suavissimoside R1 (8) showed the best binding to SARS-CoV Mpro, with the lowest binding energy G and IC50,calc. values of -8.19 kcal/mol and 0.98 M, respectively. Furthermore, the calculations of ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) showed that it had the lowest toxicity, with a predicted LD50 value of 3320 mg/kg. These triterpenoids are worthy of further study to evaluate their actual bioactivity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and in vivo in the hope of contributing valuable scientific data for natural resources for the development novel drug formulations for either the prevention or treatment of COVID-19.

16.
Annual Plant Reviews Online ; 5(4):383-454, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2127502

ABSTRACT

Traditional food plants (TFPs) are highly nutritious and contain health beneficial metabolites, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Various communities across the globe, especially in the rural areas, rely on the locally available TFPs for their nutritional and health-related needs. The TFPs are considered important because they are locally available alternative sources of food and nutrition. However, they remain largely neglected to date despite their huge nutritional importance and potential. Interest in TFPs has recently increased especially because of the disruptions of the food supply chains caused by recurrent lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interruptions to long-distance food supply chains expose the vulnerabilities associated with the globalised interconnected food systems. Recent literature suggests that localised food systems are more resilient, sustainable, and adaptive especially during times of pandemics, civil unrest, and conflicts. Since TFPs offer several benefits over the globalised mainstream food systems, it is important to explore their roles and develop research strategies to provide insights and to support their more widespread use in future. Scientists and food and nutrition experts also suggest that the post-pandemic situation will compel food scientists, breeders, and crop bioengineers to realign their approach towards food production and consumption systems that are more locally suited. Significant knowledge has been gained through basic research on the diversity and availability of a plethora of TFPs in various parts of the world, including India, Africa, and South America. Limited genetic and genomic studies have also been performed with TFPs, and they provide very important insights into important genes and other regulators governing nutritional and stress-resilient traits in neglected crops. Some crops are shown to have better traits than the currently available mainstream crops. Many studies have pointed towards cultivation, domestication, and improvement of regionally important TFPs for better climate resilience, sustainability, and adaptability. While very few TFPs have been genetically edited successfully, and gene-edited TFPs are not commercially available yet, there is increasing evidence that there is a huge potential for the revitalisation and introduction of these ancient crops to the mainstream food baskets of the public. In this review article, we critically examine the TFPs and their regional importance in the local traditional food systems. The richness of TFPs during the ancient period and various reasons for their disappearance from the food basket, the re-emergence of TFPs by recognising their importance in the present scenario, and the criteria for utilisation of TFPs to attain food security in the future are discussed comprehensively in the review. We provide a futuristic outlook on the importance, scope, and progress on the improvement of TFPs for valuable traits for ensuring food security of the burgeoning global population. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Published 2022 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

17.
Environ Chem Lett ; : 1-22, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128753

ABSTRACT

Almost all aspects of society from food security to disease control and prevention have benefited from pharmaceutical and personal care products, yet these products are a major source of contamination that ends up in wastewater and ecosystems. This issue has been sharply accentuated during the coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) due to the higher use of disinfectants and other products. Here we review pharmaceutical and personal care products with focus on their occurrence in the environment, detection, risk, and removal. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10311-022-01498-7.

18.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114967

ABSTRACT

Natural products have played a critical role in medicine due to their ability to bind and modulate cellular targets involved in disease. Medicinal plants hold a variety of bioactive scaffolds for the treatment of multiple disorders. The less adverse effects, affordability, and easy accessibility highlight their potential in traditional remedies. Identifying pharmacological targets from active ingredients of medicinal plants has become a hot topic for biomedical research to generate innovative therapies. By developing an unprecedented opportunity for the systematic investigation of traditional medicines, network pharmacology is evolving as a systematic paradigm and becoming a frontier research field of drug discovery and development. The advancement of network pharmacology has opened up new avenues for understanding the complex bioactive components found in various medicinal plants. This study is attributed to a comprehensive summary of network pharmacology based on current research, highlighting various active ingredients, related techniques/tools/databases, and drug discovery and development applications. Moreover, this study would serve as a protocol for discovering novel compounds to explore the full range of biological potential of traditionally used plants. We have attempted to cover this vast topic in the review form. We hope it will serve as a significant pioneer for researchers working with medicinal plants by employing network pharmacology approaches.

19.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 11:30-35, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121761

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has forced the need for the discovery of new antiviral agent or the development of new vaccine to fight against the pandemic disease, COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2), owing to its high mortality rate worldwide. Therefore, medicinal plants are gaining much attention for human health for the period of pandemic situation because of the efficient activity, cost effectiveness and limited side effects. These plants or phytochemicals have been used for several decades to treat various emerging virus infections through the inhibiting the various drug targets. Consequently, the current evidence indicating those medicinal plants or herbs and their component have the potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, this review summarises the important Indian as well as Chinese medicinal plants and their phytochemicals or extracts which have the potency to battle with SARS-CoV-2 along with deciphered mechanism of action. These medicinal plants served as alternative treatment choice for the treatment of COVID-19 disease during this overwhelming pandemic situation.

20.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 11:12-17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2121003

ABSTRACT

A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an extraordinary type of communicable infection that is caused by SARS-coronavirus. Since last two years, the entire world is fighting with this highly infectious disease and researchers are devoting all their labours to develop vaccines and few vaccines with remarkable efficacies have been developed. However, the great rate of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 annoying everyone. Though, the scientific communities are doing their best towards neutralizing the impact of infection yet the best way to combat this virus and future similar infections is to boost our immune system in a natural way. In this review, the prospective of widespread and easily available plants have been discussed as immunity enhancers to combat COVID-19 and other viruses.

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