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1.
Sage Open Medical Case Reports ; 10:4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799154

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a common pathology in HIV-infected but also in uninfected immunocompromised individuals. The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) is a new type of coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV-2, and the chest imaging is often used as complementary tool in patients' evaluation. The imaging finding is similar with many pulmonary pathologies. Chest computed tomography scan is gold standard imaging and shows a central and diffuse distribution, ground- glass pattern with septal thickening with "crazy paving pattern." We reported a case of 57-year-old man patient, followed in oncology for laryngeal cancer who presented of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia during his follow-up. The diagnosis is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Other immunochemical tests can be performed but are less specific. Both curative and preventive treatment in subjects at risk remains trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Corticosteroid therapy may be associated depending on the case.

2.
Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617062

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has changed the perspective through which medical staff look at dyspnea and hypoxemia cases. Epidemiological links are frequently missing, and clinical and imagological findings are often unspecific, overlapping substantially with other respiratory infections. Case summary: We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a known history of asthma who had recently moved from Guinea-Bissau with her mother. Although the mother reported being Ag HBs positive, no serologic studies had ever been performed on the child. The patient was admitted to the Emergency Room after 4 days of cough and the feeling of thoracic oppression, without fever. No contact with suspected or confirmed individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 or other respiratory viruses was reported. She presented with peripheral oxygen saturation of 90%, costal retractions and a prolonged expiratory phase. After an unsuccessful course of bronchodilators and prednisolone, she was admitted to the Pediatric Intermediate Care Unit because of a sustained need for oxygen therapy. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for SARS CoV-2 came back negative. A chest radiograph displayed a bilateral reticular infiltrate, and therapy with azithromycin was started. Due to a deterioration of the dyspnea, a chest tomography was eventually performed, revealing an exuberant and bilateral ground glass-like densification suggestive of alveolar injury. Echocardiogram and e electrocardiogram were both normal. After a positive serologic result for HIV, the patient was transferred to a Level III hospital, and Pneumocystis jirovecii was identified in bronchoalveolar lavage. T cell count was 12/mm3. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cotrimoxazole were started, prompting clinical and analytical recovery. Discussion: Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised children. Even though an asthma exacerbation and atypical bacterial or viral infections, namely COVID-19, present as more usual causes of dyspnea, a low suspicion index is warranted in children coming from HIV-endemic countries, particularly those who are unresponsive to conventional bronchodilator and antibiotic therapy.

3.
Blood ; 138:3906, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582273

ABSTRACT

The introduction of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has circumvented the need for T-cell depletion following haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT). By expanding the donor pool for patients from certain ethnic minorities, this has addressed to some degree an important health care disparity issue in SCT. However, a recent registry study showed increased incidence GvHD and inferior outcomes in patients receiving haploidentical SCT with PTCy, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for GvHD prevention as opposed to matched unrelated donor SCT with PTCy-based GvHD prevention. Seeking to improve the results of GvHD prevention in the setting of haploidentical SCT, we examined a combination of PTCy, abatacept and a short course of tacrolimus (CAST). Abatacept is a recombinant soluble fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) fused to the Fc region of IgG1. Abatacept blocks CD28-CD80I86 axis and prevents T-cell co-stimulation. In early studies, abatacept has shown promising results when added to methotrexate and tacrolimus in matched and mismatched donor SCT. We initiated a phase Ib-II clinical trial for patients with hematological malignancies undergoing haploidentical SCT. Patients received G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood grafts from related haploidentical donors. GvHD prevention consisted of PTCy 50mg/kg IV on day +3 and +4 with forced hydration, abatacept 10mg/kg IV on day +5, +14 and +28 and tacrolimus. Tacrolimus was started on day +5 at 0.02mg/kg/day by continuous IV and adjusted thereafter to maintain a trough level of 5-12ng/mL. Tacrolimus taper was planned to begin on day +60 and complete by day +90 in the absence of GvHD. All patients received standard supportive care including levofloxacin until neutrophil engraftment, posaconazole until day +75, acyclovir for 1 year and, if CMV positive by serology, letermovir until day +100. Pneumocystis Jiroveci prophylaxis was started after neutrophil engraftment and continued until 6 months post-transplant. G-CSF was administered routinely until neutrophil engraftment. Since September 2020, 19 patients were enrolled. Three patients are too early in their post-transplant course and were excluded from this analysis. Patients' characteristics are summarized in the table. All but 2 patients received cryopreserved products. Median times to ANC and platelet engraftment were 18.5 days (14-30) and 28.5 (16-61). All 16 patients achieved full whole blood donor chimerism by day +30. There was no secondary graft failure. With a median follow-up was 149.5 days (41-308) with 10 patients having >120 days and 8 >180 days of follow-up, 4 patients developed skin acute GvHD (all grade I). No patient developed grade II-IV acute GvHD. Two patients developed skin chronic GvHD (limited, both moderate). Both cases were diagnosed following COVID-19 vaccination. Fifteen patients completed tacrolimus taper by day +90. Two patients received systemic steroids, one for treatment of cGvHD. The remaining patients required no further immunosuppressive therapy beyond day +90. CMV activation rate was 25%. One patient had EBV reactivation and required preemptive therapy with 2 weekly rituximab doses. There were no cases of adenovirus, HHV-6 virus or BK virus reactivation. Four patients developed renal insufficiency (3 in the setting of acute sepsis and 1 with thrombotic microangiopathy, which resolved after tapering off tacrolimus. One patient with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma relapsed and died. All other patients are alive and well. In summary, our preliminary results suggest that CAST with shortened course of tacrolimus is feasible and seems to offer very promising outcomes with low rates of acute GvHD. The study is accruing actively and the results of a larger cohort with longer follow-up will be presented at the meeting. If confirmed, by improving the outcomes of haploidentical SCT, this regimen may further address a health care disparity issue, offering almost every patient in need of allogeneic SCT an alternative donor op ion with equal outcomes. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Al-Homsi: Daichii Sanyko: Consultancy;Celyad: Other: Advisory Board. Abdul-Hay: Abbvie: Consultancy;Servier: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau;Jazz: Other: Advisory Board, Speakers Bureau;Takeda: Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. OffLabel Disclosure: Abatacept - off label use as GvHD prevention Cyclophosphamide - off label use as GvHD prevention

4.
SN Compr Clin Med ; : 1-5, 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378317

ABSTRACT

We report our initial experience with the management of a mixed group of patients with COVID-19 infection, admitted and treated in a designated COVID-19 centre in the Athens Metropolitan area over a 4-week period. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presented a huge challenge to the Greek National Healthcare System and healthcare workers. Their response so far has been miraculously effective. Since there are essentially no therapeutic guidelines yet for this disease, we relied mainly on our medical intuition, our empathy for our patients and team work to do the best possible for 49 people with this infection. We present the therapeutic algorithm we gradually developed (on the job) and applied in our patients, based on continuous creative brainstorming and monitoring of the literature.

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