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1.
Sustainability ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2080462

ABSTRACT

Against the background of the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to the lack of effective collaborative incentive mechanisms, issues of dislocation and incoordination have emerged in the public health emergency management system (PES) globally. Nevertheless, the available research rarely touches upon the incentive mechanism design for the collaborative management of PES. To alleviate these inefficiency operations problems with PES, three game-theoretical decision models, including a decentralized decision model without public governance policy incentive (GPI), a decentralized decision model with GPI, and a collaborative decision model with GPI, were developed and analyzed to explore and design the incentive mechanism of PES. Furthermore, the corresponding numerical and sensitivity analyses were conducted to validate the modelling results in the article. The research results show that: (1) the collaborative decision scenario with GPI performs best, and the decentralized decision scenario with GPI performs second-best regarding the equilibrium emergency management efforts (EMEs) and utilities in all the decision scenarios;(2) an incentive mechanism of the "carrot + Stick" can effectively enhance the collaborative management of public health emergencies and its governance-driven operational performance/efficiency;(3) strengthening the performance assessment of emergency management for relevant government departments is beneficial in improving the overall emergency management efficiency of the PES;(4) reducing the cost of EMEs and enhancing the effectiveness of EMEs are conducive to improving the overall emergency management efficiency of the PES. This research provides a novel framework for designing an effective incentive mechanism to overcome the incoordination impacts and achieve collaborative operations across the PES.

2.
Working Paper Series - National Council for Applied Economic Research 2022. (143):52 pp. 51 ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2072745

ABSTRACT

This paper describes disease and economic surveillance during COVID, along with the uses of that surveillance, and lessons learned about the pandemic from that surveillance. It ends with policy suggestions on how to gather intelligence during the next pandemic in India and how surveillance informs suppression policy. Important themes that I stress are the value of population-level surveillance, understanding the incentives and disincentives for surveillance and reporting, and tailoring policy to the results of surveillance.

3.
Business Inform ; 7:155-161, 2022.
Article in Bulgarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2057037

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this article is to identify the features, problems and perspectives in the development of international tourism in the post-covid world. Analyzing the statistical and forecast data of relevant international organizations, as well as expert opinions of market practitioners, a significant dependence of the tourism system on exogenous factors of negative impact is revealed, and COVID-19 is viewed as the largest crisis in terms of consequences, because the highly globalized world itself contributes to the large-scale and rapid spread of the pandemic. For the purpose of comparative analysis of the periods of development of tourist activity in the world, the following indicators were analyzed: the dynamics of the growth rate of the world economy and world tourism;dynamics of development of sectors of the world economy with the separation of the place of tourism;regional dynamics of international tourist arrivals and revenues from international tourism;loss of jobs in the tourism industry by region of the world as result of the spread of COVID-19, reduced business activity and tourist mobility. All indicators show a significant reduction and there is a relationship with the overall economic and social environment of countries. As result of the study, the main vectors of public policy on countering the consequences of COVID-19 in the tourism sector are defined and attention is focused on the need for consolidated precise and timely actions at all management levels: local, national, and international. An algorithm for overcoming the crisis phenomena in the tourism business caused by the pandemic has been developed, which provides for a set of consistent measures aimed at managing and controlling the crisis, stabilizing the market situation and accelerating the revitalization of the industry, as well as developing a new paradigm for the functioning of world tourism in post- covid realities. Trend tendencies in the further development of international tourism activities are proposed, taking into account changes in consumer preferences, namely: digitalization, virtualization, shifting the vector to domestic tourism, staycation and workation, wellness tourism, deeper awareness of the need for further implementation of the principles of sustainable development, etc.

4.
IDS Policy Briefing 2022. (201):6 pp. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056697

ABSTRACT

Small food businesses are vital to delivering affordable, nutritious food to low-income communities. Yet food systems are under threat from multiple stressors. During the Covid-19 pandemic, government support was directed at maintaining business activity, so understanding how this affected small food businesses offers insights for future policy design. Most policies aligned primarily with the short-term financial needs of larger businesses, leaving a gap for timely support for small enterprises. The recurrent nature of shocks means that such businesses also require longer-term agility to respond to shocks. Interventions to build this capacity can be integrated into nutrition programming.

5.
Communication, Culture & Critique ; 15(3):372-392, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2051324

ABSTRACT

From February 2020 to the end of 2021, China's state-controlled media focused on creating its "victorious" narrative of combating the COVID-19 pandemic. This article focuses on two high-profile and COVID-19-themed TV series that aim to rewrite the collective memories of the Wuhan lockdown as part of state's affective governance strategies. Using a feminist textual analysis, the article examines the gendered nature of state narratives by dissecting the representation of national heroines of the pandemic. It demonstrates the centrality of heterosexual families and gender performances in romanticizing individual sacrifices and mass suffering. Unlike the socialist-era role models, the personal weakness and emotional flaws of China's new heroines are tactically displayed to enhance emotional authenticity and resonate with contemporary audiences. Yet these state narratives reflect only stereotypical depictions of femininity within a hierarchical gender order in post-reform China, where moralized womanhood is imbued with a sacrificial attitude that serves to discipline China's female citizens.

6.
Africa Health ; 43(4):21-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046335

ABSTRACT

An overview of global health governance is provided in this article, along with predictions for its post-pandemic state. The interests of the many actors in global health governance have been impacted by COVID-19, particularly the accessibility and international distribution of vaccinations and technologies to fight the epidemic. What position does Africa have in this convoluted and disorganised system of global health governance? In a time of worldwide pandemic like COVID-19, how can the interests of 1.3 billion Africans be addressed the best? This article presents an African perspective on global health governance in order to respond to these inquiries. As a result of Africa's historical marginalisation from the international system, developing a cogent African viewpoint on global health governance requires confronting the system's ingrained biases and institutions that favor the most powerful states and non-state actors. They must acknowledge the obvious but long-standing truth that sickness is only one aspect of public health. In the global arena, health is political. Most activities in the twenty-first century take place outside of the medical field. Any realistic African perspective on global health governance during COVID-19 and future pandemics must, among other things, take into account the fact that most of these health-impacting activities take place in the context of international economic and trade relations, which are frequently driven by the strategic interests of individual countries.

7.
ODI Working Paper 2020. (579):29 pp. ; 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046204

ABSTRACT

This paper contends that, given the constraints on national responses to the multiple challenges the pandemic poses in sub-Saharan Africa, multilateral organisations, governments from outside the region and private creditors can and must play a key part in helping African governments and the private sector cope. The paper primarily focuses on the provision of finance, but clearly support in other areas, including health, trade and business, matters too. The paper first examines the scale and nature of the crisis, then looks at some of the principles and constraints shaping the design of policy responses to shield health systems, individuals and economies from the immediate impacts (chapter 2). The paper then explores the role that international cooperation and finance can play in enabling more effective national responses (chapter 3), before concluding with a summary of key recommendations (chapter 4).

8.
Forced Migration Review ; 67:33-35, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046152

ABSTRACT

Significant variations in access to fundamental public health services during the COVID-19 epidemic have been revealed by recent study conducted in a number of different nations. States have an obligation to apply what they have learned from the present pandemic to remove existing obstacles. In many aspects, the COVID-19 pandemic fostered cooperation across nations and within communities in an effort to address dangers to the public's health and lessen the socioeconomic effects of the virus. Some good practices have emerged as a result of extensive advocacy and engagement with governments by a variety of actors. These include expanding free access to COVID-19 testing, treatment, and vaccines for all migrants, regardless of status, and allowing stranded migrants and those without visas to access basic services. They must consider the impact of this extraordinary situation and global public health emergency on those who continue to face barriers to accessing basic services, such as COVID-19 vaccines, as well as how this intersects with both individual and public health, even though these policy developments are to be welcomed, championed, and replicated. Public health initiatives could be jeopardized by enduring access impediments as well as fresh difficulties brought on by movement restrictions and lockdowns. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies conducted the study in eight nations: Australia, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Sudan, Sweden, and the UK (and data from the Sahel region was also taken into consideration). The findings suggest that, in order to end the pandemic and guarantee that everyone has the chance to receive assistance in a respectful and supportive manner, inclusive approaches for connecting with and supporting migrants and refugees must be incorporated into national and local pandemic preparedness, response, and recovery plans. Public health hazards will persist if inclusive policies are not accompanied by operational guidelines to overcome barriers in practice.

9.
NFI Bulletin ; 42(2):1-8, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045646

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this paper is to help make sense of what we know about the dramatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security and nutrition at the global level, how we know it, and what we expect to find when more data and analyses are available. It is important to keep in mind that the "global" indicators discussed are derived from common methodologies and applied uniformly to common country data sets. This has advantages but, where possible, needs to be complemented by more in-depth data and analysis in a country. This country-specific data may not be directly comparable to others or be aggregated at the global level. They may be crucial in understanding the country's context and formulating appropriate policy responses. The paper presents 4 pieces of the COVID-19 puzzle. The first is an overview of the measures of food security and nutrition at the global level, based on country-level estimates, followed by a discussion of those indicators for 2019 in the period prior to the epidemic. This is followed by a short discussion of how COVID-19 and other restrictions made things a lot worse. Finally, current estimates are given.

10.
Industria Saccarifera Italiana ; 113(1/2):3-5, 2020.
Article in Italian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045457

ABSTRACT

The international economy is already being severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, both directly and indirectly as a result of the required controls put in place to stop the disease's spread. The food and agriculture industry is likewise being affected by these effects. While the food supply has been stable thus far, in many nations the virus-containment efforts are beginning to affect the flow of agro-food items to markets and consumers, both domestically and abroad. The composition of the industry as well as the degree of demand for specific commodities are both significantly changing. How detrimental these effects wind up being to food security, nutrition, and the livelihoods of farmers, fishers, and others involved in the food supply chain will be greatly influenced by the short-, medium-, and long-term policy responses. Governments have a lot on their plates right now, including responding to the health crisis, dealing with the fallout from the economic shock, and making sure the food system runs smoothly. While the pandemic creates some major short-term issues for the food system, it also presents a chance to speed up changes in the food and agriculture industry that will increase its resilience to a variety of threats, including climate change.

11.
Working Paper - Groupe de Recherche en Economie et Developpement International (GREDI) 2020. (20-10):34 pp. 30 ref. ; 2020.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045283

ABSTRACT

We examine the effects of fiscal policy on the Quebec territory using data from Q1-1981 to Q1-2020. To do so, we estimate VAR models and extract government spending shocks according to the sign restriction method proposed by Uhlig (2005). The impulse responses of real GDP, household consumption, private non-residential investment, and the household confidence index to a temporary and positive government spending shock are all significantly positive in the short run. We find high multipliers for total government spending shocks-they are above 2 in the short run, while government investment spending is above 3.5 and shows greater persistence. The possible consequences of the pandemic and the stimulus package on Quebec's debt trajectory complete the analysis. Lastly, government investment spending is the best way to get the economy going and even lower the debt ratio to meet the goals for 2026.

12.
Working Paper - Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University 2022. (22-WP 637):29 pp. many ref. ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2044960

ABSTRACT

We analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated policy responses on the global economy and food security in 80 low- and middle-income countries. We use a global economy-wide model with detailed disaggregation of agricultural and food sectors and develop a business as usual baseline for 2020 and 2021 called "But-for-COVID" (BfC). We then shock the model with aggregate income shocks derived from the IMF World Economic Outlook for 2020 and 2021. We impose total-factor productivity losses in key sectors as well as consumption decreases induced by social distancing. The resulting shocks in prices and incomes from the CGE model simulations are fed into the USDA-ERS International Food Security Assessment model to derive the impact of the pandemic on food security in these 80 countries. The main effect of the pandemic was to exacerbate the existing declining trend in food security. Food insecurity increases considerably in countries in Asia through income shocks rather than prices effects. We also review trade policies that were put in place to restrict imports and exports of food, and we evaluate their potential for further disruption of markets focusing on the food-security implications.

13.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental ; 61(3):504-512, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040749

ABSTRACT

The eGovernment is an interconnected system that interacts with citizens and provides them increased services through electronic applications, with the help of ICT, in this case, with the arrival of Sars-CoV-2, it was intended to know the momentum in the system of justice of the judicial district of Junin, as well as, the provisions for the containment of the spread of this coronavirus issued by justice and health systems;using the Analysis-Synthesis method. It was possible to obtain that 60.55% of the respondents have stated that the implementation of the Electronic Government contributes to the guarantee in the administration of justice;It contributes to compliance with due process and 49.54% indicated they agree that the application of the eGovernment affects the judicial function in the Junin Judicial District. At the national level, it is in the process of digital transformation through the identification and adoption of digital solutions such as electronic medical records, telehealth and all its forms, and the Digital Agenda of the Health Sector 2020-2025, constitutes a valuable instrument for the articulation and management of the sector, promotion of digital transformation in health with the use of information technologies to improve the quality of health care and, the need to accelerate said transformation, in order to contribute to mitigating the effects of the health emergency due to the current Covid-19 pandemic and, of others that arise.

14.
Informe GEPEC ; 26(2):141-160, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040722

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to analyze the policy decisions taken by countries in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) region to mitigate the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food supply. Information was drawn from the Food and Agriculture Policy Decision Analysis (FAPDA), which depicts policy decisions implemented to mitigate impacts with respect to food security. After analyzing these data in relation to the indicators of the Global Food Security Index (GFSI), it was found that policy decisions were centered on the dimensions "access to food" and "availability of food". In terms of access to food, we highlight food transfer policies in kind and social protection measures policies. In terms of food availability, macroeconomic policies and policies to support food production stand out. The effects of the pandemic have heightened the risk of food insecurity, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

15.
IDS Working Paper Institute for Development Studies ; 572:1-50, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040536

ABSTRACT

This study explored how measures to curtail the spread of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in Vietnam affected the livelihoods and food and nutrition security of internal migrant workers. While Vietnam has made impressive progress towards food security in the past decades, marginalised groups of people such as ethnic minorities and migrants continue to face significant challenges. The project team investigated how the pandemic affected the precarity of these groups' income-generating opportunities and how the level of income generated affected the quality, as well as the quantity, of food consumed by migrant workers in Hanoi, the capital, and the Bac Ninh province, which hosts large industrial zones. Our research shows that income for migrant workers significantly reduced as a result of Covid-19-related lockdown measures. Almost half of the respondents were considered to be either moderately or severely food insecure. Financial support provided by the government hardly reached migrant workers because of the registration system required to receive unemployment benefits. To reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers, we conclude that: Short-term crisis responses need to focus on providing nutritious, healthy, and ample food to migrant workers;Policies that impose minimum standards of living need to be effectively enforced;The coverage of existing social safety nets by the government needs to be expanded;and A radical reform of labour law is needed to improve labour rights for migrant workers.

16.
Les Cahiers du CREAD ; 38(3):478-512, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040230

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 and the Ukrainian crisis have put the question of the "food emergency" back on everyone's agenda. If the need to ensure food security is unanimous in Algeria, this is however not the case for the future orientation of public policies in this area. This work attempts to contribute to this debate through a strategic prospective analysis to 2035 identifying new orientations for policies to support agricultural and fisheries production systems. It demonstrates that it is necessary, in order to better prepare for these "long and short time" challenges, to act now and to go further "than instead of" marginal adjustments. Also, these new policies must accompany "a double paradigm shift" that of the food model and the agricultural and fisheries production systems. The establishment of a cross-cutting food security policy in Algeria therefore appears to be essential to promote and succeed in this new dynamic.

17.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039235

ABSTRACT

Background: After 18 months of responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still no agreement on the optimal combination of mitigation strategies. The efficacy and collateral damage of pandemic policies are dependent on constantly evolving viral epidemiology as well as the volatile distribution of socioeconomic and cultural factors. This study proposes a data-driven approach to quantify the efficacy of the type, duration, and stringency of COVID-19 mitigation policies in terms of transmission control and economic loss, personalised to individual countries.

18.
IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2037331

ABSTRACT

Sleman Regency, known as the Student City, is greatly affected by the mobility restriction policy which results in a gradual emptying process of boarding houses, so there is an urgency for regional studies regarding the impact of the pandemic on the livelihoods of boarding house business actors in Sleman Regency. In addition, there is no latest policy from the regency government to overcome the said impact other than the policy of implementing health protocols. Hence, the study focuses on the living conditions and livelihood strategies of boarding house entrepreneurs who are heavily affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. The paper aimed to look at two points of view, namely the bottom-up approach to see the affected objects related to changes in the livelihood strategies of boarding house entrepreneurs during the Covid-19 pandemic and the response of business actors in dealing with shock due to the pandemic;and the top-down approach to see the parties who have legal authority by conducting a critical study of the policies at the regency level related to boarding house business actors before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. This research found that there were changes in the assets and livelihood strategies of entrepreneurs which varied following the capacity of the boarding house entrepreneur. Whereas based on a top-down point of view;despite the change in social assistance policies in terms of the type of assistance, targets, and the amount of assistance provided before and during the Covid-19 pandemic;there is no social assistance that is directed specifically to boarding house business actors.

19.
Journal of Rural Social Sciences ; 37(2), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034511

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent travel restrictions led to a worldwide increase in greenspace use. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encouraged policies including physical distancing and COVID-related signage. However, the extent to which these policies influenced behavior is unknown. To fill this gap, we report on a 2020 observational study at 14 trails across six U.S. states framed within a social-ecological model. Behavioral observations of 8,093 groups assessed compliance rates with infection-mitigation behaviors. Additionally, we noted the presence of COVID-related signs, the days between the observation and stay-at-home order start date, the setting (i.e., urban, suburban, and wildland-urban interface), and correlation with the distance between groups that encountered one another. Group size, presence of signage, days since stay-at-home order implementation, and trail setting significantly correlated with physical distancing compliance, while controlling for trail design and encounter rate. Hence, both policy and setting appear to influence COVID-19 mitigation behavior.

20.
CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets ; 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033653

ABSTRACT

This report highlights the achievements in 2021 of the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM). PIM had a productive final year centered on synthesizing and packaging findings to consolidate the program's legacy while continuing to respond to demand related to the impacts of COVID-19 and preparing the transition to the new CGIAR portfolio. Among other achievements, PIM findings and engagement contributed to Myanmar's response to COVID-19, South Africa's policies on resilience to climate change, Tunisia's policies for pastoral development, a reform of Nigeria's national agricultural research system, Ghana's fish seed and farm certification system, gender strategies for three agricultural value chains in Honduras, and genome editing guidelines for the agricultural sector in four African countries. PIM research informed policy documents of FAO, IFAD, One CGIAR, the UK Government, the World Bank and the World Food Programme. PIM tools enabled more equitable co-management of 76 protected areas in Peru and informed World Bank social protection projects.

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