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1.
Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026282

ABSTRACT

Summary: Introduction. The main mechanism involved in hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to Taxanes (primarily Paclitaxel and Docetaxel) seems to be a complement activation by their excipients: polyoxyethylated castor oil (Paclitaxel) and Polysorbate 80 (Docetaxel). SARS-CoV-2 vaccines contains Polysorbate 80 or polyethylene glycol (PEG) as excipients, which are structurally correlated to polyoxyethylated castor oil. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of a higher risk of HSR to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with history of HSR to taxanes. Methods. Patients with history of HSR to taxanes were evaluated before the vaccination in our center and underwent skin tests for PEG and Polysorbate 80 (P and P). Some patients completed the vaccination course in other centers without prior P and P skin tests because they had not manifested taxanes hypersensitivity before vaccination, or because those tests were not available. Results. A total of 50 patients were evaluated. 100% of patients with history of hypersensitivity to taxanes completed the vaccine course with no cases of anaphylaxis. 33 patients underwent skin tests for P and P before the vaccination and no correlation was found between P and P skin tests positivity and taxanes skin tests positivity (p = 0.538). 7 patients developed mild symptoms during skin tests and vaccination, similar but weaker than those suffered at the time of the taxane infusion, and independently from the results of skin tests (2/7 positive patients). Conclusions. In our cohort Patients with history of reaction to taxanes were not at higher risk to develop anaphylaxis to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, a common non-IgE mediated mechanism behind those HSRs cannot be completely excluded. This can only account for mild and harmless symptoms in case of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Antihistamine premedication and longer observation after the vaccination are still prudent in these patients.

3.
Polymer Reviews ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984894

ABSTRACT

Vaccine development is among the critical issues for ceasing the COVID-19 pandemic. This review discusses the current usage of biomaterials in vaccine development and provides brief descriptions of the vaccine types and their working mechanisms. New types of vaccine platforms (next-generation vaccines and DNA- or mRNA-based vaccines) are discussed in detail. The mRNA vaccine encoding the spike protein viral antigen can be produced in a cell-free system, suggesting that mRNA vaccines are safer than “classic vaccines” using live or inactivated virus. The mRNA vaccine efficacy is typically high at approximately 95%. However, most mRNA vaccines need to be maintained at −20 or −70 degrees for storage for long periods (half a year) and their transportation because of mRNA vaccine instability in general, although mRNA vaccines with unmodified and self-amplifying RNA (ARCT-154, Arcturus), which have a lyophilized form, have recently been reported to be kept at room temperature. mRNA vaccines are typically entrapped in lipid nanoparticles composed of ionizable lipids, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. These components and their composition affect mRNA vaccine stability and efficacy and the size of the mRNA vaccine. The development of an improved mRNA vaccine entrapped in sophisticated biomaterials, such as novel lipid nanoparticles, using new types of biopolymers or lipids is necessary for high efficacy, safe transportation and long-term storage of the next generation of mRNA vaccines under mild conditions. © 2022 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

4.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:19031-19039, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950350

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a metabolic condition that accounts for life-threatening disorders like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type-2 diabetes. There are several anti-obesity drugs currently available on the market, but many of them show poor bioavailability due to low water solubility. Several attempts have been made by researchers to improve the solubility of orally administered drugs, but many of them did not work properly. Herein, we introduced a block copolymer micelle consisting of poly (lactic acid)-co-poly (ethylene glycol) to improve the solubility of the anti-obesity drug "Fenofibrate”. The block copolymer was synthesized using the polycondensation method, while the micelle was formed when water was added dropwise to the copolymer. Finally, laser light scattering and DLS analysis were used to confirm the micelle formation. The size of the micelle increased from 158 nm to 249 nm after the fenofibrate drug loading inside the hydrophobic core. The polymer PLA-co-PEG can be used as a carrier for orally administered fenofibrate drugs in the future for better water solubility and efficiency. © The Electrochemical Society

6.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(1): e12111, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic focus has been on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate as these excipients are constituents in the first vaccines and possible elicitors of allergic reactions to the vaccines. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of vaccinating patients with PEG and/or polysorbate allergy against COVID-19. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a history of an allergic reaction to drugs, vaccines and mouth hygiene products containing PEG or polysorbate and sensitization (skin test or in vitro test) or a positive challenge were included. We re-evaluated 19 of 21 patients diagnosed before 2021 and four new patients by skin prick tests (SPT) and Basophil Histamine Release (BaHR) for PEGs, polysorbates and approved COVID-19 vaccines as well as measurement of specific IgE (PEG 2000, 10,000). Patients were offered vaccination based on decision points from the primary diagnosis and re-evaluation. RESULTS: Most common primary elicitors were depot-steroids and laxatives. Most patients had experienced more than one reaction. SPT was superior to BaHR test although many SPTs became negative over time. After careful re-evaluation three patients were successfully vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Three were vaccinated before referral. Eleven were offered the Johnson-Johnson vaccine; four were vaccinated successfully, seven abstained. Six patients could not be vaccinated with PEG or polysorbate containing vaccines. CONCLUSION: Hypersensitivity to excipients in COVID-19 vaccines constitutes a risk to patients with allergy to PEG or polysorbates. After diagnostic evaluation, a safe COVID-19 vaccine could be offered to most patients, the remainders will await new vaccines containing different excipients.

8.
Internist (Berl) ; 62(3): 326-332, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082362

ABSTRACT

Less than a year after the first detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), vaccines have been approved for routine use in numerous countries and have already been used in mass vaccination programs. Vaccines include the mRNA BNT162b2 and mRNA 1273. Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis account for a substantial proportion of the adverse reactions to these vaccines observed to date, but overall they are rare. The incidence of anaphylaxis in the context of SARS-CoV­2 vaccination with the mRNA vaccines appears to be approximately 10-fold higher than with previous vaccines, at approximately 1 per 100,000 vaccine injections. One focus of the present article is a systematic review of the components of mRNA vaccines against " coronavirus disease 2019 " (COVID-19). Differences from established vaccines are addressed and the allergic potential of liposomes, polyethylene glycol, tromethamine/trometamol, and mRNA are discussed. Another focus is on the clinical presentation and course of allergic reactions to the COVID-19 vaccines. This is followed by a discussion of the therapeutic approach to anaphylactic reactions, as well as the drugs and medical supplies required to treat them. It is important to note that any vaccinee may be affected by anaphylaxis, regardless of whether or not allergic diseases are already known. Therefore, every vaccination site and every vaccinator must be prepared to recognize and treat severe allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity/etiology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Hypersensitivity/prevention & control
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