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1.
Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences ; 18(2):397-406, 2022.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2163954

ABSTRACT

Many decoctions from traditional pharmacopoeia are used to treat Covid-19 contain zingiber officinale rhizomes (gingembre). One of its mechanism of action would come from its antioxidant proprerty due to the presence of phenolic compounds .We therefore determined the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities on water, alcoholic and hydroalcoholic extracts of gingembre harvested from Bangangte, Bafang, Kekem, Santchou and Melong. The mean contents of polyphenols expressed in mEgAT/g ES were 155,91 +or-18,22;321,46 +or- 71,90;136,44 +or- 28,44 in aqueous,, hydro alcoholic and alcoholic extracts respectively. Those of flavonoids expressed in mEg Quer/g ES were 45,24+or- 13,49;125,43+or-14,88;76,52+or-10,80. Antioxidant activities measured according FRAB (1,34+or-0,42 ng/ ml;2,08+or-0,59 ng/ml;1,64+or-0,49.) and PAP (1,82+or-0,51 ng/mL;2,46+or-0,52 ng/mL;2,06+or-0,50 ng/ mL) methods vary according to the type of extract . Polyphenol, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities from Melong were higher than those of the other sites.

2.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Druggable Targets and In Silico Update: Volume 3 ; : 203-215, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2149165

ABSTRACT

The emerging outbreak of COVID-19 infection posed serious threat to human lives, claiming thousands of deaths worldwide. Both the emergence and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 underscore the urgent and critical need for the identification and development of effective preventive and therapeutic agents against COVID-19. This chapter aims to focus on promising anti-COVID-19 dietary polyphenols such as hesperidin, naringenin, Epigallocatechin gallate, and curcumin, their mechanism of action, safe dosage, toxicity, and bioavailability for future public health practices and research. Based on various computational, in vitro and in vivo pieces of evidence supporting efficacy, safety, and good bioavailability of polyphenols, this chapter demonstrates the potential of these entities for the prevention and development of therapeutics for the management of COVID-19. Although dietary polyphenols have been systematically studied from pharmacological point of view, a vast field of pr-clinical and clinical exploration still appears to be open for the research to fully validate their potential for the treatment of viral infections. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2145062

ABSTRACT

Background Pea eggplant (Solanum torvum Swartz) commonly known as turkey berry or ‘terung pipit’ in Malay is a vegetable plant widely consumed by the local community in Malaysia. The shrub bears pea-like turkey berry fruits (TBFs), rich in phytochemicals of medicinal interest. The TBF phytochemicals hold a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. In this study, the TBF phytochemicals’ potential inhibitory properties were evaluated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The TBF polyphenols were screened against SARS-CoV receptors via molecular docking and the best receptor-ligand complex was validated further by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Method The SARS-CoV receptor structure files (viral structural components) were retrieved from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) database: membrane protein (PDB ID: 3I6G), main protease (PDB ID: 5RE4), and spike glycoproteins (PDB ID: 6VXX and 6VYB). The receptor binding pocket regions were identified by Discovery Studio (BIOVIA) for targeted docking with TBF polyphenols (genistin, kaempferol, mellein, rhoifolin and scutellarein). The ligand and SARS-CoV family receptor structure files were pre-processed using the AutoDock tools. Molecular docking was performed with the Lamarckian genetic algorithm using AutoDock Vina 4.2 software. The best pose (ligand-receptor complex) from the molecular docking analysis was selected based on the minimum binding energy (MBE) and extent of structural interactions, as indicated by BIOVIA visualization tool. The selected complex was validated by a 100 ns MD simulation run using the GROMACS software. The dynamic behaviour and stability of the receptor-ligand complex were evaluated by the root mean square displacement (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent accessible surface area (SASA), solvent accessible surface volume (SASV) and number of hydrogen bonds. Results At RMSD = 0, the TBF polyphenols showed fairly strong physical interactions with SARS-CoV receptors under all possible combinations. The MBE of TBF polyphenol-bound SARS CoV complexes ranged from −4.6 to −8.3 kcal/mol. Analysis of the structural interactions showed the presence of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the receptor residues (RR) and ligands atoms. Based on the MBE values, the 3I6G-rhoifolin (MBE = −8.3 kcal/mol) and 5RE4-genistin (MBE = −7.6 kcal/mol) complexes were ranked with the least value. However, the latter showed a greater extent of interactions between the RRs and the ligand atoms and thus was further validated by MD simulation. The MD simulation parameters of the 5RE4-genistin complex over a 100 ns run indicated good structural stability with minimal flexibility within genistin binding pocket region. The findings suggest that S. torvum polyphenols hold good therapeutics potential in COVID-19 management.

4.
Heliyon ; 8(9): e10702, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130927

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 remains an international concern. Although there are drugs to fight it, new natural alternatives such as polyphenols are essential due to their antioxidant activity and high antiviral potential. In this context, this review reports the main findings on the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) against SARS-CoV-2 virus. First, the proven activity of PCs against different human viruses is briefly detailed, which serves as a starting point to study their anti-COVID-19 potential. SARS-CoV-2 targets (its proteins) are defined. Findings from in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies of a wide variety of phenolic compounds are shown, emphasizing their mechanism of action, which is fundamental for drug design. Furthermore, clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of PCs in the prevention and as a possible therapeutic management against COVID-19. The results were complemented with information on the influence of polyphenols in strengthening/modulating the immune system. It is recommended to investigate compounds such as vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, triterpenes and fatty acids, and their synergistic use with PCs, many of which have been successful against SARS-CoV-2. Based on findings on other viruses, synergistic evaluation of PCs with accepted drugs against COVID-19 is also suggested. Other recommendations and limitations are also shown, which is useful for professionals involved in the development of efficient, safe and low-cost therapeutic strategies based on plant matrices rich in PCs. To the authors' knowledge, this manuscript is the first to evaluate the relationship between the antiviral and immunomodulatory (including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects) activity of PCs and their underlying mechanisms in relation to the fight against COVID-19. It is also of interest for the general population to be informed about the importance of consuming foods rich in bioactive compounds for their health benefits.

5.
Food Chemistry Advances ; : 100153, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122473

ABSTRACT

Background Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a fruit native to South Asia, and currently can grown in tropical and subtropical areas, including Mexico, which produces approximately seven thousand metric tons per year. Pomegranate stands out for its rich flavor and functional properties, which is why it has gained acceptance in different countries in the marketing of assorted products such as jellies, jams, drinks, and its effectiveness against diseases and pathogenic microorganisms. Scope and approach This review summarizes information about the bioactive compounds of pomegranate and its nutritional properties as functional food, with emphasis on its by-products (aril, seed, and peel). Punica granatum contains bioactive compounds, the peel has a higher content of these compounds and in vitro biological properties reported by different authors. Key findings and conclusions Pomegranate and its by-products have functional properties, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and antiviral, even against SARS COV-2 virus in vitro studies;activities attributed to punicalagin, punicalin, ellagic acid, punicic acid, and anthocyanins. It is important to further analyze this fruit's functional and nutritional effects, especially the peel. To study the mechanisms involved, to develop industrial processes for the development of a nutraceutical or functional food product.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 909945, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109825

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has elicited much laboratory and clinical research attention on vaccines, mAbs, and certain small-molecule antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 infection. By contrast, there has been comparatively little attention on plant-derived compounds, especially those that are understood to be safely ingested at common doses and are frequently consumed in the diet in herbs, spices, fruits and vegetables. Examining plant secondary metabolites, we review recent elucidations into the pharmacological activity of flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds and also survey their putative frequent-hitter behavior. Polyphenols, like many drugs, are glucuronidated post-ingestion. In an inflammatory milieu such as infection, a reversion back to the active aglycone by the release of ß-glucuronidase from neutrophils and macrophages allows cellular entry of the aglycone. In the context of viral infection, virions and intracellular virus particles may be exposed to promiscuous binding by the polyphenol aglycones resulting in viral inhibition. As the mechanism's scope would apply to the diverse range of virus species that elicit inflammation in infected hosts, we highlight pre-clinical studies of polyphenol aglycones, such as luteolin, isoginkgetin, quercetin, quercetagetin, baicalein, curcumin, fisetin and hesperetin that reduce virion replication spanning multiple distinct virus genera. It is hoped that greater awareness of the potential spatial selectivity of polyphenolic activation to sites of pathogenic infection will spur renewed research and clinical attention for natural products antiviral assaying and trialing over a wide array of infectious viral diseases.

7.
J Physiol Biochem ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104137

ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean diet is a dietary pattern typical of the populations living in the Mediterranean basin during the 50s-60s of the last century. This diet has demonstrated beneficial effects in the prevention of several pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, or several cancer types, at least in part, due to its antioxidant compounds. Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, different authors have been studying the effects of certain dietary habits on the presence of COVID-19 and its severity, and the Mediterranean diet is one of them. This review gathers data from studies supporting the potential usefulness of the main phenolic compounds present in the Mediterranean diet, based on their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as preventive/therapeutic agents against COVID-19. The current evidence supports the potential benefits that hydroxytyrosol, resveratrol, flavonols such as quercetin, flavanols like catechins, and flavanones on the order of naringenin could have on COVID-19. This is due to the increase in the synthesis and translocations of Nrf-2, which increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thus reduces ROS production, the scavenging of free radicals, and the suppression of the activity of MMP-9, which is involved in the cytokine storm, and the inhibition of NF-κB.

8.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-22, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037103

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that still has no permanent cure. The drugs prescribed in the present days are only for symptomatic relief for the patients. Many studies correlating the reduction in the incidence of AD with the diet consumed have been published. These studies showed that a diet rich in polyphenols is associated with a decrease in the incidence of AD. The present review is focused on the ability of pomegranate and its bioactive components to ameliorate the progression of AD and their ability to exert a neuroprotective effect. Various studies showing the ability of pomegranate in inhibiting enzymes, reducing reactive oxygen species, inhibition of microglial activation, inhibition of tau protein hyperphosphorylation, maintenance of synaptic plasticity, anti-inflammatory activity and its ability to inhibit Beta secretase-1 (BACE-1) has been reviewed in this article. In spite of the lack of studies on humans, there are compelling evidence indicating that pomegranate can reduce various risk factors involved in the causation of AD and thus can be used as a persistent nutraceutical to slow ageing and for providing neuroprotection for the treatment of AD.Abbreviations: ACh, Acetylcholine; AChE, Acetylcholinesterase; AD, Alzheimer's disease; AGEs, Advanced Glycation End products; APP, Amyloid precursor protein; Aß, Amyloid-beta; BACE, Beta secretase or ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme; BBB, Blood brain barrier; BDNF, Brain derived neurotrophic factor; BuChE, Butyrylcholinesterase; CAM, Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane; COVID 19, Corona virus disease 19; COX, Cyclooxygenase; DPPH, 2,2 diphenyl picryl hydrazyl; ER, Endoplasmic Reticulum; FAO, Food and Agriculture organization; FDA, Food and drug administration; GFAP, Glial-fibrillar acidic protein; GPx, Glutathione peroxidase; GSH, Glutathione; GST, Glutathione S transferase; HFD, High-fat diet; IL-6, Interleukin-6; LDH, Lactate dehydrogenase; LO, Lipooxygenase; LPS, Lipopolysaccharide; MAO, Mono amine oxidase; MDA, Malondialdehyde; MedDi, Mediterranean diet; MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; mTOR, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin; NAD, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NFAT, Nuclear factor of activated T-cells; NO, Nitric oxide; NQO1, Quinone oxidoreductase 1; Nrf2, Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; oAß, Oligomeric amyloid-beta; pCREB, Cyclic AMP-Response Element Binding Protein; PGE2, Prostaglandin E2; RON, Reactive nitrogen species; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; SOD, Superoxide dismutase; STZ, Streptozotocin; TNF-α, Tumor necrosis factor α; UNESCO, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; WHO, World Health Organization.

9.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10862, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024206

ABSTRACT

The waste generated by small-scale ultra-fresh juice producers, such as bistros and restaurants, has been little studied so far, mainly because it is unevenly distributed and dissipated in the economic ecosystem and would require high costs associated with transportation and subsequent recovery of bio composites. The present article seeks to offer solutions by providing sustainable methods to reduce their waste losses to a minimum and transform them into valuable products, with affordable equipment and techniques. The study focuses on the preliminary phase of quantitative analysis of fruit and vegetable by-products generated on a small scale, the results showing a mean 55% productivity in fresh juices. Due to the high amount of remnant water content in waste, a new process of mechanically pressing the resulting squeezed pulp was introduced, generating an additional yield in juice, ranging from 3.98 to 51.4%. Due to the rising trend in healthier lifestyle, the by-products were frozen or airdried for conservation in each of the processing stages, and the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were analyzed in order to assess the traceability of these bioactive compounds to help maximize their transfer into future final products. The polyphenols transferred into by-products varied between 7 and 23% in pulps and between 6 and 20% in flours. The highest DPPH potential was found in flours, up to three-fold in comparison with the raw material, but the high dry substance content must be accounted for. The results highlight the potential of reusing the processing waste as a reliable source of bioactive compounds.

10.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(8): 1281-1284, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been proposed to be an endothelial disease, as endothelial damage and oxidative stress contribute to its systemic inflammatory and thrombotic events. Polyphenols, natural antioxidant compounds appear as promising agents to prevent and treat COVID-19. Polyphenols bind and inhibit the F1 Fo -ATP synthase rotary catalysis. An early target of polyphenols may be the ectopic F1 Fo -ATP synthase expressed on the endothelial plasma membrane. Among the pleiotropic beneficial action of polyphenols in COVID-19, modulation of the ecto-F1 Fo -ATP synthase, lowering the oxidative stress produced by the electron transfer chain coupled to it, would not be negligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Polyphenols , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism
11.
Applied Sciences ; 12(15):7652, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993927

ABSTRACT

A total of fourteen papers (ten research papers and four review papers) in various fields of horticulture are presented in this Special Issue, including such topics as the identification and accumulation of the bioactive compounds in various plant species;the effects of abiotic stresses on bioactive compound composition and content;and exploration of the best methods for bioactive compound extraction. [1], the authors investigated the nutritional profile and the antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antibacterial activities of five species of Brassica (cauliflower, broccoli, red cabbage, white cabbage, and Chinese cabbage);they found that these Brassica vegetables are excellent sources of polyphenols that showed moderate antiproliferative and antibacterial potential. [2], the effect of the bulk density and water-holding capacity of lignite substrate in comparison to mineral wool and the EC of nutrient solution on the plant morphological parameters, yield, and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber were investigated, and the results suggest that both the substrate density and water-holding capacity positively affected the morphological features of the plants. In the fourth paper, reported by Karim and Yusof [4], it was found that the impregnation of spinach leaves with salicylic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, and sucrose effectively improved the quality and storage ability by reducing chilling injury through improvement of the proline content.

12.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994118

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the variability of several chemical compounds and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of eight types of berries harvested from two different geographical regions in the same year. The analyses were performed on bilberry, black currant, gooseberry, red currant, raspberry, sea buckthorn, strawberry and sour cherry, which were handpicked during the summer of 2019, in the same periods when they are typically harvested for consumer purposes. Total anthocyanins content (TAC), total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenolic compounds (TPC), determination of the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), determination of the DPPH free radical scavenging assay (RSA), determination of nine phenolic compounds by HPLC-UV assay and antimicrobial activity were determined for undiluted hydroalcoholic extracts of all the studied berries. The results showed that the berries from Romania were richer in antioxidant compounds than the berries from Russia. The TPC content varied between 4.13-22.2 mg GAE/g d.w., TFC between 3.33-8.87 mg QE/g d.w. and TAC between 0.13-3.94 mg/g d.w. The highest variability was determined for TPC. Regarding the antioxidant activity assessed by FRAP assay, values were between 6.02-57.23 µmols TE/g d.w. and values for the RSA method between 18.44-83.81%. From the eight types of berries analyzed, bilberries and raspberries had the highest antioxidant activity considering both regions and both determination methods. Not only the type, but also the environmental and cultivation conditions in which the berries grow, can lead to variations in their chemical composition. The extracted polyphenolic compounds from the studied berries showed antibacterial properties on pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyloccocus aureus. The inhibitory action on Salmonella typhi and fungi Candida albicans and Aspegillus niger was absent to very low. The antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extracts was dependent on the provenance of the berries, too.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Ribes , Vaccinium myrtillus , Anthocyanins/analysis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ribes/chemistry
13.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987902

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been obvious that virus infection poses a serious threat to human health on a global scale. Certain plants, particularly those rich in polyphenols, have been found to be effective antiviral agents. The effectiveness of Alchemilla viridiflora Rothm. (Rosaceae) methanol extract to prevent contact between virus spike (S)-glycoprotein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptors was investigated. In vitro results revealed that the tested samples inhibited 50% of virus-receptor binding interactions in doses of 0.18 and 0.22 mg/mL for NRP1 and ACE2, respectively. Molecular docking studies revealed that the compounds from A. viridiflora ellagitannins class had a higher affinity for binding with S-glycoprotein whilst flavonoid compounds more significantly interacted with the NRP1 receptor. Quercetin 3-(6″-ferulylglucoside) and pentagalloylglucose were two compounds with the highest exhibited interfering potential for selected target receptors, with binding energies of -8.035 (S-glycoprotein) and -7.685 kcal/mol (NRP1), respectively. Furthermore, computational studies on other SARS-CoV-2 strains resulting from mutations in the original wild strain (V483A, N501Y-K417N-E484K, N501Y, N439K, L452R-T478K, K417N, G476S, F456L, E484K) revealed that virus internalization activity was maintained, but with different single compound contributions.


Subject(s)
Alchemilla , COVID-19 , Alchemilla/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
14.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(8)2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987628

ABSTRACT

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major polyphenol of green tea that possesses a wide variety of actions. EGCG acts as a strong antioxidant which effectively scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibits pro-oxidant enzymes including NADPH oxidase, activates antioxidant systems including superoxide dismutase, catalase, or glutathione, and reduces abundant production of nitric oxide metabolites by inducible nitric oxide synthase. ECGC also exerts potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-apoptotic, anti-tumorous, and metabolic effects via modulation of a variety of intracellular signaling cascades. Based on this knowledge, the use of EGCG could be of benefit in respiratory diseases with acute or chronic inflammatory, oxidative, and fibrotizing processes in their pathogenesis. This article reviews current information on the biological effects of EGCG in those respiratory diseases or animal models in which EGCG has been administered, i.e., acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory infections, COVID-19, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung fibrosis, silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension, and lung embolism, and critically discusses effectiveness of EGCG administration in these respiratory disorders. For this review, articles in English language from the PubMed database were used.

15.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(29): 2375-2386, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987280

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding molecular pathogenesis is an essential factor for the allocation of effective preventive measures and the development of targeted therapeutics against COVID-19. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes structural and nonstructural proteins, which can be targets for compounds with potential therapeutic ability. On the other hand, the virus life cycle has stages susceptible to targeting by drug compounds. Many natural antiviral compounds have been studied and evaluated at the cellular and molecular levels with antiviral potential. Meanwhile, many studies over the past few months have shown that plant polysaccharides have a good ability to target proteins and stages of the virus life cycle. In this regard, in this review study, the virus specifications and infectious process and structural and functional components of SARSCoV- 2 will be reviewed, and then the latest studies on the effect of plant compounds with more focus on polysaccharides on viral targets and their inhibitory potential on the infectious process of COVID-19 will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-toxic hand hygiene and surface disinfectant products with virucidal activity against alcohol-resistant nonenveloped norovirus are in urgent need. METHOD: Alcohol-based formulations were made with epigallocatechin-3-gallate-palmitate (EC16), an FDA accepted food additive. Based on in-house testing of formulations, 3 prototypes, PTV80 hand gel, PST70 surface disinfectant spray and PST70 surface disinfectant wipe, were selected from in-house tests for independent testing at GLP (good laboratory practice) laboratories according to EN 14476:2019 (hand gel), ASTM test method E1053-20 (spray), and ASTM E2362-15, E1053, and ASTM E2896-12 (wipe). RESULTS: The PTV80 hand gel prototype demonstrated a >99.999% reduction of murine norovirus S99 infectivity in 60 seconds. Carrier testing of the PST70 surface spray and surface wipe demonstrated reduction of feline calicivirus infectivity by >99.99% in 60 seconds. In addition, testing with human coronavirus and human herpes simplex virus demonstrated >99.99% efficacy in 60 seconds, consistent with broad spectrum virucidal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The novel non-toxic prototypes containing EC16 were found to be suitable for use in future hand sanitizer gel, surface disinfectant spray and wipe products against norovirus. Products based on these formulations could be used safely to help prevent and control norovirus and other emerging virus outbreaks, pending future studies.

17.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(14)2022 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938948

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, the first cases of COVID-19 emerged as an outbreak in Wuhan, China that later spread vastly around the world, evolving into a pandemic and one of the worst global health crises in modern history. The causative agent was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although several vaccines were authorized for emergency use, constantly emerging new viral mutants and limited treatment options for COVID-19 drastically highlighted the need for developing an efficient treatment for this disease. One of the most important viral components to target for this purpose is the main protease of the coronavirus (Mpro). This enzyme is an excellent target for a potential drug, as it is essential for viral replication and has no closely related homologues in humans, making its inhibitors unlikely to be toxic. Our review describes a variety of approaches that could be applied in search of potential inhibitors among plant-derived compounds, including virtual in silico screening (a data-driven approach), which could be structure-based or fragment-guided, the classical approach of high-throughput screening, and antiviral activity cell-based assays. We will focus on several classes of compounds reported to be potential inhibitors of Mpro, including phenols and polyphenols, alkaloids, and terpenoids.

18.
J King Saud Univ Sci ; 34(7): 102214, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914636

ABSTRACT

The deadliest recent pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 disease has severely damaged the socio-economic health of the people globally. Due to unavailability of any effective vaccine or treatment the human beings are still struggling to overcome the pandemic condition. In an attempt to discover anti-COVID molecule, we used in-silico approach and reported 160 natural polyphenols to identify the most promising druggable HITs that can further used for drug discovery process. The co-crystallized structure COVID protease enzyme (PDB id 6LU7) was used. HTVS, MD simulation, binding energy calculations and in-silico ADME calculation were done and analyzed. Depending upon the scores three compounds galangin, nalsudaldain and rhamnezine were identified and the docking score were found to be -7.704, -6.51, -4.212 respectively. These docked complexes were further subjected to MD simulation runs over a 100 ns time and the RMSD and RMSF values were determined. The RMSD values of three compounds were found to be 2.9 Å, 7.6 Å & 9.5 Å respectively and the lowest RMSF values suggested the steady stability of ligand-protein complexes. The binding free energies (ΔG) of compounds with protein were found to be -49.8, -56.45, -62.87 kJ/mole. Moreover, in-silico ADME calculations indicated the drug likeliness properties of these molecules. By considering all these in-silico results the identified HITs would be the most probable anti-COVID drug molecules that can be further taken in wet lab and can act as lead for development of newer inhibitor of COVID-19 main protease enzyme.

19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 185: 390-400, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895375

ABSTRACT

Tea is the most frequently consumed natural beverage across the world produced with the young leaves and shoots of the evergreen perennial plant Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. The expanding global appeal of tea is partly attributed to its health-promoting benefits such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, anti-hypertension, anti-obesity, and anti- SARS-CoV-2 activity. The many advantages of healthy tea intake are linked to its bioactive substances such as tea polyphenols, flavonoids (catechins), amino acids (theanine), alkaloids (caffeine), anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, etc. that are produced through secondary metabolic pathways. Phytohormones regulate secondary metabolite biosynthesis in a variety of plants, including tea. There is a strong hormonal response in the biosynthesis of polyphenols, catechins, theanine and caffeine in tea under control and perturbed environmental conditions. In addition to the impact of preharvest plant hormone manipulation on green tea quality, changes in hormones of postharvest tea also regulate quality-related metabolites in tea. In this review, we discuss the health benefits of major tea constituents and the role of various plant hormones in improving the endogenous levels of these compounds for human health benefits. The fact that the ratio of tea polyphenols to amino acids and the concentrations of tea components are changed by environmental conditions, most notably by climate change-associated variables, the selection and usage of optimal hormone combinations may aid in sustaining tea quality, and thus can be beneficial to both consumers and producers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camellia sinensis , Catechin , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Caffeine , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/metabolism , Humans , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Polyphenols/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Tea
20.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892926

ABSTRACT

Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy, a medicinal plant endemic to North African Sahara, is widely employed in traditional herbal pharmacotherapy. In the present study, the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potencies of extract from the roots of Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy (RWA) against drug-resistant microbes were investigated. Briefly, RWA was obtained by maceration with hydro-ethanol and its compounds were identified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of RWA was determined by use of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of RWA was performed against drug-resistant pathogenic microbial strains of clinical importance by use of the disc diffusion agar and microdilution assays. Seven compounds were identified in RWA according to HPLC analysis, including cichoric acid, caffeic acid, apigenin, epicatechin, luteolin, quercetin, and p-catechic acid. RWA had excellent antioxidant potency with calculated values of 14.0 ± 0.8 µg/mL (DPPH), 0.37 ± 0.08 mg/mL (FRAP), 760 ± 10 mg AAE/g (TAC), and 81.4% (ß-carotene). RWA demonstrated good antibacterial potential against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 15.24 ± 1.31 to 19.51 ± 0.74 mm, while all antibiotics used as drug references were infective, except for Oxacillin against S. aureus. Results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against bacteria showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.13 to 4.83 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 0.031 ± 0.003 to 0.064 ± 0.009 mg/mL. Similarly, respectable antifungal potency was recorded against the fungal strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 25.65 ± 1.14 to 29.00 ± 1.51 mm compared to Fluconazole, used as a drug reference, which had values ranging from 31.69 ± 1.92 to 37.74 ± 1.34 mg/mL. Results of MIC assays against fungi showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.84 ± 0.61 to 5.71 ± 0.54 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 2.52 ± 0.03 to 3.21 ± 0.04 mg/mL. According to these outcomes, RWA is considered a promising source of chemical compounds with potent biological properties that can be beneficial as natural antioxidants and formulate a valuable weapon in the fight against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microbes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Withania , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Withania/chemistry
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